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Full text of "The Survey October 1917-March 1918"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/surveyoctmar1918surv 



t^Sci 




THE SURVEY 



Vol. XXXIX 
October, 19 17 — March, 191 8 



WITH INDEX 



lh* d 



t*> 







/<? 



New York 
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc 

112 East 19 street 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, I 



NC. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. DE FOREST, Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL Washington 

RICHARD C. CABOT Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND Boulder 

SAMUEL S. FELS Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKEL .New York 

JOHN M. GLENN New York 

MARY WILLCOX GLENN New York 

C. M. GOETHE Sacramento 

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York 

FRANK TUCKER, Treas New York 



WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 

MORRIS KNOWI.ES Pittsburgh 

ALBERT D. LASKER Chicago 

JOSEPH LEE Boston 

JULIAN W. MACK Chicago 

V. EVERIT MACY New York 

CHARLES D. NORTON New York 

SIMON N. PATTEN Philadelphia 

JULIUS ROSENWALD Chicago 

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago 

ELIOT WADSWORTH Washington 

LILLIAN D. WALD New York 

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec. New York 



THE STAFF 

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 
ASSOCIATE EDITORS 



/ 



EDWARD T. DEVINE GRAHAM TAYLOR 

JANE ADDAMS 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

PHILIP P. JACOBS 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY 

JOHN IHLDER 

PORTER R. LEE 

ALICE HAMILTON 

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN 

I. M. RUBINOW 



HEADOUARTERS STAFF 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG 

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR* 

JOHN A. FITCH 

DAVID C. DAVIS 

WINTHROP D. LANE 

MARY CHAMBERLAIN 

GERTRUDE SEYMOUR 

BRUNO LASKER 

ELWOOD STREET 



*0n leave of absence attached to the American Embassy, Petrograd. 



A JOURNAL of SOCIAL EXPLORATION 



Index 



volume xxxix 
September, 1917 — April, 1918 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in- a 
few cases under titles, except poems and book reviews, which are listed only 
under those headings. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under 
their subjects. The precise wording of titles has not been retained where ab- 
breviation or paraphrase has seemed more desirable. 



Abbott, Editn, 276. 
Accidents, eye, 34c(. 

Industrial, 371. 
Ackerman, F. L., 392. 
Adamson Law, results, 530. 
Adler, H. N. Causes of crime, 547. 
Admiral, Md., 89. 
Advertising. Survey as a medium (letter), 328. 

See also Publicity. 
Aery, W. A. Review of three works on 

secondary education, 148. 
Africa, future, 141. 
Agriculture, Department of, 513. 
Ainsworth, C. L. The I. W. W. (letter), 151. 
Aircraft works, dope hazards, 168. 
Alberta, war cripples, 105. 
Alcohol. _._ 

Azan, Paul, on (letter), 640. 

Beer, 334. 

Canada, [434]. 

France (letter), 424. 

French wines, 294. 

Kansas City, 294. 

Manikins, 172. 

Poster, French, 113. 

Problem in France, 112. 

Problem in France (letters of E. de Billy and 
E. Tilton), 328. 

Strengthen America Campaign Poster, 292. 

"This time, John, you are going" (cartoon), 
349 

War Prohibition, 498. 

Waste of grain, sugar and coal for beer 
(letter) 554. 
Aldridge, II. R., 394. 
Allen, A. D., [274]. 

Allen, E. B. Letter of appreciation of The Sur- 
vey, 555. 
Allen, W. II. Fusion defeat (letter), 427. 
Allentown, Pa., Hallowe'en, 31. 
Almy, Frederick. Decline of poverty, 467. 
American Civic Association, 153. 
American Federation of Labor, 688. 

Buffalo convention (Fitch), 232. 

Buffalo convention and address of President 
Wilson, 173. 

Negroes and, 527. 

Washington, D. C, 575. 
American Federation of Teachers, 330. 
American Hospital Association, 253. 
American Institute of Criminal Law and Crim- 
inology, 206. 
American Journal of Public Health, 334. 
American Lake, Wash., cantonment, 92-93. 
American Prison Association, annual meeting, 

341. 
American Public Health Convention, 84. 
American School Peace League, subjects for 

prize essays, 100. 
Americanization, 361. 

Factory classes essential, 462. 
Amsterdam, N. Y., 507. 
Anderson, Major G., 23. 

Anderson, Meta S. Review of Bridie's An In- 
troduction to Special School Work, 473. 
Andrews, J. B., 466. 

Labor laws in the crucible, 542. 
"Anti-aid," 176. , 
Anti-pneumonia serum, 305. 
Anti-Saloon League, 498. 
Apolloni, Adolpho, cover of Feb. 2 issue. 
Arizona. 

Bisbee deportations illegal, 291. 

Copper settlement, 128. 

Strike settlement, 174. 
Arizona Copper Co., 97. 
Arkansas, Charities and Correction Commission, 

331. 
Armenians, plight, 128. 
Army, U. S. 

Cantonments, 88. 

Morale, 324. 

Nurses needed, 474. 

Uniforms and politics, 497. 
Army and Navy Bazar, 252. 
Aronovici, Carol, 421. 
Art. 

Negro children's, 241. 

Work of the handicapped, 242-243. 
Artificial flowers, 383. 
Ashtabula, Ohio, 336. 
Atterbury, Grosvenor, 83, 84. 
Auglay Poster, cover of Oct. 6 issue. 
Austin, Mrs. C. K., 284. 
Australia. 

Conscription. 474. 

Sanitation, 167. 
Authority, respect for, 250. 
Automobile School, 474. 
"Average" child, 12. 



Aves, Ernest, 667. 
Avon. N. J., [274]. 
Aver, Mass., 636. 
Azan, Paul, 294, 555. 

Letter on alcohol and the French army, 640. 
Azcarate, Gumersindo, 643. 



Babies. 

Boarding and sale homes in Chicago, 403. 

"Children's Year" to save, 530. 

Keeping mother with. 123. 

Massachusetts care, 27. 

Political issue in New York City, 118-119, 
cover of Nov. 3 issue. 

Rural care, 448. 

Save the babies (poster), cover of Nov. 10 
issue. 

Securing them their chance, 98. 

See also Children ; Infant mortality. 
Babson, R. W. 

On socialism (letter and note), 639. 

Review of Loria's The Economic Causes of 
War. 718. 
Bad boys, 468. 
Rac/dad on the Subway, 76. 
Railey, Pearce, 52. 
Baker, N. D., 204. 

Invisible armor, 159. 
Balch, Emily G. Review of Grant's The Passing 

of a Great Race, 262. 
Baldensperger, H. L. Salvation by salvage, 495. 
Baldwin, B. T., 698 
Baldwin, R N., 131. 

Review of Lapp's Our America, 46. 
Baldwin, W. H., 3d. Erasing the color line, 185. 
Baltimore, babv traffic, 123. 
Barnes, C. B. 701. 
Barnes, H. E., 591. 
Barnhart, Harry, 3, 4, 21. 
Bashford, Bishop, 41. 
Bazaring for war relief funds 252. 
Bazars, licenses for, [274]. 
Beard, C. A., 53, 648. 
Beer. 

Alcohol content 334. 

Grain for Britain's (letters), 473, 552. 
Belgian Socialists, 622. 
Relgian soldiers, 225. 
Belgium. 

American Red Cross work, 226. 

Free Belgium between the front and the sea, 
American Red Cross work (Kellogg), sup- 
plement to March 30 issue. 

Red Cross Commission. 66e 
Benjamin, P. L. The park (verse), 116, 
Bennett. W. M.. 162. 
Berlin, tuberculosis 474. 
Bernstein, Edward, 661. 
Berwind-Tabasco, 15, 20. 
Bestor, A. E., 252. 

Bibliography of social welfare in wartime, 94-96, 
100-101, 287-289, 301, 441-443, 570-572, 682- 
684. 
Bickett, T. W.. 368. 

Bicknell. E. P.. [274], 286, 654, 660. 
Biggs, H. M., 218. 
BilliKopf, Jacob, 636. 

Billy, E. de. Drink in France (letter), 328. 
Bingham, Anne T. 

Review of Kammerer's The Unmarried Mother, 
685. 
Bingham, W. V., 174. 
Birmingham, Ala., 429. 599. 

Jail and prohibition, 550. 
Birth control, New York law, [434]. 
Birth Control Review, 331. 
Birth registration, 98. 
Bisbee, Ariz., 545. 

Deportations illegal, 291. 
Blackwell, Alice S. 

Paper blankets (letter), 552. 

Seven-cent milk (letter), 639. 
Blatchley, C. K., [274]. 
Blind. 

Art work, 242-243. 

Industry and eyesight, 343. 

Soldiers' re-education, 352. 

See also Eves. 
Bliss, Mr. and Mrs. R. W., 284. 
Bloch bill, 579. 
Bloomfield, Meyer, 294. 
Blue, Surgeon-General, 500. 
Board of Control of Labor Standards for Army 

Uniforms, 497. 
Bogota, 384. 
Boil it down, 334. 
Bolsheviki. 

Messages sent from America, 633. 



Nottingham representation, 620. 
Seattle ship, 465. 
Bombay, 334. 
Bond, A. S., 318. 
Bonus plan, 411. 
Book reviews. 

After-War Problems (Dawson), 255. 
Alsace-Lorraine (Blumenthal), 57 1. 
American Ideals (Foerster and Picrson, 

edits.), 171. 
American Year iiook (Wiekware, ed.), 718. 
Americanization (Talbot), 526. 
Annual Cumulated Bulletin of Public Affairs 

Information Service (Henley). •'>';*. 
Applied Psychology (Hollingworlb and Pof- 

fenberger), 267. 
Approaches, The, to the Great Settlement 

(Balch), 684, 720 (correction). 
Aristodemocracy (Waldstein), 446. 
Battle With Tuberculosis, The, and How to 

Win It (King), 266. 
Book of Home Nursing, The (Campbell), 170. 
Challenge of St. Louis. The (Mangold), 148. 
City Milk Supply (Parker), 72. 
City Planning in the United States (Ford and 

Warner, edits.), 149. 
Code of Ordinances of the City of New York 

(Cosby), 202. 
Community: A Sociological Study (Maciver), 

201. 
Community Work (Ritchie), 171. 
Contemporary Theories of Unemployment and 

Unemployment Relief (Mills), 470. 
Co-operative Marketing (Cumberland), 526. 
Correlation of Some Psychological and Educa- 
tional Measurements (McCall), 258. 
Creative Intelligence (Dewey and others), 326. 
Criminal Sociology (Ferri), 47. 
Democracy After the War (Hobson). 574. 
Development of Intelligence in Children, The 

(Binet and Simon), 258. 
Dietary Computer, A. (Pope), 472. 
Directory of Social Work for Baltimore and 

Maryland, Fourth Edition, 526. 
Disasters and the American Red Cross in 

Disaster Relief (Deacon), 472. 
Diseases in Milk (Straus). 72. 
Disintegration of Islam, The (Zwemer), 256. 
Drink and the War (Murray), 684. 
Economic Causes of War, The (Loria), 718. 
Economic Development of Modern Europe 

(Ogg), 200. 
Educational Sociology (Snedden), 526. 
Emancipation of the American City, The 

(Arndt), 370. 
English Folk Songs from the Southern Ap- 
palachians (Campbell and Sharp), 718. 
Excess Condemnation (Cusbman), 202. 
Fiftv Years of American Education (Moore), 

573. 
Fight, The, for the Republic In China (Weale), 

720. 
Financial Federations (Persons and others), 

74. 
Food — Fuel for the Human Engine (Fisk), 

445. 
Food of Working Women in Boston, The 

(Eaves), 150. 
Food Poisoning (Jordan), 73. 
Food Preparedness for the United States 

(O'Brien), 73. 
Food Problem. The (Kellogg and Taylor). '-"'7. 
Forecasting the Yield and the Trice of Cotton 

(Moore), 369. 
Franklin Spencer Spalding— Man and Bishop 

(Melish), 254. 
Geography of China (Hawkins), 271. 
f;ood Housing That Pays (Waldo), 326. 
Great Problems of British Statesmanship, The 

(Barker), 662. 
Growth of Medicine, The (Buck), 327. 
Health and Disease: Their Determining 

Factors (Lee), 171. 
Health First (Chapin). 472. 
High Cost of Living. The (Howe), 297. 
Historical Development of Religion in China, 

The (Clennell), 446. 
Historical Introduction to Social Economy, 

An (Chapin), 150. 
Household Budget, The (Leeds), 7::. 
How to Avoid Infection (Chapin), 171. 
How to Cut Food Costs (Cooper). 73. 
In the Wake of War (Hodge). 663. 
Income Tax Law and Accounting (Nelson), 

638. 
Institutional Care, The, of the Insane in the 

United States and Canada — Vol. IV (Ilurd 

and others) . 525. 
Insurgent Theater, The (Dickinson), 447. 
Intelligence of the Feeble-Mlnded, The (Binet 

and Simon), 258. 



IV 



Index 



Introduction to Educational Sociology, An 

(Smith), 148. 
Introduction to Social Psychology, An (Ell- 
wood), 272. 
Introduction to Sociology (Bogardus), 202. 
Introduction to Special School Work, An (Bri- 
die), 473. 
Iowa Applied History Series, Vol. Ill (Briggs 

and others), 46. 
Is Civilization a Disease? (Coit), 201. 
Japanese Crisis, The (Scherer), 47. 
Japanese Invasion, The (Steiner), 47. 
Judaean Addresses, 48. 
King Coal (Sinclair), 257. 
Liability and Compensation Insurance (Blan- 

chard), 149. 
Little Grandmother, The, of the Russian 

Revolution (Blackwell), 637. 
Mankind (Humphrey), 445. 
Manual of the Treatment of the Venereal 

Diseases, A (Pusey), 447. 
Marketing and Housework Manual (Donham), 

686. 

Mediation, Investigation and Arbitration in 

Industrial Disputes (Barnett and McCabe), 

45. 

Medical Diseases of the War (Hurst), 170. 

Medical Research and Human Welfare (Keen), 

326. 
Menace of Japan, The (McCormick), 47. 
Militarism (Liebknecht), 471. 
Modern Milk Problem, The (MacNutt), 72. 
Modern Purgatory, A (Fornaro), 469. 
Mother and Her Child, The (Sadler), 170. 
Mouth Hygiene (Fones), 73. 
Municipal Functions (James), 45, 100 (cor- 
rection). 
Municipal Ownership (Thompson), 46. 
My Mother and I (Stern), 48. 
National Budget System, The, and American 

Finance (Collins), 266. 
Nations Health, The (Morris), 326. 
New Basis, A, for Social Progress (White 

and Heath), 716. 
New Era in Canada, The (Miller), 446. 
New Spirit, The, of the New Army (Odell), 

715. 
New York Charities Directory for 1918 

(Miller). 662. 
Newsboy Service (Reed), 149. 
North American Idea, The (MacDonald), 573. 
One Hundred Years of Savings Banking (Rob- 
inson), 74. 
Organizability of Labor (Weyforth), 45. 
Our America (Lapp), 46. 
Outdoor Theater (Waugh), 447. 
Outlines of Agricultural Economics (Nourse), 

327. 
Outlines of Chinese History (Bing), 271. 
Passing of a Great Race, The (Grant), 262. 
Patriotism (Waldstein), 638. 
Patriots in the Making — What America can 
Learn from France and Germany (Scott), 
171. 
Permanent Values in Education (Richmond), 

471. 
Philosophy and the Social Problem (Durant), 

445. 
Physical Effects of Smoking (Fisher and 

Berry), 370. 
Physical Training for Business Men (Han- 
cock), 447. 
Plan of Minneapolis, The (Bennett), 716. 
Plav Movement, The, and Its Significance 

(Curtis). 716. 
Political History of Poland (Lewinski-Coi- 

win), 298. 
Political Ideals (Russell), 202. 
Postal Savings (Kemmerer), 370. 
Present-day Europe (Stoddard), 637. 
Preventive Medicine and Hygiene (Rosenau), 

171. 
Principles Governing the Retirement of Pub- 
lic Employees (Meriam), 719. 
Prison and the Prisoner, The — a symposium, 

369. 
Prisoner of War, The, in Germany 

(McCarthy), 717. 
Problem of Human Peace, The (Quin), 201. 
Problem of the Unemployed, The (Williams), 

171. 
Problems of Subnormality (Wallin), 638. 
Psalms of the Social Life (McAfee), 47. 
Recreation and the Church (Gates), 327. 
Re-education (Barton), 663. 
Relations, The, of General Intelligence to 
Certain Mental and Physical Traits (Mead), 
258. 
Religion for Today (Holmes), 264. 
Right to Work, The (Ross), 171. 
Rise of David Levinsky, The (Cohan), 260. 
Rural Teacher, The, and His Work (Foght), 

639. 
Russia in Transformation (Brown), 268. 
Sanitation Practically Applied (Wood), 170. 
Scale of Performance Tests, A (Pintner and 

Paterson), 258. 
School Nurse, The (Struthers), 370. 
Secondary Education — three works on (John- 
ston : Snedden; Russell), 148. 
Shell Shock and its Lessons (Smith), 170. 
Single Tax Year Book (Miller), 525. 
Small Community Hospital, The (Hornsby), 

267. 
Social Diagnosis (Richmond), 254. 
Social Problems in Porto Rico (Fleagle), 202. 



Soldier's Book of Worship (Hallett), 638. 

Spiritual Interpretation of History, The 
(Mathews), 327. 

Standards of American Legislation (Freund). 
45. 

State Sanitation (Whipple), 661. 

Suggestions of Modern Science Concerning 
Education (Jennings and others), 444. 

Surgical Nursing in War (Bundy), 297. 

Taxation of Land Values, The (Scheftel), 298. 

Technique of Social Surveys (Elmer), 271. 
Teepee Neighbors (Coolidge), 662. 

Testing Juvenile Mentality (Melville), 258. 

Theory and Practice, The, of Scientific Man- 
agement (Thompson), 525. 

Thousand Health Questions Answered, A 
(Kellogg), 445. 

Toward Industrial Freedom (Carpenter), 572. 

Town Labourer, The, 1760-1832 (Hammond), 

200. 
Town Planning for Small Communities (Bird), 

46. 
Unmarried Mother, The (Kammerer), 685. 

Value of Money, The (Anderson), 74. 

War Shock (Eder), 573. 

Workmen's Convensation (Rhodes), 46. 

Works Manager Today, The (Weld), 443. 

World in Ferment, A (Butler), 686. 

Young France and New America (Lanux), 526. 

Your Part in Poverty (Lansbury), 297. 
Books on food and thrift, 72. 
Booth, Evangeline and Mary, quoted, 23. 
Borah, Senator, 550. 
Boston. 

Associated Charities 172. 

Dispensaries, 634. 

Food in L<)0 Families. Study, 413. 

League for Preventive Work, 475. 

Milk (letter), 639. 
Boston School of Salesmanship, 469. 
Botafogo Bay (ill.), [382]. 
Bourbonnais, 111., 427. 
Bourgeois, L€on, 8. 
Bowery Mission bread line, 429. 
Boy Scouts of America, Liberty loan work and 

poster, 713. 
Boyd, Frederick, 590. 
Boys. 

Camp farm, 70. 

Clinic, 312, 313. 

Convicts (letter), 425. 

Delinquent from broken homes, 635. 

Farming for, 704. 

Frog Story, 131. 

Meanest, 468. 

Prison and, 367. 

Prisoners (letter), 555. 
Boys' Working Reserve, 704. 
Brangwyn, Frank, cover of Feb. 23 issue. 
Braucher, H. S., 3, 7.' 
Bread line, 429. 
Breshkovsky, Catharine, 637. 
Breslow, Sara C, 131. 
Bridgeport, Hourwich arrest, 296. 
British Labour party. See Labor. 
British Ministry of Munitions, 173. 
British Ministry of Reconstruction, 563. 
Rritton, Gertrude H., 516. 

Brooke, Elisabeth W. "A Social Tragedy" (let- 
ter), 555. 
Brooklyn Federation of Jewish Charities, 126. 
Brown, Edmond, 331 
Brown, Udetta D.. 507. 
Brown Bill, [512], 629. 
Browne. P. E., 162. 
Bruere, Robert, 466. 
Brunschwe, Mme., 222. 
Brumbaugh, Governor, 49. 
Brundin, Agnes. Review of Coolidge's Teepee 

Neighbors, 662. 
Buck, W. B., 554, 643. 
Buddhism, 385. 
Buenos Aires, 383. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Labor convention (Fitch), 232. 

Labor convention and address of President 
Wilson, 173. 

Poverty, 467. 
Rureau of information for housewives, 65. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 168. 
Bureau of Social Hygiene, 373. 
Bureau of Vocational Guidance, 294. 
Burgess, J. S. 

China's beginnings of Social Investigation, 41. 

China's Social institutions, 311. 
Burleson, Postmaster-General, 350. 
Burnett.A. H. Review of Maciver's Community : 

A Sociological Study, 201. 
Business man. doing his bit (cartoon), 711. 



Cabot, R. C, 675. 
California. 

City planning conference, 99. 

Free textbooks and teachers, 720. 

Social survey of Alameda county, 599. 
California State Capital Planning Commission, 

667. 
California, University of, 599. 
Camp Bowie, 400. 
Camp Devens, 636. 
Camp Meade, 88-91. 
Camp farm, city boys on, 70. 
Camps. 

Kansas City, 294. 



Music for soldiers, 3, 21. 
Preventable disease, 371. 
Recreation, 127, 159. 
Social life, 2. 
Tuberculosis, 24. 
Y. W. C. A., [512]. 
Canaan-Four Corners, 325. 
Canada. 

Prohibition, [434]. 
War Cripples, 105. 
Canadian Conference on Public Welfare, new 

name, 99. 
Canandaigua churches, 334. 
Canning and drying kitchen, 71. 
Cantonments, 88. 

Views at American Lake, Wash., 92-93. 
Capital punishment, 673. 
Captain Courageous (cartoon). 588. 
Carlton, F. T., New Malthusianism, 67. 
Carnegie Institution, 429. 
Carrel, Alexis, 50. 
Carroll, Charles, 521. 
Carroll, B. H., 539, 567, 568, 652. 
Carstens, C. C. Halifax relief, 360. 
Cartoons. 

Italian War-time, cover of March 16 issue. 

Sower; Reaper; Gleaners (after Millet), 714. 
Case, G. B., 648. 
Catholic War Council, 296. 
Cattell, J. M., 53. 
Catts, S. J., 598. 
Chancy, L. W., 371. 
Chang, General, 312, 313. 
Chanukah, [274]. 
Chaperones, mining town, 128. 
Chapin, R. C, 698. 
Chapman, Paul, 673. 
Charities. 

Canada, 99. 

Illinois conference. 153. 

Iowa conference, 154. 

Massachusetts, 177. 

Merging of war charities, 528. 

New Jersey central board, 658. 

New York and Tammany (letter and reply), 
553. 

New York Times, 348. 

Pennsylvania conference, 153-154. 

St. Louis., home, 334. 

Toronto federation, 448. 

Westchester county, N. Y., conference, 155. 
Charity. 

Community bearings, 177. 

Licenses for bazars, [274]. 
Charleston, S. C, 599. 

Housing for girl war workers, 658. 

Red light district gone, 97. 
Chartres, France, 600. 
Chelsea, Mass., 307. 
Chervin, Dr. 450. 
Chevrillon, L, 185. 

Cheyney, E. R. The I. W. W. (letter 1 ), 150. 
Chicago. 

Babies' homes, 403. 

Boys and girls in street trades, 203. 

Boys' Brotherhood Republic, 468. 

City manager proposed, 420. 

Finance, tangled, 419. 

Fire. 307. 

Frederick Douglass Center, 722. 

Group of good neighbors. 655. 

House of Correction, 495. 

Juvenile court probation officers, 722. 

Legislation and babies, 407. 

Milk, 294. 

Police and "wet" dances, 578. 

Property for immoral purposes, [560], 

Public library, 659. 

Reconstructing men, 176. 

Tuberculosis sanitarium, [560]. 

Woman's City club, 275, 419. 

Woman's municipal platform. 278. 

See also Cook county; Juvenile Protective As- 
sociation. 
Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, 351. 
Child labor. 

Laws in war-time, 372. 

Shop and school, 292. 

Wilson, President, on, cover of January 12 

Child Labor Bulletin 722. 
Child Labor Day, [274]. 
Child welfare. 

Illinois, 474. 

Missouri, 474. 

National program, 346. 

New York Children's Home Bureau, 435. 

Oklahoma. 713. 

Pan-American conference, [382], 383. 

Pan-American congress postponed, [512]. 
Child Welfare Board, 452. 
Children. 

"Average", 12. 

Backward, schools and classes for, 423. 

Bad, and the courts, 468. 

Country vs. city health, 722. 

Defective nutrition in New York cfty schools, 
698. 

Dependent. Pennsylvania, 474. 

Detroit's 400, 323. 

Electric chair for, 673. 

France, 215, 220. 

French posters, [214]. 

Massachusetts care, 27. 

New York city in Mitchel's administration, 
118-119, cover of November 3 issue. 



Index 



Orphans in France, 7. 

Street trades in Chicago, 203. 

Working reserve, 704. 

See also Babies. 
Children's Bureau, 530. 

Care of rural babies, 448. 

Report on defectives, 23. 
Children's Code Commission, 474. 
Children's homes in New York city, 435, G04. 
"Children's Year", 530. 

Childs R. S. Review of Arndt's The Emancipa- 
tion of the American City, 370. 
Chile, 384. 
China. 

Opium bonfires, 429. 

Social challenge, 41, 311. 
Chioggia, 539, 540. 
Christianity. 

Periodical, new, 429. 

Social relations and, 688. 

Social service pioneers honored, 111. 

War and, 357. 
Christmas. 

Art work of the handicapped, 242-243. 

Carolers, 351, 929. 

Market, Upper East Side, New York, cover 
of December 1 issue. 

Party, 337. 

Red Cross seal (verse), 21G. 

Shop early (cartoon), 145. 
Churches. 

Canandaigua and Rochester, cooperation, 334. 

Cooperation in war, 358. 

Federal Council Bulletin, 429. 

Inter-church action in wartife, 71. 

Sustentation funds for the ministry, 98. 
Cincinnati. 

Housing, 334. 

Women in the war against waste, 63. 
Cities. 

Better homes for (American Civic Associ- 
ation), 153. 

Citizens of the new — an army in the making, 
cover of October 27 issue. 

Our new, 88. 

Statistical comparison. 598. 

See also Municipal government. 
City manager. 

Chicago, 420. 

Kalamazoo, 648. 
City planning. 

California conference, 99. 

Cantonments, 88. 

Sacramento, 667. 
Civics. 

American Civic Association, 153. 

Kansas, 154. 
Civil Liberties Bureau, National, 130. 
Civilian relief. 

France 722. 

Red Cross in the United States, 459. 

See also Relief ; Red Cross. 
Civilian war workers 351. 
Claghorn, Kate H. 

Review of Cahan's The Rise of David Le- 
vinsky 260. 

Review of Ferris Criminal Sociology, 47. 

Review of Stern's My Mother and I, 48. 
Claxton P. P. Statement of government policies 

as to schools in war time, 626. 
Cleanliness, 507. 
Clergymen. See Ministry. 
Cleveland, house building plan, 461. 
Cleveland Hardware Co., 494. 
Clinton, N. J., 591. 

Clopper, E. N. Child life in South America, 383. 
Clothcraft shops, 317, 495. 
Coady, R. J., 241. 
Coal. 

Conservation in England, 457. 

Lack, and efforts to meet need, 449. 

Red tape (cartoon), 407. 
Cold Spring Harbor, 429. 
Coler, B. S., 451, 643. 
Collective bargaining. 

Academic, 636. 

Non-union shop tendencies, 316. 
Collier, John. Review of Dewey's Creative In- 
telligence, 326. 
Colorado. 
Better state of affairs, 14. 

Unrest evidence, 145. 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Co., 14, 145. 
Columbia University, faculty and trustees, 53. 
Columbus, O., [274]. 

Workhouse farm, 334. 
Comitato de Organizazione Civile, cover of 

February 2 issue ; 486. 
Commission government, 336. 
Commission on Training Camp Activities, 465. 
Commons, J. R., 464. 

Community forum at Daytona Beach, 473. 
Community health on a national scale (Aus- 
tralia), 167. 
Compensation. See Workmen's compensation. 
Conductoring for women, 527, 677. 

St. Louis, 561. 
Congregational Council, National, 111. 
Congress, Wilson's message ; measures, 290. 
Connecticut mills, 589. 
Conscientious objectors to war status (Wilson's 

regulations), 711. 

Waldron case, 551, 712. 
Conscription in Australia, 474. 
Consuls, American, in Italy, 484. 
Consumers' cooperation, 343. 



Bibliography, 517. 
Consumers' league, 68, 328. 

Annual meeting of the National at Baltimore, 

204. 
Convalescent hospitals, 325. 
Cook county, 111., rural nursing, 516. 
Coolies, Chinese, 41. 
Cooperation, 492. 

Christian, 358. 

Consumers', 343. 

Consumers' bibliography, 517. 

Economic (Serbia), 499. 

England, C. W. S., 420. 

Wholesale, 69. 
Cooperative League of America, 343. 
Cooperative store, neighborhood, 69. 
Copper masks, 707. 
Copper mines. See Arizona. 
Cost of living. 

Cartoons, 59, 60, 61. 

District of Columbia, 68. 

Rio de Janeiro, 77. 

Strikes in wartime, 710. 

Tread mill (cartoon), 143. 

War finance and, 251. 
Costello, General, 541. 
Cotton, H. A., 590. 
Cotton mills and short day, 688. 
Council of National Defense, 177, 352. 
Country and city, health of children, 722. 
Coventry, 394. 
Crampton, C. VV., 699. 

Crane, Walter, 587 ; cover of March 2 issue. 
Creed, war-time, 358. 
Crime. 

Boys and (case of Paul Chapman), 673. 

Study of causes, 547. 

Women, 373. 
Criminals, sterilization committee disbanded, 

206. 
Cripples. 

Art work, 242-243. 

Canadian, reconstruction, 105. 

France, 220. 

Inter-allied conference on, 203. 
Crisis, 504. 
Crops, 513. 
Croxton, F. C, VOL 
Crozier, General, 349. 
Crutches into plowshares, 105. 
Culp, W. T. S., 555. 

Social tragedy, a, 367. 
Curtis, Margaret, 222. 
C. W. S. See under Cooperation. 



D 

Dakln-Carrel solution, 50. 
Dallas, Texas. 

Child welfare (letter), 424. 

Social hygiene conference, 127. 
Dana, H. W. L., 53. 
Dancing. 

Chicago police, 578. 

Mining towns, 128. 
Daniels, John, 436, 604. 
Danielson, Conn., 589. 

Dargan, Olive T. The I. W. W. (letter), 75. 
Davenport, C. H., 429. 
Davidson, S. J., 146. 
Davis, Katharine B., 373. 
Davis, M. M., Jr., 634. 

Food in families of limited means, 413. 

Medical social service in a disaster, 675. 

Review of Ellwood's An Introduction to 
Social Psychology, 272. 
Day, Elizabeth R., 675. 
Day, Justice, 185. 
Daylight saving, 722. 

Social benefits, 420. 
Dayton, Ohio, 336. 
Daytona Beach, 473. 
Deacon, J. B., [560]. 

When the city burns, 307. 
Deaf mute, The (verse), 164. 
Deaf soldiers, 150. 

Deardorff, Neva R. Demise of a highly re- 
spected doctrine, 416. 
Death penalty, 673. 
December 9, [274]. 

Defectives, Children's bureau report, 23. 
De Lanoy, W. C, 460. 

Delaware, defection in New Castle county, 23. 
Delinquent boys and broken homes, 635. 
De Loss, H. H., [512]. 
Democracy. 

Sermon, 100. 

Serbia and, 499. 

Social unit plan, 550. 
Democrats only in New York city positions, 451. 
Denver, 599. 

Department-Store Education (pamphlet), 469. 
Dependent children. See under Children. 
Derrick, Calvin, 125. 
Detroit. 

Children, 323. 

Christmas carolers, 351, 429. 
Devine, E. T., 222, [274], 286, 650, 697. 

Red Cross Bureau of Refugees, 23. 

Resigns from School of Philanthropy, 331. 
Dewey, John, 53, 529. 
De Witt Clinton High School, 250, 279. 
Dillon, J. J., 155, 295. 
Dlngham, Mary, 324. 
Dinwiddie, Emily W. Review of Waldo's Good 



Housing That Pays, 326. 
Diplomacy. 

Democratic, 086. 
Disasters. 

Chapter on (Deacon), 307. 

Medical social service, 675. 
Disloyalty, 35. 

Nearlng and Stokes cases, 711. 

Waldron case, 712. 
Dispensaries in Massachusetts, 634. 
District of Columbia, 68. 

Minimum wage, (130. 

Occowan jail, 602. 

Social hygiene, 698. 
Divinity schools and the war, 374. 
Divorce, 597. 
Dobson, Austin, When there is peace (verse), 

140. 
Doherty, W. J., 436. 
Doing his bit (cartoon), 711. 
Domestic Relations Court, Philadelphia, 597. 
"Door of hope", 315. 
Dope poisoning, 168. 
Douglass (Frederick) Center, 722. 
Draft and tuberculosis, [512], 
Draft law, health due to, 657. 
Drake, Grant, 648. 

Drama and pageantry, municipal bureau of, 648. 
Dresden, 387. 

Drink. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Dublin, L. I. 

Community health (Australia), 167. 

Tuberculosis in camps and homes, 24. 
Du Bois, W. E. B. Negro's fatherland, 141. 
Duggan, S. P. 

Review of Balch's The Approaches to the 
Great Settlement, 684. 
Duncan, James, 232. 
Dutton, S. T., 137. 

Review of Butler's A World in Ferment, 686. 
Dwight, Helen, 665. 

Review of Reed's Newsboy Service, 149. 



E 

Easley, R M., 633. 
East St. Louis, 474. 

Race adjustment plan, 690. 
East View, N. Y., 125. 
Eastman, Max, 207. 
Eddystone disaster, 422. 
Edge, Governor, 590, 058. 

Edinburgh University, tuberculosis chair, 474. 
Editors and social service, 124. 
Education. 

Bulletin of United States Bureau on school 
transformation, 49. 

China, 313. 

Europe, 125. 

<;'7ing the teachers a voice, 279. 

India, 334. 

Japan, 175. 

Leaflets of United States Bureau and Food 
Administration for children, 50. 

New York city teachers and loyalty, 250. 

Schools and government policy in war time, 
626. 

Vocational re-education, 599. 

See also Schools ; Vocational Education. 
Edwards, R. H. Letter of correction, 301. 
Efficiency. 

Draft law and, 657. 

Social, 344. 
Eidlitz, O. M., 611. 
Eight-hour day. 

Experiences of increased production, 494. 

Government work, 349. 

Railroad, 530. 

Vera Cruz, 372. 
Election. 

Casual reflections, 160, 170. 

Results in New York and Ohio, 144. 

Tammany by default, 162. 
Eliot, F. M. Martin Luther to Karl Liebknecht 

(verse), 350. 
Ellet, Minnie J. Temperance (letter), 554. 
Elliott, E. C. 281. 
Ellis, Mabel B., 372. 
Ellis Island, social work, 347. 
Elmer. M. C, 429. 
Eltham, 391, 393, 395. 
Emerson, Haven. Review of Fisher and Berry's 

Physical Effects of Smoking, 370. 
Employment, public, 49. 
Employment service, federal, 467. 

Bill for, 353. 
Enfield, Conn., 325. 
England. 

Co-operative Wholesale Society, 420. 

Housing of munitions workers. 390. 

New industrial revolution. 457. 

Poor law, 563. 
Espionage act, 334, 
Eternal masculiue. The, 117. 
Eugenics Record Office, 429. 
Europe. 

Education of head, heart, and hand, 125. 

Health of soldiers and citizens, L'l'.. 

Reconstruction chart, 22. 23. 
Evans, W. A. Review of Kellogg's A Thousand 

Health Questions Answered, 445. 
Explosions, workmen's compensation, 422. 
Eyes. 
'Halifax injuries, 421, [434]. 

Hazards, 343. 






VI 



Index 



F 

Facial masks, 707. 

Factories, classes in Americanization, 402. 

Families. 

Broken, and delinquent boys, 635. 
Philadelphia Domestic Relations Court, 597. 
Farm villages and offenders (George), 120. 
Farmers, Wilson's message to, 513. 
Farmers' Non-Partisan League, 295. 
Farming for boys, 704. 
Farr, Sheriff, 15. 
"F. C. A.", 319. 
Federal Council Bulletin, 429. 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ, 292. 
Fee system in jails, 423. 
Feeblemindedness. 

Children in school, 423. 
Committee on Provision for, 057. 
Community indicted, 10. 
Immigrants, testing (letter), 152. 
Women prisoners, 474. 
Feiss, R. A. 317. 
Fels, Jennie M. How to find workers (letter), 

328. 
Feminist movement, 344. 
Feng, Mrs., 312, 313. 
l^ernald. W. E., 325. 
Fertig, Catherine, 474. 
Fetter, F. A. The choice for pacifists (letter), 

151. 
Fickert, Mr., 350, 498, 712. 
Filene Co-operative Association, 319. 
Filene's (William) Sons Co., 319. 
Finance. 

Chicago, 419. 
Social organizations, 30. 
War and state taxation, 710. 
War and the cost of living, 251. 
Fires, chapter on (Deacon). 307. 
Fisher, C. A. Letter of appreciation of the 

Survey, 555. 
Fisher, Helen D. 

Boy, war and harrow, 704. 
Reply to Anna Y. Reed, 000. 
Fisher, Victor, 025. 
Fitch, J. A., 146. 

Labor in world politics, 439. 

Making the bargain, 310. 

Organized labor in war-time, 232. 

Report on industrial unrest, 544. 

Review of Carpenter's Toward Industrial 

Freedom, 572. 
Review of Sinclair's King Coal, 257. 
Review of Webb's The Works Manager Today, 

443. 
Sabotage and disloyalty, 35. 
Stretching the pay envelope, 411, 474 (cor- 
rection). 
Two years of the Rockefeller plan, 14. 
Where time is money, 494. 
Flaherty, T. F., 351. 
Flint, C. W. Review of Iowa Applied History 

Series, Vol. III., 40. 
Florence, 049, 052. 
Florida. 

Prison labor, [512]. 
Social survey, 598. 
Flours, diluted (letter), 663. 
Foisie, F. P., 76. 
Foley bill, 579. 
Folks, Homer, 217, 475, 697. 
Impressions in France, 52. 
Food. 

Books on, 72-74. 

Boston families, study, 413. 

Gardens, 63. 

Licensing importation, 70. 

Nutrition of New York city school children, 

698. 
Situation, 59. 

War prohibition needed (letter), 643. 
Food Administration, poster, cover of October 

20 issue. 
Food Aid Committee. See under New York 

(City). 
Food conservation. 

Bulletins for speakers, 252. 

Campaign, issue of October 20. 

Community experiment (Solvay), 65. 

Malthusianism, 67. 

Manila campaign, 078. 

Pennsylvania train, 401 and cover of January 

5 issue. 
Pledges, 145. 
"Food lady", difficulties, 70. 
Fools, freedom for, 657. 
Ford, James. 

Consumers' cooperation, bibliography, 517. 
Review of Cumberland's Co-operative 
Marketing, 526. 
Fort Sheridan Association, 324. 
Fort Wayne, Ind., 318. 
Fort Worth, Tex., 400. 

Hallowe'en, 30. 
Forum Songs. 648. 
Fosdick, R. B., 4. 
Foster, J. H. Review of Morris's The Nation's 

Health. 326. 
Foster, W. T., 599. 
France. 

Alcohol (letter), 424. 
Alcohol in the army (letter). 640. 
American Red Cross work (Kellogg), 181. 
American iced Cross work — civilian (Kel- 
logg), 217. 



American Red Cross work — soldiers (Kel- 
logg), 282. 

American Reu Cross work — war relief (Kel- 
logg), 320. 

Camps of American troops, 331. 

Children (posters), [214J. 

Children, welfare, ii5. 

Civilian relief, division of work, 722. 

Drink problem, 112. 

Drink problem (letters of E. de Billy and 
E. Tilton), 328. 

Garden hamlet, 488. 

Industrial rehabilitation, [274]. 

Re-construction, 224. 

Red Cross, men wanted, 474. 

Red Cross civilian relief, 475. 

Refugees, 222. 

Salvation army, 23. 

Smith College Relief Unit, 142, 594. 

Social and welfare work, 52. 

Tuberculosis campaign of Red Cross and 
Rockefeller Foundation, 000. 

Tuberculosis poster, 219. 

Venereal disease (letter), 300. 

War orphans, 7. 

Wine for soldiers, 294. 

Zoning cities, 99. 
Frankel, L. K., 173, 189, [500]. 
Franklin Automobile Co., 412. 
Frederick Douglass Center, 722. 
Freeville, N. Y., 120. 

French Heroes Lafayette Memorial Fund, 528. 
French war orphans (poster), cover of February 

23 issue. 
Frey, J. I'. Review of Wayforth's Organ- 

izability of Labor, 45. 
Friendly visitors to Indians, 505. 
Friends. See Quakers. 
Friends of German Democracy, 100. 
Friuli, 650, 053, 054. 
Frog, Gary, 131. 

Fuel, relief measures for lack, 449. 
Fuel Administration, 291, 344, 449, 404. 
Fuller, Walter, 429. 
Fuller, W. G. 

Review of English Folk Songs from the 
Southern Appalachians, 718. 
Fulmer, Harriet. Rural nursing, 516. 
Furuseth, Andrew, 232. 

G 

Gaines, Ruth. 

First mass at Greeourt, 142. 

Smith College Relief Unit at work in France, 
594. 
Games, children's (letter), 424. 
Garden hamlet, 488. 
Gardens. 

Food, 03. 

Massachusetts, safety for, 120. 
Gardner, Mary S. Review of Pope's A Dietary 

Computer, 472. 
Garfield, II. A., 344, 464. 
Garment workers, 578. 
Garrett, Mrs. T. H., 353. 
Garrison, Theodosia. Red Cross Christmas 

Seal (verse), 210. 
Gary, Judge, 102. 
Gary system, 162. 

Boy and frog story, 131. 

Gary, Ind., workers on, 76. 
George, W. R. Prison walls without a prison, 

120. 
George Junior Republic, 120. 
German democrats, 100. 
German people (cartoon), 715. 
Germany. 

Militarism extended to play, 385. 

Prayer for, 352. 
Gibbs, Winifred S. 

Review of Eaves's The Food of Working 
Women in Boston, 150. 

Review of Leeds's The Household Budget, 73. 
Gibson, H. D., 331. 
Gifts of women in England and France to 

soldiers, [274]. 
Gillett, Philip, 41. 
Girls. 

Conductors, 527, 501. 

Protection from soldiers, 230, 323, 331. 

Protective officers wanted, 405. 

War workers, comforts, 058. 
Girls' clubs in England, 1512]. 
Gladden, Washington, 111. 

Portrait, 111. ' 
Glover, Katherine. County bureau of informa- 
tion for housewives, 05. 
Goddard, Dr., 152. 
Goethals commission, 530. 
Goethe, C. M. Gretchen of Hildesheim, 385. 
Goldberg, H. A. Review of Fones's Mouth 

Hygiene, 73. 
Goldwater, S. S., 253. 
Gompers, Samuel, 233, 495, 025. 

American labor and foreign delegation, 688. 
Good causes and school children, 579. 
Good government, national conference for, 340. 
Goodwin, Etta R., 98. 
Gore, Bishop. Prayer for Germany, 352. 
Gorgas, Surgeon-General, 85, 90, 371, 400. 
Gould, J. F. Review of Hurd and others. The 

Institutional Care of the Insane In the United 

States and Canada — Vol. IV., 525. 
Government, 416. 

Governmental Research, Conference of, 351. 
Grabfelder, Samuel, 449. 



Grady, H. F. Review of Anderson's The Value 

of Money, 74. 
Great Britain. 

Agricultural laborers, 474. 

Grain for beer (letters), 473, 552. 

Housing in Scotland, report, 467. 

Industrial future, 21. 

Miners and the war, 679. 

Women's political party, 204. 

See also England ; Labor. 
Great Lakes welfare plan, 52. 
Greeourt, 142, 595. 
Green, W. C. Priority in games for children 

(letter), 424. 
Greenberg, David, 230. 
Greenwich House, 244, 245. 
Greenwich Village, 245. 
Greenwich Village Theater, 244. 
Gregg, J. E.. 427. 
Gretchen of Hildesheim, 385. 
Gretna, 394. 
Grey, Sir Edward, 087. 
Grk-sbam, Sheriff, 15. 
Grubles, S. B. Review of Fleagle's Social 

Problems in Porto Rico, 202. 
Guild, A. A., 403. 
Gwln, J. B. Back and forth to Mexico, 9. 

H 

Halg, R. M. Review of Mullet's Single Tax 

Year Book, 525. 
Haiti, appeal to America, 98. 
rialdane. Lord, 457. 
Halifax, 307. 

Eye injuries, 421, [434]. 
Medical social service, 075. 
Relief work, 305, 300. 
Hall, Bolton. Review of Kemmerer's Postal 

Savings, 370. 
Hall, Gertrude E. And the worm turned, 10. 
Hall, W. E., 700. 
Hallowe'en, safe and sane, 30. 
Hamilton, Alice. Dope poisoning, 168. 
Hampton Institute, 427. 
Hanchette, Helen W., 469. 
Hannah, I. C. 

Review of Cnapin's An Historical Introduction 

to Social Economy, 150. 
Review of Clennell's The Historical Develop- 
ment of Religion in China, 446. 
Review of Hodge's In the Wake of War, 663. 
Review of Miller's The New Era in Canada, 

446. 
Review of Stoddard's Present-day niurope, 

637. 
Review of Weale's The Fight for the Republic 

in China, 720. 
Review of Zwemer's The Disintegration of 
Islam, 256. 
Harper, Grace S., 203. 
Harriman, Mrs. E H., 429. 
Harrington, Josephine R. Alcohol in France 

(letter), 424. 
Harrison, S. M. 

Review of Elmer's Technique of Social Sur- 
veys, 271. 
Review of Scheftel's The Taxation of Land 
Values 298. 
Hart, H. H., 496, 598, 659. 
Haitman, E. T. 

Review of Cushman's Excess Condemnation, 

202. 
Review of Lansburg's Your Part in l'overty, 

297. 
Review of two books on municipal govern- 
ment, 46. 
Review of Waldsteln's Aristodemocracy, 446. 
Harvard University 475. 

Vocational guidance, 294. 
Hawes, Harriet B., 142. 
Hayes, C. J. H. Review of Lewinski-Corwln's 

Political History of Poland, 298. 
Haynes, G. E„ 527. 
Ha v wood, W. D., 35, 146. 
Health. 

Draft law and, 657. 
New York city appropriations, 206. 
Preventable disease in camps, 371. 
Saving, 500. 

Soldiers and citizens in Europe, 227. 
Venereal diseases abroad, 363. 
War and, 84. 
See also Public health. 
Health insurance, 417. 
Conservation and, 635. 
Labor and, in New York state, [500], 708. 
Massachusetts, 547. 
New Jersey, 605. 
Ups and downs, 547. 
Health News-Bulletin, 429. 
Healy, William. 

Review of Suggestions of Modern Science Con- 
cerning Education (by Jennings and others), 
444. 
Hebberd, R. W., 452. 
"Help wanted", 677. 
Henderson, Arthur, 587, 619, 624, 688. 

Portrait, 586. 
Henderson, P. W., 241. 

Hendrickson, Mary H. Keeping families to- 
gether, 597. 
Henry Street settlement, camp farm for boys, 

70. 
Hero Land, 252, 334. 
Herrick, M. T., 322. 



Index 



vn 



Hershfleld, Isadore, 330. 

Hess, A. F. Review of Sadler's The Mother 

and Her Child, 170. 
Hlgley, Elinore, [274]. 
Hildesheim. 385, 389. 

Hillquit, Morris, 144, 161, 207, 299, 300. 
Himalayas, 385. 
Hitchcock, Jane E. Review of Campbells The 

Book of Home Nursing, 170. 
Hitchmau Coal & Coke Co., 348. 
Hohencollemlsm, 386. 
Holt, Hamilton, 137. 
Holy Land, 346, 429. 

See also Jerusalem. 
Home Missions Council, 466. 
Home Service. 

Booklet of the Red Cross, 722. 

Indiana institute, 720. 

Red Cross work, 188, 397, 459, 631. 

Verses on (Woodberry), 656. 
Homes, children and, 435, 604. 
Hooper, Charles. Seattle shepherd (letter), 299. 
Hoover, H. C, 85, 145. 
Horasby, Dr., 334. 
Hospitals. 

American soldiers, 253. 

Convalescent, 325. 

France, Red Cross, 285. 

Insane, New York state, 466. 

Invalid soldiers', 659. 

National Jewish for Consumptives at Denver, 
449. 
Hours of work. 

Cotton mills and short day, 688. 

Increased production from shorter hours, 494. 

See also Eight-hour day. 
Houwlch, Nicholas, arrest, 296. 
Housewives, bureau of information for, 65. 
Housing. 

Amsterdam, N. Y., 507. 

Cincinnati, 334. 

Cleveland plan, 461. 

Department of Labor, [512]. 

Federal policy, 552. 

Garden hamlet in France, 488. 

Girl war workers, 658. 

Government employes, 577. 

Kansas, 475. 

Making a conference count, 87. 

Munition workers, 177. 

Profitable, 589. 

St. Paul, 421. 

Scotland, 467. 

Shipyard and other government workers, 648. 

Shipyard workers, 399, 552. 

Temporary or permanent for war workers, 
609, 

War workers, 83. 

War workers — lessons from British ex- 
perience, 390. 

See also National Conference on Housing. 
Howe, F. C, 138. 
Hubbell, Margaret L., 163. 
Hudson Guild store, 69. 
Hunt, E. E., 697. 

Hunt, Jean L. Review of Richmond's Per- 
manent Values In Education, 471. 
Hunt, R. D. Prohibition and victory (letter), 

643. 
Hunter, J. DuB., 428. 722. 
Huntlngton.Susan D., 504. 
Hurley, E. H., 399. 
Hutcheson, W. L., 576. 
Hutments, 395. 
Huvsmans, Camllle, 619. 
Hylan, J. F., 144, 161, 162, 426, 553, 570, 604. 

Appointments, 451. 

I 

Ideal, Col., 14, 19. 
Ihlder, John 

Cantonments of the army, 88. 

Cleveland plan for financing house building, 
461. 

Good housing that pays, 589. 
Illinois. 

Child welfare, 474. 

Public welfare (State Conference of Charities 
and Correction), 153. 

State criminologist, 547. 
Illiteracy, comparison of cities, 599. 
Immigrants. 

Jewish Americans from Jerusalem, 146. 

Jewish women, and, 462. 

Testing (letter), 152. 

See also Ellis Island. 
Immigration. 

Legislation principles, 575. 

New literacy law and tax as regards Mexico, 
9. 
India. 

Education Society, 334. 

Labor conditions (letter), 150. 
Indian Commissioners, Board of, 505. 
Indianapolis, [512]. 
Indians, friendly visitors to, 505. 
Industrial Conference Board, 576. 
Industrial education. See Vocational education. 
Industrial Education. National Society for, 429. 
Industrial hazard, 168. 

Industrial hygiene, New York city. 206, [274]. 
Industrial Relations Commission, 317. 
Industrial revolution, new, 457. 
Industrial standards in Massachusetts, 97. 
Industrial unrest, report of the President's com- 
mission, 545. 



I. W. W., 545, 546, 633. 

Arizona, 128. 

Clashing branches, 146. 

Letters on, 75, 150, 151. 

Parody on Onward Christian Soldiers, 75. 

Sabotage, 35. 

Seattle, 465. 

Seattle clergyman on (letter), 299. 
Industry. 

Great Britain's future, 21. 

Great new, 468. 
Infant mortality. 

Comparison of cities, 599. 

France, cheerful campaign, 600. 

National Association Conference, 98. 
Ingram, O. K., 498. 
Insane hospitals In New York state, 466. 
Insurance. 

Health. See Health Insurance. 

Social, [512]. 

Soldiers, applications, [512]. 

Soldiers' and Sailors', 39, 498, 643. 

War risk, 188. 
"Intelligence ratings", 174. 
Inter-allied conference on war cripples, 203. 
Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations, 301. 
International law, 416. 
International League of Fraternities, 334. 
International mind, churches and, 648. 
International Socialist Review, 648. 
Internationalism (cartoon by Crane), cover of 

March 2 issue. 
Invasion of Italy, 649. 
Iowa. 

Social progress (Charities and Correction), 
154. 

State University, 398. 
Irvin, Rea, 162. 
Italy. 

After care for Invasion (Kellogg), 649. 

Red Cross work, [274], 286. 

Red Cross work (Kellogg), 481, 519, 537, 565. 

Relief commissions, 486, 487. 

War-time cartoon, cover of March 16 issue. 



Jack, E J, 128. 

Jackson, B. B.. 281. 

Jacobs, P. P. Review of King's The Battle 

with Tuberculosis and How to Win It, 266. 
Jails. 

Birmingham, Ala., 550. 

New Jersey, 591. 

Occowan, 602. 

Pennsylvania, fees, 423. 
Janeway, T. C, 427. 
Japan. 

Menace, 661. 

New school spirit, 175. 

Railway welfare work. 544. 

Women physicians, [434]. 
Jayne, 1. W. Newport's mayor and the Train- 
ing Station (letter). 473. 
Jean, Sallv L, 70. 

Review of Struthers' The School Nurse, 370. 
Jeanneret, M., 488. 
Jerusalem. 

Capture, 345. 

Community celebration, Iowa State Univer- 
sity, 398. 

Jewish Americans from, 146. 

Turks and, 429. 
Jewish relief, 636. 
Jewish Relief Committee, 578. 
Jewish women, immigrant aid, 462. 
Jews. 

American partv from Jerusalem, 146. 

Chanukah, [274]. 

Refugees In Japan, 330. 

War relief fund ; Jerusalem's capture, 345. 
JInrlklshas, 41. 
Johnson, Alexandra. Review of books on 

children's intelligence, 258. 
Johnson, Bertha F. Letter commending the 

Survey, 150. 
Johnson, Emily S. Pans for diluted flours 

(letter). 663. 
Johnson, I. W. A Negro to America (verse), 

709. 
Johnson, V. V. Venereal disease In France 

(letter), 300. 
.Toliet, 111., 474. 
Jones, L. A. Review of Chapin's Health First, 

472. 
Judd, C. H., 50. 
Juvenile Protective Association of Chicago, 403, 

578. 



Kalamazoo, 648. 
Kansas. 

Housing, 475. 

League of Kansas Municipalities, 154. 

Social surveys In four cities, 429. 
Kansas City, camps and saloons, 294. 
Keating, Congressman, 353. 
Keeping a good man In office. 143. 
Kellev, Florence. War and women workers, 

028. 
Kellogg, A. P. 

Review of Murray's Drink and the War, 684. 
Kellogg, P. U., [274]. 280. 475. 

After care for an invasion. 649. 

American labor out of it (British meetings 
and movement). 617. 
American Red Cross work in France, 181. 



American Red Cross work In France — civilian 
work, 217. 

American Red Cross work in France — 
military, 282. 

American Red Cross work in France sinews 
of war relief, 320. 

American Red Cross work in Italv, 481, 519. 

American Red Cross work, supplement to 
March 30 issue. 

British labor offensive, 585. 

Free Belgium between the front and the sea, 

Gompers's attack on, 688. 

Survey Associates, report, etc., 190-199, 

Two days in Venice, 537, 505. 
Kelly, R. W., 294. 
Kennedy, Mrs. P. J., 648. 
Kent. England. See Well Hall. 
Ker, Balfour, 118-119. 
Kerensky, 465. 
Kerr, W. J., 635. 
Key, Axel, 699. 
Keyes, G. T. Review of Meriam's Principles 

Governing the Retirement of Public Em- 
ployees, 719. 
King, Edith S., 76, 301. 
King, W. L. Mackenzie, 16. 
Kingsbury, J. A., 435, [500]. 
Kingsbury, Susan M. See McBride, Christine 

and Susan M. Kingsbury. 
Kirchwey, G. W., 591, 594. 

Review of MacDonaid's The North American 
Idea, 573. 
Kirstein, L. E., 497. 
Klingman bill, 6z9. 

Knickerbocker, Father, 118-119, cover of No- 
vember 3 issue. 

See also New York (city). 
Knights of Columbus, 296, 426, 427. 
Knitting, 331. 
Knowles, Morris, 89. 
Koo, V. K. W., 312, 313. 



Labor. 

Agriculture In threat Britain. 474. 

A. F. L. convention at Buffalo (Fitch), 232. 

Board of Control of Labor Standard for 
Army Uniforms, 997. 

British (cartoons by Crane), 587; cover of 
March 2 issue. 

British Labour Party convention at Notting- 
ham (Kellogg), 617. 

British meetings at London and Nottingham 
(Kellogg), 585. 

British pamphleteering, 621. 

Conditions in India (letter). 150. 

Department employment service, 353. 

Difficulty analyzed, 417. 

Federal control of women's work, 72. 

Findings of President's commission, 545. 

Government standards. 349. 

Health insurance, New York, [560], 708. 

Increased production in shorter days, 494. 

Influence in the government, 575, 576. 

Negroes and unions, 527. 

Prison, 495. 

Railroad problem and the government, 399, 

Shortage and waste, 701. 

Standardizing government nolioies, 464. 

To regulate the demand for, 49. 

United States Department, 464, 467, 575, 576. 

War and women, 628. 

Where American labor stands. 888. 

Wilson's (President) address at Buffalo, 173. 

Women voters of New York and the legisla- 
ture, 714. 

Women's, Brown bill, [512], 629. 

World politics. *39. 

See also Industrial ; Industry. 
Labor laws needed (Andrews), 542. 
Ladd, Anna C, 707. 
Lafayette's birthplace. 528. 
La Fontaine, Henri. 137. 
Laldler, H. W. Review of Barnett and McCabe's 

Mediation, Investigation, etc., 45. 
Laissez-faire, 416. 
Lane, F. K., 531. 
Lane. W. D., 236. 

Child, the, and the electric chair, 673. 

Giving the teachers a voice, 279. 

Mothered by the city, 435. 

Prison reform in New Jersey. 590. 

Review of Fornaro's A Modern Purgatory, 
469. 

Review of Moore's Fiftv Years of American 
Education, 573. 

Review of Smith's An Introduction to Educa- 
tional Sociology. 148. 

Review of The Prison and the Prisoner, 369. 

Sing Sing's war song, 18ft 

Teaching respect for authority, 250. 
Lansbury, George. 621. 
Lasker, Bruno. 

England's poor law. 563. 

Housing of war workers. 390. 

New Industrial revolution in England, 457. 

Our dally bread, 59. 

Review of Barker's The Great Problems of 
British Statesmanship. 602. 

Review of Bennett's The Tlan of Minneapolis. 
710. 

Review of books on food, 73. 

Review of books on the food situation. 297. 

Review of City Planning In the United States 
149. 



Vlll 



Index 



Review of Coit's Is Civilization a Disease? 
201. 

Review of Dawson's After- War Problems, 255. 

Review of Hobson's Democracy After the War, 
574. 

Review of two books on unemployment, 171. 

Review of two industrial books, 200. 

Swords and plowshares, 513. 
Lnthi-up, Julia C, 346. 530. 
Lauder, A. Estelle, 328. 
Law and Order League, 690. 
Lawrence, David, 600. 
Lawson, John, 15. 
League for Hard of Hearing, 150. 
League for Preventive Work, 413, 423, 475. 
League of Peace, 687. 
League of Small and Subject Nationalities, 76, 

550. 

First congress, 137. 

Resolutions adopted October 29-31, 139. 
Leavitt, F. M., 292. 
Lee, Joseph, 3, 21. 

Review of Odell's The New Spirit of the New 
Army, 715. 

Training camp commissions, 3. 
Lee, P. R., at School of Philanthropy, 331. 
Legal Aid in Manila, 334. 

Legislation for women and children, bills pend- 
ing in New York, 629. 
Legler, H. E., 659. 
Leiserson, W. M. Labor shortage and labor 

waste, 701. 
Lenine, 465. 
Leonard, Oscar. 

Review of Mangold's The Challenge of St. 
Louis, 148. 

Women conductors in St. Louis, 561. 
Leverhulme, Lord, 21. 
Levine, A. J. Some myths in school keeping, 

12. 
Levy, G. B. A French garden hamlet, 488. 
Leyendecker poster, 713. 
Li Hung Chang, 311. 

Liberty and the German people (cartoon), 715. 
Liberty loans and the Boy Scouts, 713. 
Libraries. 

Chicago, 659. 

China, 312. 
Lichuowsky, Prince, 687. 

Lindsay, S. M. Review of Collins's The Na- 
tional Budget System and American Finance, 

206. 
Liquor. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Literacy test. See Immigration. 
••Li I tie 'Africa", 502. 
Litvinoff, M., 620. 
Lloyd George, 439. 
London Baby Week, poster, cover of November 

10 issue. 
London labor meeting, 585. 
Longshoremen, compensation, 99. 
Longuet, 623. 
Los Angeles, 599. 

Deafened soldiers, 150. 

Schools, 281. 
Losanitch, Sima, 499. 
Louisville, Ky. 

Married women teachers, 334. 

Negro segregation, 185. 
Louisville Federation of Social Agencies, [274]. 
Lovejoy, O. R., 372. 
Low, Bruce, 229. 
Lowden, Governor, 153. 
Lutyens, E. L., 648. 
Lynch J. M., 709. 

Lynching, Tennessee Law and Order League 690. 
Lyon, W. S. Grain for Britain's beer (letter), 

473. 

M 
McAdoo, W. G., 399. 
McBride, Christine, and Susan M. Kingsbury. 

Social welfare bibliography, 94-90, 100-101, 

287-289, 301, 441-443, 570-572, 682-684. 
McCall, Governor, [512], 547. 
McCormick (Elizabeth) Memorial Fund, 474. 
McCulloch, Oscar, 111. 
McDonald, J. G. Review of Scott's Patriots in 

the Making, 171. 
MacDonald, Ramsay, 617, 623. 
McDowell, Mary E., 276. 

Mothers and night work, 335. 
McDuffie, Jean H., 599. 
Macfarland, C. S. Spiritual writing through 

sacrificial suffering, 357. 
Mcllwain Shoe Co., 317. 
McKelway, A. J., cover of January 12 issue. 
MacLean, Sir Donald, 563. 
McMahon, Katherine, 675. 
McMenamin, J. T. Letter of appreciation of 

the Survey, 664. 
McMurtrie, D. C. Crutches into plowshares, 

105. 
MeNally, Augustin. Letter commending the Sur- 
vey, 150. 
Madrid, 504, 633, C43. 
Magazines 

Editorial social service, 124. 

Postage rates (letter), 641. 
Magistrates, New York State Association, 722. 
Magruder, J. W., 720. 

Maguire, J. W. R. Fusion defeat (letter), 425. 
Mail matter, rates (letter), 641. 
Maine. 

Going dry (letter), 151. 

Health department, 429. 



Malaria, 500. 

Mallery, Otto, 49. 

Mallon, Patrick. New York's charities (letter), 

553. 
Mallhusianism, new, 67. 
Manchuria, 544. 

Manikins in anti-alcohol campaign, 172. 
Manila. 

Food campaign, 678. 

Free legal aid, 334. 
Man-less families, 324. 
Manny, F. A., 648. 

Defective nutrition and the standard of liv- 
ing, 698. 

Review of Hollingworth and Poffenberger's 
Applied Psvchology, 267. 
Mansfield House, 714. 
Marione, Prof, and Mrs., 541. 
Marks, Jeannette. Postal rates on second class 

matter (letter), 641. 
Masks for soldiers, 707. 
Massachusetts. 

"Anti-aid" constitutional amendment. 176. 

Child care, 27. 

Dispensaries, 634. 

Gardens, safety for, 126. 

Health insurance, 547. 

Industrial standards, 97. 

League for Preventive Work, 413. 423. 

Military training and efficiency, 657. 

.Minimum wage, 372. 

Physical examinations of prisoners, 648. 

Probation and prisons, [274], 501. 

Prohibition amendment, 687. 

State Conference of Charities, 177. 

Town changes in form of government, [274]. 

Venereal diseases, 603. 
Masses, the, arrest of staff, 207. 
Mastin, Florence R. The deal mute (verse), 

104. 
Matthews, M. A. The 1. W. W. (letter), 75. 
Matthiessen, F. W., 654. 
Maxwell, W. H., [512]. 
Mayoralty campaign, 160, 162, 176. 
Medical problems in war, 84. 
Medical Research Committee of the National 

Health Insurance Joint Committee, 635. 
Medical social service, 675. 
Medicine. 

China, 314. 

War wounds, 50. 
Men and Religion Forward Movement. 71. 
Mental defectives. See Defectives ; Feeblemind- 
edness. 
Mental tests for soldiers, 51. 
Merrv-go-round in anti-alcohol campaign, 172. 
Mess, H. A., 714. 
Metal scrap, 468. 

Mexican miners returning home, 97. 
Mexico. 

Immigration law and, 9. 

Labor legislation, 372. 
Michigan, Children's Home Society, 323. 
Michigan, University of, 636. 
Militarism, German, and American playground, 

385. 
Military prisoners in Switzerland, 660. 
Military training, 657. 

Wilson, President, on, 660. 
Milk, 59. 

Books on, 72. 

Cost (cartoon), 59. 

New York city, 602. 

Regional tribunals on prices, 293. 

St. Louis, 334. 

Seven-cent, Boston (letter), 639. 

Tacoma, 331. 
Mill owners. 688. 
Millet, cartoons after, 714. 
Miner, Maude E., 236, 466, [512]. 
Miners. 

British, and the war, 679. 

Colorado unrest, 145. 

Mexican returning home, 97. 
Minimum wage. 

Agriculture in Great Britain, 474. 

District of Columbia, 630. 

Massachusetts, 372. 

Minnesota, 291. 

New York, 630. 
Mining towns, dancing, 128. 
Ministry, sustentation funds, 98. 
Minneapolis, [512]. 

Schools, 280. 

Street-car service, 359. 
Minnequa steel workers, 17. 
Minnesota. 

Minimum wage, 291. 

Prisons, 341. 
Minnesota. University of, [512]. 
Missionaries in Nigeria, 036. 
Missions, home, 466. 
Missouri Children's Code, 474. 
Mltchel, J. P., 144, 161, 162, 425, 427, 553. 

Children's welfare, 118-119, cover of Novem- 
ber 3 issue. 
Mitchell, John, 293. 
Mock, G. M. Mr. Babson on socialism (letter 

and note), 639. 
Moffat, John, 528. 
Moley, Raymond. Representing all the people, 

336. 
Montevideo, [382], 383. 

Postponement of Child Welfare Congress, 
[512]. 
Mooney case, 28, 295, 643. 



Further happeni: <*s, 712. 

Report of commission, 497. 

Roosevelt, T., on, 349. 
Moors, J. F., 306, 360, 475. 

Review of Deacon's Disasters and the 
American Red Cross In Disaster Relief, 472. 
Moran, J. F., 18. 
Morgan, Anne, 722. 
Morquis, Luis, [512J. 
Moscow, social relief, 247. 
Moskowitz, Henry, 75. 
Moss, J. L., 722. 
Mothers. 

Keeping babies with, 123. 

Night work, 335. 

Unskilled foster, 404. 
Motion pictures in North Carolina, 402. 
Mourning <*oods, profits from, 473. 
Mouth hygiene, [274], 
"Move forward, please" (cartoons), 562. 
Municipal bureau of drama and pageantry, 648. 
Municipal government. 336. 

National Conference for Good Government, 
340. 

Woman's platform in Chicago, 278. 
Municipal lodging house (verse), 362. 
Municipal research. 

New York Bureau, 648. 

Pooling results, 351. 
Munitions, housing and output, 177. 
Murder, boys and, 673. 
Murdoch, Mrs. W. L., 550. 
Murphy, G. M. P., 23, [274], 427. 
Murphy, J. J., [512]. 
Music and soldiers, 3, 21. 
Mussey, Mabel H. B. Review of books on the 

theater, 447. 
Mussey, H. R. 

Review of three books on Japan, 47. 

Social efficiency, 344. 
Muzilli, Carolina, 383. 

N 

Naples, 649, 652, 653. 

National Allied Relief Committee, 528. 

National American Woman Suffrage Association, 

annual convention, 344. 
National Association for the Advancement of 

Colored People, 502. 
National Catholic W r ar Council, 296. 
National Child Labor Committee, 713. 
National Civic Federation, 708. 

Luncheon to British delegation, 688. 
National Committee for the Prevention of 

Blindness, 343. 
National Conference for Good Government, 340. 
National Conference of Social Work, 339. 
National Conference on Housing, 87. 
National Congregational Council, 111. 
National Council of Education, 626. 
National Emergency Food Garden Commission, 

63. 
National Housing Association, 609. 
National Industrial Conference Board, 576, 688. 

Wartime strikes, 710. 
National Institute of Social Sciences, 466. 
National League on Urban conditions among 

Negroes, 342, 527. 
National parks, 474. 

National Society for Industrial Education, 429. 
Nations, small. See Small nations. 
Navy, U. S., discipline and probation, 401. 
Nearing, Scott, arrest, 711. 
Negroes. 

Africa, future of, 141. 

Burning in Tennessee (cartoon), 602. 

Chicago, 722. 

Children's art, 241. 

Forging ahead, 502. 

Migration, 342. 

Negro to America, a (verse), 709. 

Organized labor and, 527. 

Race adjustment plan in St. Louis and East 
St. Louis, 690. 

Supreme Court decision on segregation, 185. 

Tennessee, 690. 

Tuskegee conference. [512]. 
Neighborhood cooperative store, 69. 
Neighborliness, experiment in (Chicago), 655. 
Nesbitt, Florence. 

Review of Donham's Marketing and House- 
work Manual. 686. 

Review of Fisk's Food — Fuel for the Human 
Engine, 445. 
Neumann, Henry. 

Review of Duranfs Philosophy and the Social 
Problem, 445. 

Review of Liebknecht's Militarism, 471. 

Review of Waldsteln's Patriotism, 638. 
New Jersey. 

Boy convicts, 425. 

Central board of charities control, 658. 

Health insurance, 605. 

Prison reform commission report, 590. 
Neiv World, 429. 
New York (city). 

Charities and Tammany (letter and reply), 
553. 

Child-placing, 604. 

Children in the Mitchel administration, 118 
119, cover of November 3 issue. 

Children's Home Bureau, 435. 

Democrats in office, 451. 

Food Aid Committee, 70. 

Food Aid Committee, wagon, 67. 



Index 



IX 



Fusion defeat (letters and comment), 425. 

Girl conductors, 527, 677. 

Giving the teachers a voice, 279. 

Industrial hygiene work, 206, [274]. 

Jewish philanthropies, 636. 

Licenses for charity bazars, [274]. 

Mayoralty campaign, 160, 162, 176. 

Mayoralty result, 144. 

Milk, 602. 

Milk commission, 293. 

One hundred neediest cases, 348. 

Public charities, 643. 

School children, nutrition, 698. 

Teachers and loyalty, 250. 

Women's University Club, food salvage, 71. 
New York (State). 

Bills pending on labor of women and children, 
629. 

Insane hospitals, 466. 

Labor necessities, 467. i 

Parole law, 579. 

Probation, 501. 

Woman suffrage (cartoon), 161. 

Woman suffrage result, 144. 

Women voters and higher labor standard, 
714. 
New York Academy of Medicine, 50. 
New York Association for Improving the Con- 
dition of the Poor, school children's nutrition, 
698. 
New York Bureau of Municipal Research, 648. 
New York School of Philanthropy, 331. 
New York State Association of Magistrates, 722. 
New York State Federal ion of Labor, reports on 

health insurance, 708. 
New York Times, 144, 398. 
New Zealand, infant mortality, 346. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 635. 
Newman, B. J„ 22, 23. 
Newport mayor and Training Station (letter), 

473. 
Newsboys In Seattle (letter), 665. 
Newspapers. 

Postage (letter), 641. 

Social service use of, 36. 
Newton, Elsie E. The I. W. W. (letter), 75. 
Nicholes, S. Grace. First aid to new voters, 

275. 
Nigeria, missionaries, 636. 
Night school laggards, 462. 
Night work for women, 335. 
Noda, Shunsaku. Japanese railway welfare 

work, 544. 
Nolan, John, 667. 
Nonpartisan League, 295. 
North Carolina. 

Board of Charities, 331. 

Boy convicts, 425. 

Boy prisoners (letter), 555. 

Boys pardoned, 368. 

Motion pictures, 402. 
Northwest, crisis, 359. 
Norton, C. D., 648. 
Norton, Helen R„ 469. 
Norton, Richard, 282. 
Norton, W. J. Good government, 340. 
Nottingham labor convention (Kellogg), 587, 

617. 
Nourse, Mary P., 448. 
Nurses, commissioned, [512]. 
Nursing. 

Army needs, 474. 

France. American Red Cross, 283. 

Public health, 469. 

Rural service, 448, 516. 

Training schools enrollment, 100. 
Nutrition of children in New York city schools, 

698. 
Nydegger, J. A., 100. 



O 

Ohedience, 388. - 

Obenauer, Marie L., 72, 467. 

Oceowan workhouse, 602. 

O'Connor, Mrs. J. J. Experiment in neighbor- 

liness, 655. 
Office, keeping a good man in, 143. 
Ogburn, W. F., 598. 
Ohio woman suffrage (cartoon), 161. 
Ohio Institute of Public Efficiency, 701. 
Oklahoma, child welfare, 713. 
Olmsted, F. L., 3. 
Oneida community, 412. 
Open Forum, 648. 
Opium, Chinese bonfires, 429. 
Orange, N. J., r274]. 
Ordahl, Louise E. and George, 474. 
Orlando, Signor, 697. 
Ordnance bureau, 349. 
Orphanages, 659. 
Orphans in China, 312, 313. 
Osborne, T. M., 120. 
Oshima, S., 175. 
Otis, H. G. 316. 
Otsuka, Shiroshi, 544. 
Overseers of the poor, 143. 

Pennsylvania, 153. 
Oxman, F. C, 28, 100, 295, 497. 



Pacifists. 

Choice, the (letter), 151. 

Course (letter), 152. 

Labor convention and, 233. 

Letter from a war pacifist, 151. 
Pack, C. R. The welding plot, 63. 



Packard 1'iano Co., 318. 

Page, T. N., 484. 

Pageant at Port Worth, Tex., 30. 

Palestine, 346, 429. 

See also Jerusalem. 
Taper blankets, 552. 
Pardoning power, 367. 

Park, C. E. Course for pacifists (letter), 152. 
Park, Y. M., 138. 
Parks. 

National, and sheep, 474. 

Park, the (verse), 116. 
Parole, New York law attacked, 579. 
Party politics and women, 204. 
Patriotism, 163. 

Leaflets of the government, 50. 
Peabody, F. G., 111. 
Peace. 

Labor's terms, 234. 

Pre-war efforts toward, 087. 

Russia's offer, 251. 

Vocational education and, 529. 
When there is peace (verses by A. Dobson), 140. 

With restoration (cartoon), 596. 

Woman's Peace Party, 343. 

World (small nations and), 137. 

World Peace Foundation, 334. 
Peck, Esther J., cover of December 1 issue. 
Peking. 

Orphanage, 312, 313. 

Social institution, 311. 

Social problems, 41. 
Pennsylvania. 

Association of the Poor and Charities and 
Corrections, 153-151. 

Delinquent girls, 334. 

Dependent children, 474. 

Food train, 401 and cover of January 5 issue. 

Jail fees, 423. 

Public works bill, 49. 
Pensions. See Sustentation funds. 
Perceval, John, 334. 

Perky, S. H. Consumers' cooperation, 393. 
Perry C. A., 49. 
I'ersons, W. F., 305. 

Home service, 188, 397, 459, 631. 

Peru prosperity and progress, 528. 
Petrograd. 

Social reilef, 247. 

Typhus, [512]. 
Pettit, W. U. Review of McCarthy's The Prisoner 

of War in Germany, 717. 
Phelps Stokes. See Stokes. 
Philadelphia. 

Domestic Relations Court, 597. 

National Housing Conference, 609. 

Police, 348. 
Philanthropy. 

China, 311. 

See also New York School of Philanthropy. 
Philippines. 

Play ground work, 331. 

Women's clubs In food campaign, 678. 
Philips, Sir R. W., 474. 
Phillips. Mrs. W. C. 550. 
Physical education, 657. 
Pinckney, Judge, [560]. 
Playground and Recreation Association of 

America, 2, 3. 
Playgrounds. 

American as antidote to German militarism, 
385. 

China, 313. 

Philippines, 331. 
Plowshares, 105. 
Pneumonia, 305. 
Pneumoniae serum, 305. 
Poems. See Verse. 
Poisons in aircraft, 168. 
Tolice, Philadelphia, 348. 
Policewomen, St. Louis, 474. 
Poliomyelitis reports 100. 
Politics. 

Labor and, 439. 

Religion and. 176. 

Women in, 204. 
Pool rooms, [274]. 
Poor laws in England, 563. 
Poorhouse, China, 311, 312. 
Pope, R. A., 396. 
Porter, W. L., 475. 
Post, Mrs. Edward, 220. 
Postal employes and unions, 350. 
Tostal rates, 38. 

Second class (letter), 641. 
Posters. 

Alcohol, 292. 

Alcohol in France, 113. 

Alcohol merry-go-round, 172. 

Auglay's war orphans in France, cover of 
October 6 issue. 

Boy Scouts and Third Liberty Loan, 713. 

Food Administration, cover of October 20 
issue. 

French children, [214]. 

French convalescent soldier, 221. 

French war orphans, cover of February 23 
issue. 

Pennsylvania food train, cover of January 5 
issue. 

Save the babies, cover of November 10 issue. 

Serbian refugees, 499. 

Tuberculosis in France, 2i9. 
Potter, Z. L.. 577. 
Pound, Roscoe. Review of Richmond's Social 

Diagnosis, 254. 



Poverty. 

Decline (Almy), kit. 

Separation of babies and mothers, 405. 
Prayer wheels. 385. 
Praying for all mankind, cover of November 17 

issue. 
Prince-Blederman Co., 317. 
Prlngle, J. C. For- soldiers' dependents (letti l i 

42 1. 
Prison labor, 495. 

Prison reform in New Jersey, report of com- 
mission, 590, 
Prisoners. 

Florida, [512]. 

Massachusetts, 648. 

Military, 660. 

Wages, 341. 
Prisons. 

Hoys In, 367. 

Boys in (letters), 425, 555 

China, 311, 312, 315. 

Farm village; plan of W. It. George, 120. 

Massachusetts, [274]. 

Self government in East View, 125. 

Women and feeblemindedness, 474. 

See also Sing Sing. 
Probation. 

Massachusetts, [274]. 

Navy, 401. 

New York Commission, [512]. 

State results, 501. 
Probation officer, Chicago, 428, 722. 
Professors' salaries, 636. 
Prohibition, 

Canada, [434]. 

• 'ingress and, 290. 

Congress and national, 345. 

I'rogress of tne constitutional amendment 
among the states (letter), 664. 

Russia, 352. 

Social workers and, 687. 

War ; new pressure, 498. 

War and food (letter), 643. 

See also Alcohol. 
Proportional representation, 336. 

English parliament on, 601. 

Kalamazoo, 648. 
Prostitution. 

Charleston, S. C, red light district gone, 

French government (letter), 300. 

Kansas City, 294. 
Protective officers for girls, 465. 
Providence, R. I., 648. 
Psychiatry for soldiers, 49. 
Public health. 

Community health on a national scale (Aus- 
tralia), 167. 

Report of Surgeon-General Blue. 500. 

See also American Public Health Convention. 
Tubllc health nursing, 346, 469. 
Public library. See Libraries. 
Public Ownership Conference, 342. 
Public Schools. See Schools. 
Publicity. 

Announcement and appeal forms, 126. 

Social organizations, 36. 
Tueblo, Col., 128. 
Purdy, Lawson, 87, 428. 
Purdy, W. F„ 623, 624. 



Quakers. 

Principles of Christian responsibility, 688. 
War Views, 712. 



R 
Race adjustment, 690. 
Rahway, N. J., 591. 
Railroads. 

Adamson law, results, 530. 

Japanese welfare work, 544. 

Unification and the labor problem, 399. 
Rathenau, Walther, 661. 
Razovski, Cecilia. 

Eternal masculine, the. 117. 

Lesson for teacher, 361. 

Season of love, the, 337. 
Real estate and industrial hygiene, 206. 
Reconstruction. 

Europe, chart, 22, 23. 

National Institute of Social Sciences, 466. 
Recreation. 

Camps. 159. 

Militarism in. 385. 

Providence, R. L, 648. 

Soldiers in France. 286. 

Training camps, 127. 
Red Cross, 469. 

American in Europe, organisation, 183. 

American work in France (Kellogg), 181, 217, 
282, 320. 

American work in free Belgium between the 
front and the sea (Kellogg), Supplement to 
March 30 issue. 

Banner (verse), 13. 

Belgium, 600. 

Bureau of Refugees, 23. 

Christmas drive for membership, 292. 

Christmas seal (verse), 216. 

Directors of civilian relief, 76. 

France, 475. 

Halifax relief, etc.. 305. 307, 360. 

Halifax work, 675. 



Index 



Home service, 188, 397, 459, 631. 

Home service booklet, 722. 

Home service institutes in Indiana, 720. 

Italy, [274], 286. 

Italv ; after-care for Invasion (Kellogg), 649. 

Italv, work in (Kellogg), 481, 519, 537, 5o5. 

Knitting for, 331. 

Men wanted in France 474. 

School children and, 579. 

Service flag, 347. 

Tuberculosis work in France", 600. 

Verses by O. R. H. Thomson, 40. 

Work on the western front, value, 697. 
Red light. Sec Prostitution. 
Redfern, Percy, 420. 
Reece, R. J., 231. 
Reed, Anna Y. Seattle newsboys (letter ana 

reply), 665. 
Reed College, Oregon, 598. 
Reformatories, farm villages (George), 120. 
Refugess. Sec under France ; Italy ; Red Cross 
Relief. 

Chicago, 324. 

Civilian, Red Cross directors, 76. 

Civilian in France, 722. 

England, 563. 

In disasters, 307. 

Jewish, 636. 

Smith College unit in France, 142, 594. 

Wages given, 578. 
Religion. 

Disloyalty and, 712. 

Politics, 176. 
Renaudel, 622. 
Rent benefit, [512]. 
Rent courts, 100. 

Representation. See Proportional representa- 
tion. 
Reserve Officers' Training Camp, 324. 
Revolution of the world. 661. 
Reynolds, W. S., 153, 722. 
Ribbon, 334. 
Richards, Tom, 648. 
Rimini, 485, 649, 651, 652. 
Rio de Janeiro, 77. 

View, [382]. 
Rist, Surgeon-Major, 85, 229, 230, 234. 
Robinson, C. M., 422. 
Robinson, J. H. 53. 
Rochester. 

Community Thanksgiving, 334. 

Milk distribution, 293, 294. 
Rockefeller, J. D., Jr., 14. 
Rockefeller Commission, 218. 
Rockefeller Foundation, work In France, 600. 
Rockefeller Plan, two years of, 14. 
Roden, C. B., 659. 
Rome, 649, 653. 
Roosevelt Theodore, 722. 

On the Mooney case, 349, 498. 
Roscoe, Theodore, 395. 
Rose. W. C. Letter on the war and paclfiists, 

151. 
Ross, E. A., 311. 

Ross, Mary. New faces for old, 707. 
Rotzel, H. L., 552. 
Routzahn, E. G. and Mary S., 401. 
Rubinow, I. M. Review of Blanchard's Liability 

and Compensation Insurance, 149. 
Rural life. Sec Country. 
Russell, Bertrand, [560]. 
Russell Sage Foundation, 307. 
Russia. 

Food not vodka, 352. 

Messages sent from America, 633. 

Peace offer of Trotzky, 251.. 

Social relief, 247. 
Russians in Bridgeport, 296. 

S 

Sabotage, 35, 146. 

Sachs, Elinor. Sec Winkler, H»len, and Elinor 

Sachs. 
Sacramento, city plan, 667. 
Safety Congress, New York state, 371. 
Sage, H. M., 187. 
Sailors. 

Great Lakes, 52. 

See also Soldiers. 
St. Louis. 

Home charities, 334. 

Milk, 334 

Policewomen, 474. 

Race adjustment plan, 690. 

Women conductors, 561. 
St. Paul, Minn. 

Central Council of Welfare Agencies, 720. 

Housing, 421. 

Street-car service, 359. 

Welfare agencies, [512]. 
Salem, Mass., 307. 
Salesmanship, 469. 
Saloon. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Salt Lake City, 599. 
Salvage, 495. 
Salvation army. 

American Soldiers abroad, work for, 23. 

France and Britain, war work In, 23. 
San Francisco. 

Bomb case, 28 ; See also Mooney case. 

Fire, 307. 
Sanatoriums. tuberculosis, 165. 
Sandige, J. R„ 63. 
Sanitation. 

Australia, 167. 



Camp Bowie, 400. 

Rio de Janeiro, [382]. 
Saposs, D. J., 371. 
Savoy Hotel conference, 449. 
Saxony, [512]. 
Scammell, E. N., 325. 
Schneider, Franz, Jr. Review of books on milk, 

72. 
Schneider, Herman, 576. 
School children and good causes, 579. 
School keeping, 12. 
School Peace League. See American School 

Peace League. 
School superintendents' salaries, 636. 
Schoolhouses, rural insanitary, 100. 
Schools. 

Backward pupils, 423. 

Boy and green Gary frog, 131. 

Children of Hildesheim, 389. 

China. 313. 

Disloyalty In New York city, 250. 

Giving the teachers a voice, 279. 

Government lesson leaflets on patriotism, etc., 
50. 

Government policies in war time (Claxton), 
626. 

Immigrants, 462. 

Japan, 175. 

Montevideo, [382]. 

Myths in keeping, 12. 

Night, 361. 

Shop competing with, 292. 
Working double shift, 49. 
Schwab. C. M., 576, 661. 
Schweinitz, Karl de, [560], 722. 

Tammany by default, 162. 
Scientific spirit and social work, 490. 
Scotland, housing, 467. 
Scott, Elmer. Child welfare exhibit material 

wanted (letter), 424. 
Scrap metal, 468. 
Sea View Farms, 643. 
Seager, H. R., 76. 
Sears, Roebuck & Co., 412. 
Seattle, 599. 

Bolsheviki, ship. 465. 

Clergyman on the I. W. W. (letter), 299. 

Newsboys (letter), 665. 
Secret societies, international league, 334. 
Sectarianism, public money and, 176. 
Seligman, I. N., 77. 
Senter, Augusta. For deafenetl soldiers (letter), 

150. 
Separation allowance's, 173. 
Serbia, future, 499. 
Serbian refugees (poster), 499. 
Settlements. 

Mansfield House, 714. 

Questionnaire, 648. 
Seymour, Gertrude. 

Health of soldier and citizen in Europe, 227. 

Review of Eder's War Shock, 573. 

Review of Medical books, 170. 

Venereal disease in Europe, 363. 
Shaker colonies, 325. 
Sharp, Ambassador, 331. 
Shaw, M. R., 499. 
Sheep in national parks, 474. 
Slunton. H. N., 429. 
Sheridan Square, 246. 
Shideler. E. H., 635. 
Shilka (ship), 465. 
Shillady, J. R., 468, 502. 

Review of Mills's Contemporary Theories of 
Unemployment and Unemployment Relief, 
470. 
Shinn, Anne O'H. Where Barrow street and 

Bleecker meet, 245. 
Ship at Seattle, Bolsheviki, 465. 
Shippen, E. R., 351. 
Shipping. 

Lakes welfare plan, 52. 

Longshoremen and, 49. 

Strike settlement, 174. 
Shipping Board, housing, 399. 
Shipyard workers, housing, 399, 552, 648. 
Shirley, Mass., 325. 
Shoddy, 468. 

Shop early (cartoon), 145. 
Sickness. See Health ; Health Insurance. 
Simkhovitch. Marv K., 246, 247. 

Election, 160, 176. 
Sing Sing, demolition begun, 186. 
Six-hour day, 411. 
Sleighton Farm School. 334. 
Small nations, 137, 139. 

League, 76. 

Rights (Borah's resolution), 550. 
Smillie, Robert. British miners and the war, 

679. 
Smith, F. B., 71. 
Smith, Dr. John A., 325. 
Smith, Rev. Paul. 350. 
Smith, Stephen, [560]. 

Smith College Relief unit for France, 142, 594. 
Social control, 416. 
Social efficiency, 344. 
Social hygiene, 373. 

American Association, 99. 

Texas Society, 127. 
Social insurance, [512]. 
Social organizations, where's the money coming 

from? 36. 
Social problems, war-time (Ietfer), 301. 
Social publicity. See Publicity. 
Social sanitarium, 121. 



Social Sciences, National Institute, 460 
Social sciences, societies of, 416. 
Social service. 

Alameda county, Cal., survey, 599. 

Christian pioneers in, 111. 

Collegiate experiment in France, 142, 594. 

Long distance, 124. 

Medical 675. 

School and city cooperating, 469. 

Trend, 339. 
Social Service Commission, 111. 
Social Service Plattsburg, [512]. 
Social surveys. 

Kansas cities, 429. 

"On high" 659. 
Social tragedy, a, 367. 
Social unit plan, 550. 
Social welfare. 

China (Burgess) 311. 

Florida program, 598. 

Pennsylvania conference, 342. 

Wartime bibliography, 94-96. 100-101, 287-289, 
301, 441-443, 570-572, 682-684. 
Social work. 

China 41. 

France, 52. 

National Conference of, 339. 

Scientific spirit and, 490. 

Spain, 504. 
Social workers. 

New York School of Philanthropy, 331. 

Prohibition and, 687. 

Protective officers for girls, 465. 

War-time course in New York, 429. 
Social Workers' Exchange, 301. 
Social-economic research, fellowship, 648. 
Socialism, Babson, R. W., on (letter and note), 

639. 
Socialists. 

Belgian, 622. 

German, 661. 

New York election and, 144-145. 

Party strength and vote In New York (letter), 
299. 

Staff of the Masses arrested, 207. 

Swedish, 687. 
Sociological Congress, Southern, 429. 
Soldiers. 

Allowances, administering, 173. 

American in France, 331. 

Canadian cripples, 105. 

Deafened, 150. 

For their dependents (letters), 424. 

Gifts by women in England and France, 
[274]. 

Girls and women, protective measures, 236, 
323, 331, 465. 

Health in Europe, 227. 

Hospitals for American, 253. 

Insurance, 643. 

Insurance for expiring, 498. 

Insurance, applications, [512]. 

Mental tests, 51. 

Music, 3, 21. 

New faces for old, 707. 

Plan for blinded, 352. 

Preventable disease in camps, 371. 

Psychological examination, 174. 

Re-education, 599. 

Social hygiene. 99. 

Stammering, 450. 

Uniforms, manufacture, 205. 

Venereal disease in Europe, 363. 

Widows in Saxony. [512]. 

Y. W. C. A. protecting women from, 323. 

See also Army ; Camps ; Cantonments. 
Soldiers and sailors' insurance law, 39. 

See also Insurance ; Soldiers. 
Solvay Process Company, 65, 412. 
Somme River, 594. 
Songs. 

Forum, 648. 

See also Music. 
Sonyea, 325. 

Sorrow, human, cover of February 2 issue. 
South America, child life, 383. 
South Carolina, social "war program," 659. 
South End House, Boston, 639. 
Southern Sociological Congress, 429. 
Southern (ship), 402. 
Sower; Reaper; Gleaners (cartoons after 

Millet), 714. 
Spain. 

Social reformer, 643. 

Social work, 504. 

War and. 633. 
Spalding, F. S.. 254. 
Spaulding, F. E., 281. 

Spencer, Anna G. Review of Quinn's The Prob- 
lem of Human Peace, 201. 
Spiritual unity, 357. 

Sprague, Anne M. Letter commending the Sur- 
vey, 298. 
Stammering, 450. 
Star in the East (cartoon), 349. 
State taxation. 710. 
Statistics, 418. 
Stead, F. H., 648. 
Steel industry, 495. 
Sterilization of criminals, 206. 
Stern, Ren6e B. Long distance social service, 

124. 
Stoddard, Cora F. "Grain for Britain's beer" 

(letter), 552. 
Stokes, J. G. Phelps. Socialist vote (letter), 

299. 



Index 



XI 



Stokes, Rose P., arrest, 711. 
Stonaker C. L., 598. 
Storey, Moorfield, 137, 186. 
Street, Elwood, [274] 

Where's the money coming from I 36. 
Street railways. 

Twin City 359. 

See also Conductoring for women. 
Street trades in Chicago, 203. 
Streightoff, F. H., 698. 
Strengthen America Campaign, 292. 
Strike. 

Arizona settlement, 174. 

Shipping settlement, 174 

Wartime, reason, 710. 
Strong, Anna L., 465. 

"Subscriber". Letter commending the Sur- 
vey, 298. 
Sullivan, O. M., 291, 720. 
Supreme Court. 

Negro segregation decision, 185. 

West Virginia mine workers^ 348. 
Surgery and war wounds, 50, 707. 

SURVEY, the. e-.g 

Acknowledgments, subscriptions, etc., oi»- 
549. 

Criticized for pacifism, 688. 

Letters of commendation, 150. --"f- o j> - <><?'*• 
Survey Associates, annual re port financial 

statement, announcements, etc., 190-199. 
Sustentation funds for the ministry, 98, 298. 
Suzzallo, Henry, 281. 
Swartz, Nelle. 

-Help wapted, 6,7. 
Sweariogen, V. C., [512J. 
Swedish Socialists, 68 1. 
Swift, W. B., 451. 
Switzerland, military prisoners, 660. 
Swords and plowshares, 513. 
Sylvester, Irene. Review of Rhodes's Work- 

'nun's Compensation, 46. 
Syphilis. See Venereal diseases. 
Syrians, plight, 128. 



Tacoma, milk, 331. 

Taft, W. H., 643. 

Tallant, Alice W., 142. 

Tammany, 144, 425, 427, 451, 553, 554. 604. 

By default with campaign documents, 162. 

Tiger cartoon, 160. 
Tao, Professor, 44. 
Taxation, state methods, 710. 
Taylor, Graham 

Matthiessen, F. W. — a trustee for democracy, 
654. 

Review of Melish's Franklin Spencer Spald- 
ing — Man and Bishop, 254. 

Social Christianity honors its pioneers, 111. 
Teachers. 

Lesson for, 361. 

New York City, 250. 

Unionization, 330. 

Voice in School work, 279. 
Teaching, a sweated trade? 636. 
Tead, Ordway. Review of Thompson's The 

Theory and Practice of Scientific Manage- 
ment, 525. 
Temperance. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Tennessee. 

Law and Order League, 690. 

Negroes burned (cartoon), 602. 
Texas. 

Social hygiene society, 127. 

State Board of Health, 400. 
Textbooks, acceptance by teachers, 720. 
Thanksgiving, Rochester, 334. 
Theological schools and the war, 374. 
Thomas, Albert, 625. 

Thompson, C. D. Public ownership, 342. 
Thomson, O. R. H. The Red Cross (verse), 40. 
Thorne, C. H., 153. 
Thrift. 293. 

Books on 72-74. 
"Tiger's prey" (cartoon), cover of January 19 

issue. 
Tildslay. J. L., 250, 279. 
Tillett, Ben, 334. 
Tilton, Elizabeth, 294. 

Drink in France. 112. 

Drink in France (letter to E. de Billy), 329. 

Maine going dry (letter), 151. 

Tolstoy on Russia, 352. 

What Col. Azan said (letter), 555. 

W T here is J. B. now? 664. 
Todd, A. J., [512]. 

The scientific spirit and social work, 490. 
Tolstoy. Count, 352. 
Tompkins, Ernest, 450. 
Tooth-brush in rural school, [274]. 
Toronto, charity 'ederation, 448. 
Town government, changes in Massachusetts, 

[274]. 
Towne, A. W. France adopts her war orphans, 

7. 
Towns and war industries (letters), 640. 
Townslev, A. C, 295. 
Toxic "jaundice, 168. 
Tracv, R. E.. [512]. 
Trade unionism, 359, 399. 

Postal employes, 350. 

St. Louis women conductors, 561. 

Supreme court on, 348. 
Training camp commissions. 3. 
Training station at Newport, 473. 
Trammell-Keating bill. 630. 



"Trench fever" and "trench foot," 231. 

Tri-City high school, 654. 

Trolley girls, 527, 561. 

Trotaky, Leon, 251, 465. 

Troy, N. Y., 648. 

Tsu, Y. Y., 311. 

Tuberculosis. 

American Red Cross work in France, 218. 

Berlin, 474. 

Camps and homes, 24. 

Christmas ribbon, 334. 

Criticism of sanatoria, 165. 

Drafted men, [512]. 

Edinburgh University, 474. 

France (poster), 219. 

France, cheerful campaign, 600. 

Increase in war time, 635. 

National Association, announcement form, 
126. 

Savoy Hotel conference, 449. 
Tuberculosis Day, [2i'4j. 
Tucker, W. J., 111. 
Tuskegee conference, [512]. 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co., 359. 
Typhus in Petrograd, [512]. 
Tyriugham, Mass., 325. 



U 
Unemployment, 701. 

By fiat (Garfield's order), 464. 

Danger, 323. 
Uniforms, manufacture, 205, 497. 
United Mine Workers, 14. 

West Virginia case, 348. 
United States Boys' Working Reserve, 704. 
United States Department of Labor. See Labor. 
U. S. S. Southery, 402. 
United States Steel Corporation, 464. 
Uruguay, 384. 

See also Montevideo. 



Van-Astor Co., 502. 
Van Kleeck, Mary, 576. 
Vanderlip, F. A., 293. 
Vanderveide, Eniile, 622. 
Vaughan, G. E., 334. 
Veblen, Thorstein, 466. 
Veiller, Lawrence, 611. 
Venereal diseases. 

District of Columbia, 648. 

France (letter), 300. 

Massachusetts State Department of Health, 
603. 

Soldiers in Europe, 363. 
Venice, 482, 649, 650, 651, 652. 

Two days in (Kellogg), 537, 565. 
Vera Cruz, eight-hour day, 372. 
Vermont, war and conscience, 551, 712. 
Verse. 

Deaf mute, the (Mastin), F64. 

Donkey and zebra, [274]. 

Home service visitor (Woodberry), 656. 

Martin Luther to Karl Liebknecht (Eliot), 
350. 

Municipal lodging house, 362. 

Negro to America, a (Johnson), 709. 

Park, the (Benjamin), 116. 

Red Cross, the (Thomson). 40. 

Red Cross banner (Woodberry), 13. 

Red Cross Christmas seal (Garrison), 216. 

When there is peace (Dobson), 140. 
Vice. 

China, 314 

Property for immoral purposes, [560]. 

See also Prostitution. 
Victor-American Fuel Co., 14. 
Vocational education. 

Europe, 125. 

Re-education of soldiers, 599. 
Vocational Education Association, 529. 
Vocational Guidance, Bureau of, 294. 
Vodka, 352. 
Voice training, 450. 
Voters, first aid to new, 275. 



W 
Wages. 

Collective bargaining, 316. 

Embargo on fuel and, 464. 

Giving for relief, 578. 

Great Britain, agriculture, 474. 

Hours and, 494. 

New method of fixing, 411, 474 (correction). 

Prisoners', 341. 
Wagner, A. H. _.. 428. 

Wagner, Charles. Unto us a child is born, 215. 
Wagner bill. 629, 630. 

Waite, E. F. Bov "convicts" (letter), 425. 
Wald, Lillian D. Review of Blackwell's The 

Little Grandmother of the Russian Revolu- 
tion, 637. 
Waldron, C. H., 551. 712. 
Wallace, R. S., 127. 
Walling, W. E., 688. 
Wallstein. L. M., 643. 
Walsh. Elizabeth S. Keeping mothers and 

babies together. 123. 
Walsh, F. P., 643. 
War, the 

British miners, 679. 

Christian unity and, 357. 

Civilian workers, 351. 

Economic conditions and, 344. 



Health in spite of and because of, 84. 

Housing workers, 83. 

Prohibition, 498. 

Reconstructing men in Chicago, 176. 

Religious conviction and, 551. 

Respousibility (letter), 151. 

Schools and, government policy, 626. 

Settlements and, 648. 

Spain and, 633. " 

Strikes, reason for, 71u. 

Towns and cuanging industries (letter), 640. 

Tuberculosis increase, 635. 

Vocational education and, 529. 

Women workers and, 628. 
War aims, 439. 
War bread wagon, 67. 
War camp community recreation, 15'J. 
War charities, merging, 528. 
War-contract plants, housing workers, 83. 
War cripples. See Cripples. 
War finance, 710. 
War finance conference, 251. 
War orphans. 

France adopts, 7. 

Poster of Auglay's, cover of October 6 issue. 
War plants, housing for workers, 177. 
War relief. 

Bazars for, 252. 

Russia, 247. 

See also France, Italy, etc. 
War risk insurance, 188. 

War-savings, stamps and certificates, [274], 293. 
Washington, D. C. 

Occowan jail, 602. 

Standard of living, 68. 
Washington's Birthday, singular celebration, 

578. 
Waste material 495. 
Watervliet, 325. 

Watson, Amey E. Keview of Humphrey's Man- 
kind, 445. 
Way, Agnes C. Episcopal fund (letter), 298. 
Weinberg, Israel, 712. 
Welborn, J. F., 14. 
Welch, Virginia L., 568. 
Welding plot, 63. 
Welfare work. 

Japanese railway, 544. 

Sailors on the GreaJ Lakes, 52. 

See also Social weffare. 
Well Hall, 391, 393, 395. 
Weller, C. F. Review of Curtis's The Play 

Movement and Its Significance, 716. 
Wells, H. W., 706. 
West Virginia mine workers and United States 

Supreme Court, 348. 
Westchester County, N. Y., children, 468. 
Westchester County Conference of Charities 

and Corrections, 155. 
Westchester County Penitentiary, 125. 
Western front, Value of Red Cross work, 697. 
Western Reserve University, 469. 
Wevill, R. H. Profits from grief (letter), 473. 
Whalen, John, 280. 
Wharton, Edith, 2±8. 
Whitaker, C. H., 83. 
White Motor Co., 317. 
Whitman, J. L., 153. 495. 
Wilder (A. H.) Charity, [512]. 
Willard, Marv H„ 285. 
Williams, J. E., 428. 
Wilson, G. o., 603. 
Wilson, President, 439. 

Address to labor at Buffalo, 173. 

Captain Courageous (cartoon), 588. 

Letter on labor of women and children, 
cover of January 12 issue. 

Message to Congress, 290. 

Message to farmers, 513. 

Regulations for treating conscientious ob- 
jectors, 711. 

Universal military training, 660. 
Wilson, W. B., 291, 464, 575. 
Wilson, W. II. Review of Foght's The Rural 

Teacher and His Work, 639. 
Wing, F E.. [560]. 
Wingdale, 187. 

Winkler, Helen. Laggards at night school, 462. 
Winkler, Helen, and Elinor Sachs. Testing 

immigrants (letter), 152. 
Winslow, C.-E. A. Problems of Social relief In 

Russia, 247. 

Review of Whipple's State Sanitation, 661. 
Winslow, Erving. Social problems in time of 

war (letter), 301. 
Winsor, Mary, 602. 
Witte, E. E. Review of Freund's Standards of 

American Legislation, 45. 
Wolman, Samuel. Tuberculosis sanatoria, 165. 
Woman in common council, 648. 
Woman Suffrage, [434]. 

Aid to voters, 275. 

Congress and, 290. 

Industry and, 344. 

New York and Ohio (cartoons). 161. 

New York and Ohio results, 144. 
Woman's Peace Party, annual meeting, 343. 
Women. 

Aid to voters, 275. 

Automobile drivers. 474. 

Brown bill, [512], 629. 

Conductors, 527, 561, 677. 

Crime among, 373. 

Farming, 515. 

Federal control of work, 72. 

Gifts to soldiers, [274]. 

Government employes, 576. 



XII 



Index 



Great Britain, political party formed, 204. 

Municipal platform in Chicago. 278. 

New York legislature and labor bills, 714. 

Night work, 335. 

Partv politics and, 204. 

Philippine clubs in food campaign, 678. 

Physicians in Japan, [434], 

Political appointments, 429. 

Protection from soldiers in war-time, 2.50, 
323, 331. 

Protection in industries, 452. 

Service on state" boards, [274]. 

Teaching American standards to foreigners, 
117. 

War and workers, 628. 
Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 

Boston, 648. 
Women's Trade Union League, 452. 
Women's University Club, New York, food 

salvage, 71. 
Wood, Derwent, 707. 



Woodberry, Laura G. 

Home service visitor (verse), 656. 
Red Cross banner (verse), 13. 

Woods, R. A", 177. 

Trend of social service, 339. 
Wool, Italy's need, 521. 
Woolley, Celia P., 722. 
Woolston, H. B. Review of White and Heath's 

A New Basis for Social Progress. 716. 
Workmen's compensation. 

Explosions, 422. 

Longshoremen, 49. 

World order, Christian, 648. 
World Peace Foundation, 334. 
World politics and labor, 439 
World revolution, 661. 
Worm turned, 10. 
Wounds, new wav of healing, 50. 
Wright, H. C, [434]. 
Wright, Lucy, 675. 



Yerkes, R. M., 51. 

Young, S. G. Daytona Beach forum (letter), 

473. 
Y. M. C. A. 

Compaign success, [274]. 

Campaign to raise 35 million, 146. 

Colorado, 20. 

Music for soldiers, 4, 

War-time crew and work, 357. 
Y. W. C. A. 

Camps, [512]. 

Housing for girl war workers, 658. 

Protecting women in war and army zones, 
323. 

Social life for soldiers, 6. 



Zaneanelli, 15. 
Zionists, 346, 429. 
Zones, cities in France, 99. 
Zoning plans, 344. 



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STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MAN- 
AGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC., REQUIRED 
BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24, 
1912, of the Survey, published weekly at New 
York, N. Y., for October 1, 1917. 

State of New York, County of New York. ss. 
Before me, a notary public in and for the State 
and county aforesaid, personally appeared Arthur 
P. Kellogg, who, having been duly sworn accord- 
ing to law, deposes and says that he is the secre- 
tary of Survey Associates, Inc., publishers of the 
Survey, and that the following is, to the best of 
his knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper), 
the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication 
for the date shown in the above caption, required 
by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in sec- 
tion 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on 
the reverse of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business man- 
agers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 street, New York city; editor, Paul U. 
Kellogg, 112 East 19 street, New York city; man- 
aging editor, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 19 
street. New York city; business managers, none. 
I 2. That the owners are: (Give names and ad- 
dresses of individual owners, or if a corporation, 
give its name and the names and addresses of 
stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or more 
pf the total amount of stock.) Survey Associates, 
Inc.. 112 East 19 street, New York city, a non- 
commercial corporation under the laws of the 
fetate of New York with over 1,000 members. It 
has no stocks or bonds. President, Robert W. de 
Forest, 30 Broad street, New York city; vice- 
president, John M. Glenn, 130 East 22 street, New 
York city; treasurer, Frank Tucker, 346 Fourth 
Avenue, New York city; secretary, Arthur P. 
Kellogg, 112 East 1' street, New York city. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and 
other security holders owning or holding 1 per 
cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, 
Ir other securities are: (If there are none, so 
State.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, "stockholders, and security 
holders, if any, contain not only the list of stock- 
holders and security holders as they appear upon 
the books of the company but also, in cases where 
the stockholder or security holder appears upon the 
books of the company as trustee or in any other 
fiduciary relation, the name of the person or cor- 
poration for whom such trustee is acting, is given; 
also that the said two paragraphs contain state- 
ments embracing affiant's full knowledge and belief 
af to the circumstances and conditions under which 
stockholders and security holders who do not ap- 
pear upon the books of the company as trustees, 
hold stock and securities in a capacity other than 
that of a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no 

I reason to believe that any other person, associa- 
f Hon, or corporation has any interest direct or in- 

Krect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities 

:han as so stated by bun. 

5. That the average number of copies of each 
I ssue of this publication sold or distributed, through 
| he mails or otherwise, to paid subscribers during 

he six months preceding the date shown above 
s — . (This information is required from daily 
; mblications only.) [Signed] Arthur P. Kellogg, 
| lec'y Survey Associates, Inc. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 19th 
I lay of September, 1917, Fanny D. Marks. My 
I commission expires March 30, 1919. 
I Note. — This statement must be made in dupli- 
I ate and both copies delivered by the publisher to 
1 he postmaster, who shall send one copy to the 
I Third Assistant Postmaster General (Division of 
I riassification), Washington, D. C, and retain the 
I 'ther in the files of the post office. The publisher 
fnust publish a copy of this statement in the second 
I ssue printed next after its filing. 



THE SURVEY 

Contents for October 6, 19 17 
Vol. XXXIX No. 1 

THE WORK OF THE TRAINING 

CAMP COMMISSIONS 3 

By Joseph Lee 

FRANCE ADOPTS HER WAR OR- 
PHANS 7 

By Arthur W. Toivne 

BACK AND FORTH TO MEXICO.. 9 
By J. B. Givin 

AND THE WORM TURNED 10 

By Gertrude E. Hall 

SOME MYTHS IN SCHOOL-KEEP- 
ING 12 

By Albert J. Levine 

THE RED CROSS BANNER, A POEM 13 

By Laura G . Woodherry 

TWO YEARS OF THE ROCKE : 

FELLER PLAN 14 

By John A. Fitch 

THE COMMON WELFARE 

No Place in Great Britain for Idlers.. 21 

The Men Who Lead the Camps in Song 21 

A Plan for Rebuilding Europe 23 

The Salvation Army at the Front 23 

Red Cross Plans for the Refugees.... 23 

The Children's Bureau on Defectives. ... 23 

Tuberculosis in Camps and Homes.... 24 

Babies in War-Time and After 27 

Industrial Unrest to be Studied Again.. 28 

To Make Hallowe'en Safe and Sane. ... 30 

ON GROWING OLDER 

With the beginning of Volume 39 this 
week, the Survey may fairly claim to be 
grown up. It brings an experienced point 
of view to bear on events. And it does this, 
we verily believe, without loss of the vision 
or the high enthusiasms of youth or of 
youth's warm welcome to the new and the 
experimental. 

In this new volume we shall go on, as in 
the past, finding our material for discussion 
in the social work and social thought of 
the whole country, with frequent trips abroad 
in the stimulating company of the army sani- 
tarians, the Red Cross agents and the grow- 
ing body of social workers in Paris — a score 
of them already — who are laying the founda- 
tions on which to rebuild the social and 
economic life of the stricken peoples of 
northern France and Belgium; later, of Po- 
land and other near-eastern parts. 



Salt Mackerel 

CODFISH, FRESH LOBSTER 



FOR THE \ 
CONSUMER 




FOR YOUR OWN TABLE 



FAMILIES who are fond of FISH can be supplied 
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FRANK E. DAVIS COMPANY, with newly caught. 
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ready for instant use. It makes a substantial meal, 
a line change from meat, at a much lower cost. 

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salads. Right fresh from the water, our lobsters 
6imply are boiled and packed in PARCHMENT- 
LINED CANS. They come to you as the purest 
and safest lobsters you can- buy and the meal is as 
crisp and natural as if you took it from the shell 
yourself. 

FRIED CLAMS is a relishable, hearty dish, that 
your whole family will enjoy. No other flavor is 
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FRESH MACKEREL, perfect for frying, SHRIMP 
to cream on toast, CRABMEAT for Newburg or 
daviled, SALMON ready to serve, SARDINES of all 
kinds, TUNNY for salad, SANDWICH FILLINGS 
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PALDING PLAY APPARATUS 

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Catalog Sent on Request 



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THE WORD OF THE TRUTH 

A Harmony of the Whole Gospel in the simple 
sense in which it was first understood- You 
see the teaching of Jesus clearly, and see 
it whole. A manual of sensible and practical 
religion. Sent postpaid for $1; or, description 
on request. 

The Truth Publishing Foundation, Eufaula, Ala. 



SECOND EDITION— REVISED 

The Normal Life 

By 
Edward T. Devine 

Adopted as a text-book in Red Cross and 
university classes and in schools for training 
social workers. 

Price, $1.25 By Mail, $1.35 of 

THE SURVEY 

112 East 19 Street, New York 



The Social Side of Camp Life 

Photographs by the Playground and Recreation Association of America 




Just Like a Sunday Afternoon at Home, Except for 

the Uniforms. Many Homes Are Thus Opened to the 

Boys in All the Training Camps 




Another View of the Same Party. This and the Three 

Surrounding Photographs Are from the Vicinity of Ft. 

Oglethorpe, Ga.. near Chattanooga, Term. 





Singing Outdoors with the Hand and a Phonograph for 
Accompaniment. A Flashlight at Ft. Oglethorpe 



Saturday Nig'ht Social at One of the Chattanooga Churches. 
Hundreds of the Soldiers .Attend Every Week 




Singfcst of the Enlisted Men's Club at the Recreation 
Room of the Lutheran Church, Gettysburg, Pa. 




Weekly Vaudeville Performance by Soldiers and Civilians 
at St. Xavier's Hall, Gettysburg 



I 




The Training Camp Commissions 

By Joseph Lee 

PRESIDKNT PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 



FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED gave as his opin- 
ion, formed through his long and effective service 
with the sanitary commission during the Civil War, 
that the two things that did most to keep the soldiers 
well were music and letters from home. Letters from home, 
or at least letters to home, are among the things for which 
the training-camp commissions are making special provision, 
principally through the Young Men's Christian Association ; 
and singing, both by the soldiers and by the people of the 
neighboring communities, has also been promoted, with re- 
sults indicated by the following letters from two of the field 
secretaries of the Playground and Recreation Association of 
America, which has charge of the community work. Indeed, 
the maintaining of home relations, and of the other loyalties 
in which our life so largely consists, may be said to be the lead- 
ing purpose of both commissions. 
My Dear Chief: 

Enclosed find songs for Syracuse Mobilization Camp. 
Between five and six thousand eager men participated with the 
Community Chorus in the most inspiring evening I have ever 
enjoyed. When everybody sang the Battle Hymn of the Republic, 
and Harry Barnhart got the soldiers emphasizing Glory! Glory! 
Hallelujah! His Truth Is Marching On! you should have seen the 
faces glowing under the lights. The camp became inspired. The 
men cheered and cheered. Then the southern boys called for Carry 
Me Back to Old Virginny and My Old Kentucky Home. Then we 
sang a Perfect Day and My Hero. Then they called for Old Black 
Joe. In the chorus of Old Black Joe — ''I'm coming, I'm coming, for 
my head is bending low! I hear those gentle voices calling, Old 
Black Joe!" Barnhart made the men hold on to "Joe" and the 
chorus echoed Old Black Joe. The harmony was wonderful. At the 
conclusion automobiles way out on the road tooted their horns and it 
was ten minutes before the enthusiasm subsided. We sang from 
8:00 o'clock until 10:00 and ended with the Star Spangled Banner. I 
have never heard this song SUNG before. The commanding officer 
came forward after the singing and said it was the greatest thing 
he had ever listened to. He emphasized to the members of the 
chorus their opportunity for service to the men and how at no distant 
day when the watchfires are burning in France and the men sur- 
rounded by strange tongues, these home songs will be the officers' 
stand-by; how they will help to put life and energy in the tired 
hearts and muscles. 

A campaign is being waged to enlarge the chorus and to include 
many more singing societies. Barnhart was cheered to the echo. 
The men unanimously voted that they wanted the chorus every 
Thursday. This morning several commissioned officers phoned to 
the hotel telling me how much they appreciated this activity. 

Always sincerely, 

Spencer R. Gordon. 
Syracuse Hospitality' Committee 
Office Public Library 

The Survey, October 6, 1917, Volume 39, 



Dear Mr. Braucher: 

I hasten to tell you of the most inspiring sight I have ever wit- 
nessed and the greatest occasion of its kind ever staged in America. 

This afternoon fully twelve thousand people assembled at the 
stadium of Drake University for a community sing, headed by three 
military bands and led by Dean Holmes Cowper of Drake Univer- 
sity. After singing America and the Battle Hymn of the Republic a 
military quartette from the Negro officers' reserve training camp 
sang I Want to Be Ready, and Couldn't Hear Nobody Pray. Imme- 
diately afterward twelve hundred Negro soldiers marched into the 
stadium under command of Col. Ballou, U. S. A. The applause was 
deafening and after a demonstration of marching and manual of 
arms three hundred men stepped to the center of the field. Soon 
the melody of Swing Low, Sweet Chariot was holding the vast 
audience entranced. The deep, rich and high-pitched voices carried 
to all parts of the stadium. Shouting All Over God's Heaven was 
even more wonderful in effect, while Tipperary quite carried the 
audience away. 

The ceremony of raising and lowering the flag was wonderful as 
the twelve thousand people arose and sang The Star Spangled 
Banner. The program lasted for an hour and a half and from the 
appreciation expressed Des Moines will be glad for the repetition 
of such events. Colonel Roosevelt, who had been invited to be 
present, found it impossible to come. 

The Negroes regard the event of this training camp as the greatest 
in the life of the race since the Emancipation Proclamation, and as 
such the people of Des Moines were glad to give recognition. This 
occasion has had the desired effect of an increased regard for the 
ability of the Negro soldier and an appreciation of his service to the 
country. 

I suggested the community sing and secured the consent of the 
military authorities while a local organization known as The White 
Sparrows led by Dean Cowper, carried out the program. 

We have arranged for more of these in September. 

Sincerely, 

R. A. Patin. 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

This chorus work is done by men selected from among our 
great national song leaders sent by the secretary of war's com- 
mission to the various camps. Not all the camps have yet 
been covered, but the number of leaders is being increased. 
They will soon, we hope, include Rodeheaver. whose services 
— between drives against an older and, some people say, a less 
scrupulous enemy than Germany — have been offered by Billy 
Sunday. 

The value of the singing has been recognized by many of the 
camp commanders and its effects are already beginning to 
justify Olmsted's opinion. 

Besides stimulating chorus singing the commissions are get- 
ting up organ recitals, band concerts, singing by glee clubs 
and other forms of musical entertainment, both by the soldiers 
No. 1. 112 East 19 Street, New York city 3 



THE SURFEY FOR OCTOBER 6 , i g 17 



and by others for their benefit. But music is only one of very 
many things that they are doing. Their membership, by the 
way, is as follows: Secretary of War's Commission on 
Training Camp Activities: Raymond B. Fosdick, chairman; 
Lee F. Hanmer, Thomas J. Howells, Joseph Lee, Malcolm 
L. McBride, John R. Mott, Charles P. Neill, Major P. E. 
Pierce and Joseph E. Raycroft. In addition to these mem- 
bers, two men who are practically members, and who between 
them are doing about half the commission's work, are John S. 
Tichenor, in charge of the Y. M. C. A. activities, and H. S. 
Braucher, secretary of the Playground and Recreation Asso- 
ciation of America, who directs the work in the communities 
outside the camps. Clarence A. Perry, of the Russell Sage 
Foundation, is another by whom some of the commission's 
most important results have been accomplished. 

The Secretary of the Navy's Commission on Training Camp 
Activities consists of : Raymond B. Fosdick, chairman ; Lieut. 
Richard E. Byrd, U. S. N., secretary; Clifford W. Barnes, 
Walter Camp, Selah Chamberlain, John J. Eagan, Joseph 
Lee, E. T. Meredith, Barton Myers, Charles P. Neill, Mrs. 



ter, and both commissions are determined to do their part in 
seeing this determination carried out. 

But the negative side of the commissions' work is not the 
biggest nor the most important. These young men in our 
training camps are making every sacrifice. They have left 
their homes, their careers, love and ambition, given up all that 
had hitherto made life worth living, and it is up to us, the 
stay-at-homes, to do our little part, to render their sacrifice 
effective. It is not quite enough that we should barely avoid 
the wholesale propagation among them of physical disease and 
moral deterioration with penalties to be collected from the 
wives and children of such of them as may survive. America 
asks something more than that. The establishment of these 
training camps represents a great educational enterprise. These 
are our national universities for war purposes, schools to 
which the flower of American youth is being sent. It is our 
business to see that these men are turned out stronger in every 
sense — more fit morally, mentally and physically, than they 
have ever been in their lives. Unless that is accomplished it 
will have to be said of America, as of every other nation 








"JUST A SONG AT TWILIGHT— 
Harry Barnhart, leader of the great New York Community Chorus, leading the guardsmen at Van Cortlandt Park, New 

York city, in singing 



Helen Ring Robinson, Mrs. Finley J. Shepard, Mrs. Daisy 
McLaurin Stevens and John S. Tichenor. 

The war commission held its first meeting on April 26, 
the navy commission on July 26. 

The work of these commissions is divided mainly into three 
parts. One part is of a negative sort, namely, to help the 
President and the secretaries of war and of the navy to ex- 
clude vice and drink from the neighborhood of each camp and 
training station. This work is in charge of Mr. Fosdick, the 
chairman of both commissions. It has already resulted in inti- 
mations from the secretary of war to the local authorities in 
the neighborhood of several of the training camps that if they 
did not clean up the camps would be removed- — with prompt 
and salutary results. The matter is always put up in the 
first instance to the local authorities, but if the symptoms pre- 
sented by these do not seem to yield to treatment, the secre- 
tary of war has power under a recent statute to do whatever 
may seem to him necessary to effect the desired results so far 
as prostitution is concerned. 

The authorities at Washington mean business in this mat- 



that has encountered the problem of the training camp, that we 
also have failed in its solution. 

A large piece of the commissions' educational work, com- 
prising most of that within each camp, is carried on by the 
Y. M. C. A. This great organization has been asked to 
render within each camp and training station those services 
which it has performed so successfully in many lands: on the 
Mexican border, in the military and prison camps of Europe 
and of Asia Minor and elsewhere. One of their famous 
huts or recreation buildings is being provided for each brigade 
and for every smaller military or naval station. Each of these 
contains a small library, ample provision for writing letters, 
and a large auditorium in which, besides religious services by 
representatives of all denominations, there is carried out a 
weekly program of lectures, church services, singing, games, 
moving pictures and other recreational and educational activi- 
ties. There are five men in charge of each building, one of 
whom is assigned especially to the development of games and 
athletics, and near every hut you will see basket-ball goals and 
a volley ball net, and usually a place for pitching quoits, indi- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 19 i 7 



eating a fraction of the work of this sort that the association 
is carrying on. 

The war commission is also doing some other things 
inside the camps. It is going to build in each of the larger 
ones a theater which will seat about 3,000, in which the lead- 
ing theatrical men of the country have been interested and in 
which it is being arranged that they will put on some of their 
best plays. 

The American Library Association will at the request of the 
commission put in each of these camps a central library with a 
librarian and with branches in the Y. M. C. A. buildings. 

A very important piece of work, especially in its bearing on 
the future, is a plan for the development of the post exchange, 
which is already being carried out. The post exchange is the 
most interesting social institution of the army. It consists 
primarily of a cooperative store for each regiment, run by the 
men themselves, at which all kinds of small conveniences — 
chocolate, soft drinks, postal cards, base-balls — are sold, the 
profits going to the regiment, to be distributed or to be used in 
further development as the men think best. 



is to develop athletics even beyond what the Y. M. C. A. is 
able to do in connection with its buildings. Dr. Raycroft has 
charge of this work and has got some of the leading college 
athletes of the type that can get everybody doing things into 
some of the officers' training camps. These men are soon to 
be made civilian aids to the commanding officer in charge of 
athletics. The ultimate development which Dr. Raycroft has 
in mind and which I think will come, is that every company 
shall have an officer in charge of games and athletics — pre- 
sumably a lieutenant — and a standardized box in its supply 
tent containing volley-ball, basket-ball and baseball outfits, a 
set of quoits and perhaps a few other articles of virtu. When 
the first set gives out, the post exchange can supply the men 
with the means for its replacement. 

In this connection it is a matter of national congratulation 
that Walter Camp has been appointed on the Navy Training 
Camp Commission and that he is already busy on a hand- 
grenade game. Long and unhappy remembrance of Walter 
Camp leads me and other Harvard men to believe that he 
will be able to develop his game in a way to show interesting 




—WHEN THE LIGHTS ARE LOW" 

Messtime, in the fading light from the sun setting over the Palisades just across the Hudson, is the favorite time for 

singing popular old songs 



Mr. Perry, whose specialty is social centers, and who has 
had experience at Plattsburg, immediately scented the possi- 
bilities in the post exchange, worked out a plan with the aid 
of expert military advice, and submitted it at a meeting of the 
commission, which plan the War Department immediately 
adopted, so that it is now in force. It consists mainly in hav- 
ing the purchasing for all the post exchanges in the country- 
done by the commission itself instead of by each regiment post 
exchange in some haphazard way ; in providing money so that 
the purchases can be made at once instead of waiting until the 
men get their first month's pay ; and in having a post exchange 
officer appointed in each camp and for each army division. 

The expected developments are not all of a business nature. 
The post exchange officer is to be assigned "such other duties 
as the commanding officer may determine" — which means that 
H he is social-minded and the commandant is sympathetic 
with such ideas — as in my experience he always is — there is 
no limit to what he may accomplish in the development of a 
wholesome social and recreational life in his particular camp. 

Another thing the war commission is doing inside the camps 



results. And talking of Yale athletes, the development of 
the post exchange on its business side is being looked after by 
Malcolm L. McBride whose career as football player and 
captain has been to me and others a subject of painful rem- 
iniscence. 

The third principal branch of the commission's work (be- 
sides prevention and activities within the camps) consists of 
the mobilization of the social resources in the neighboring 
communities so as to be of the greatest possible benefit to the 
officers and men. This is the least visible but to my mind — 
though as I am in* charge of it, I am not wholly impartial — 
the most interesting and perhaps the most important part of 
the commissions' work. 

What we are try ing to do may be briefly described as the 
fostering and conservation of the men's natural relations to 
the world outside. The underlying cause of the more flagrant 
evils which have attended the establishment of soldiers' camps 
in this country and in Europe, the real disease of which these 
evils have been the symptoms, has been the result of cutting 
off the men from those relations to home and friends, to 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 19 17 




FOLLOWING THE SONG LEADER 



Men of the Reserv.e Officers Training Camp at Fort Niagara singing as they march. Their schedule has been so full that 
they have had no other time for it. There's no better tonic for lagging feet toward the end of a long hike. A drum major 
of the Civil War has testified that with a fife and drum corps playing a singing march he could carry a regiment a mile 

beyond their usual limit for a day's march. 



church, to employment, to social and business associates of 
which a normal life principally consists, the results including 
not merely vice and its consequences but homesickness, depres- 
sion and a general loss of moral and physical tone. 

One thing we are trying to do is to make it easy for the 
men's friends and families to visit them. We have in the 
communities near each camp a directory made (if not already 
existing), and rendered accessible to the men for the informa- 
tion of their families, showing where good lodgings are to be 
found. 

We have asked the Travelers' Aid Association to meet 
people at the station and help them to find their friends and 
lodging places. We have asked the Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association to start "hostesses' houses," that is to say, 
comfortable rest and reception-rooms where women relatives 
can wait for the men after they have sent for them, and then 
can sit with them round a small table and have dinner or 
afternoon tea. 

And speaking of the Young Women's Christian Association 
— an important and difficult part of our work has been deal- 
ing with the national organizations of various sorts. 

The Y. W. C. A. is not only putting up hostesses' houses 
but it and other organizations are furnishing trained women 
workers who are organizing the girls of each community into 
clubs and otherwise helping in girls' work. This constitutes 
a very important branch of our problem because of the well- 
known tendency of young women to go crazy in the presence 
of a uniform — a tendency which has resulted in very much of 
the evil which has attended the establishment of training 
camps. The girls are being formed into clubs, kept busy over 
Red Cross work, athletics and social recreation of their own, 
and helped to give properly chaperoned dances for the soldiers. 

There are also being established in the neighborhood of 
each camp women patrols of an informal and for the most 
part unnoticeable sort, who by their advice and influence at 



the right moment can, it is believed, do a great deal to keep 
girls from going wrong from mere silliness and lack of reali- 
zation of what they are doing — at least that has been the very 
definite experience in England. , 

But the most important and difficult work is in establishing 
natural social relations between the men in the camps and the 
local community itself. Here a great variety of things are be- 
ing done. In the first place a census is made of the men in 
each camp, usually through the cooperation of the command- 
ing officer, showing their church affiliations, what college and 
college society if any they belong to, and in what fraternity, 
Masonic order or other similar organization they hold a mem- 
bership ; also their preference in games, whether they are mu- 
sical, and what their hobby is. Through this sort of census, 
churches are able to invite soldiers of their respective denomi- 
nations to come and take part in their services, sing in their 
choirs, preach, address their Sunday-school classes or organi- 
zations of boy scouts, and otherwise not merely receive relig- 
ious ministrations but take part as real and active members 
of their respective churches. In the same way college socie- 
ties and lodges have given smoke talks, held dances and re- 
ceptions (which the churches also have done to a notable 
degree), got up athletic contests and generally made the men 
of their respective orders and denominations feel at home. 

We put special accent on the matter of dances and other 
ways for the soldiers and sailors to meet girls under natural 
and wholesome conditions. Personally I believe — and such, 
I think, is the opinion of all the members at least of the army 
commission — that it is better that the soldiers' camps should 
be near fair-sized communities, in spite of the dangers, be- 
cause of the positive advantages of their seeing other people 
and especially girls in a normal and wholesome way. We 
seek to promote health, not merely eliminate disease. 

As to the establishment of intimate social relations between 
the soldiers and the families in the neighboring communities, 



T H E SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6 , 1917 



1 



it has been demonstrated that these will grow if given a fair 
chance and not killed by some injudicious forcing process. 
There has sprung up around the various camps an immense 
amount of taking soldiers home to dinner, and most of it seems 
to have resulted in making them really feel at home. 

The public resources of the communities near the camps 
have been thrown open in the fullest and most cordial way. 
Dozens of ponds and swimming pools and hundreds of shower 
baths have been made available for the soldiers. In a number 
of cases pools have been constructed for their special benefit. 
Country clubs, golf clubs, tennis clubs and public playgrounds 
have sent them special invitations. 

Libraries are being kept open evenings and Sundays for 
their use, and it is astonishing how much reading these men 
will do, the more serious kind of books becoming more popular 
as the period of their service lengthens. The Y. M. C. A. 
finds its French classes well patronized, and we outside work- 
ers have in many cases found the teachers for them — one of the 
many examples of good team play. 

In many places soldiers' clubs have been started. In one 
city the Rotary Club has taken over an old clubhouse, trades- 
people have provided the various furnishings, and it has been 
handed over bodily to be carried on by the soldiers' own rep- 
resentatives. In other instances the top floor of some store 
or office building has been used. In Boston the Y. M. C. A. 
is giving its two upper stories for the use of the soldiers and 
sailors as their private club. In some cases special club build- 
ings are being constructed, either adjoining the camp or in the 
city to which the men naturally gravitate. 

The tendency to "go to town" is very strong because of the 
monotony of camp life. I think that is about the first idea 
any of us would have under a similar experience. And when 
the men get to town there is often nothing much to do and 
no decent place to sleep that they can afford to pay for. That 
is why soldiers' clubs with lodging features are so important in 
the cities near training camps ; they are intended not so much 
to attract the soldiers to town as to give them some place 
to go when they are tired and some place to pass the night. 
. They usually contain provision for pool, billiards, quiet 
games, sometimes a graphophone or victrola, a lunch counter 
(where it is especially important that there should be choco- 
late and other sweets), shower baths— the most valued re- 



source of all — and a place for reading, smoking and writing 
letters. 

This work of precipitating the hospitality of the local com- 
munities in such a way that it shall tell for the greatest benefit 
of the men within the camps, has been assigned by the com- 
mission to the Playground and Recreation Association of 
America and through it to its field secretaries and to H. S. 
Braucher, its chief executive, by whom the work of all these 
secretaries is directed. When one considers that this work is 
now going on in the neighborhood of more than sixty camps 
and that the number will soon be as high as eighty, and that 
some of these camps are placed near great cities and that 
others embrace within the orbit affected a great many different 
communities — the one at Ayer, Mass., with which I am best 
acquainted, requiring special organization in about twenty 
such — one gets some notion of the magnitude of the task in- 
volved. But it is difficult to give an idea of the intricacy and 
infinite detail of this kind of work in each community in 
which it is carried on. It is an impossible sort of thing to 
visualize. Its highest fruit, perhaps, is found where a young 
soldier is sitting by the fire in a country home of people until 
lately strangers to him. The less visible the work has been, 
the more unconscious he and his hostess are of the machinery 
that was set in motion to bring the result about, the more suc- 
cessfully has the work been done. The matter is one of the 
handling of human beings in an intimate and personal way. It 
is an undertaking not lending itself readily to wholesale 
methods and that can hardly be talked about without a viola- 
tion of confidence. 

It is due to cur field secretaries and to Mr. Braucher, their 
trainer and leader in all this work, to say that in the handling 
of this difficult matter they have fairly lived up to the injunc- 
tion which I was once moved to place upon them : "Go forth 
and achieve the impossible as heretofore." 

One of the most inspiring things about this work in commu- 
nities around the camps has been the enthusiasm shown by the 
citizens themselves. The people are fairly falling over each 
other in their anxiety to do the very best they can for these 
young men. The opportunity is great and the responsibility 
commensurate. The first victories of our war can be won 
right here at home. It is the business of the training camp 
commissions to furnish the necessary leadership. 



France Adopts Her War Orphans 

By Arthur JV. Towne 

SUPERINTENDENT BROOKLYN SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO CHILDREN 



FRANCE has recently enacted a law for the adoption 
of all of its "war orphans" as wards of the nation. 
It provides in an ingenious and sympathetic manner 
for their relief, protection, education and moral nur- 
ture throughout minority. The term "war orphan" applies 
to all children whose father or mother or other family sup- 
port has been killed or has been wholly or partly incapacitated 
by wounds or illness contracted or aggravated through the 
war, whether as a military or a civil victim. The children of 
French colonists, as well as those of foreigners enlisted under 
the tricolor for the duration of the war, are included. 

The legislation rests upon the recognition by the nation of 
its supreme indebtedness to those who, in risking everything 
for their country, have cherished the hope that the govern- 
ment would not fail in its moral responsibility of guarantee- 



ing the safety and proper rearing of the children whom they 
have had to leave behind. The law also looks ahead to the 
period of future reconstruction. Sorely stricken, the country 
needs to conserve the rising generation under the most fa- 
vorable conditions to the end that a new France may be 
built up. 

There has been some speculation in our own country as 
to how France would solve its great problem of caring for 
so many bereaved children (estimated at some hundreds of 
thousands) ; as to whether it would probably be chiefly through 
emigration, the establishment of new orphanages, or the use 
of private foster homes. Unquestionably any scheme for the 
wholesale transplanting of French children to other lands 
will be discouraged ; an earnest effort will be made to have 
these French boys and girls grow up and be trained for use- 



s 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 1917 



ful occupations and good citizenship right in their own com- 
munities among their own relatives and friends, just as their 
fathers and mothers would wish to have done. While the 
law leaves it open to utilize both institutional and placing- 
out methods, the committee reports, the debates and the action 
taken show a preference in the Senate and the Chamber of 
Deputies for the natural environment of family homes. 

M. Leon Bourgeois, then secretary of state, introduced in 
the Senate in 1915 a measure embodying most of the salient 
features lately put into statute. His proposals were shortly 
followed by an alternative bill along more conservative lines 
drafted by M. Sarraut, at the time minister of public educa- 
tion. One of the principal points of disagreement and dis- 
cussion had to do with this question : How far should the state 
supervise and control the guardianship of war orphans? M. 
Sarraut favored the internal reform of the traditional judicial 
guardianship (acknowledged by all to be defective in its op- 
erations) and liberal reliance upon the assistance of private 
child-helping agencies, with a minimum of state interference. 
M. Bourgeois stood for a more active social program, in- 
cluding a closer follow-up of the children, and for a larger 
acceptance of the state's legitimate obligations by public ad- 
ministrative authorities. The Bourgeois provisions were fa- 
vored by the examining committees, and after certain amend- 
mends, chiefly compromises urged by M. Perchot and M. 
Viviani, the bill was unanimously adopted in the Senate on 
June 23, 1916, and in the Chamber of Deputies on July 24, 
1917. The law was signed three days later and its applica- 
tion is to begin as soon as the necessary elections can be held 
and rules promulgated. 

The law establishes a national council administered by 
ninety-nine governmental officials, representatives of voca- 
tional, philanthropic and other organizations, and private 
citizens, presided over by the minister of education. The na- 
tional office exercises a general oversight of the entire under- 
taking, lays down rules, and passes upon appeals. In each of 
the eighty-seven territorial departments into which the coun- 
try is divided, is a departmental board comprising thirty-nine 
members and under the presidency of the local prefect. The 
main duties of each departmental office are to direct the execu- 
tion of the law within its respective department, to accept 
the guardianship of certain children as indicated below, to 
distribute funds for the maintenance, training and other needs 
of the wards of the nation living in the department, and to see 
that private cooperating agencies perform their tasks properly. 

Under each departmental office are as many cantonal sec- 
tions as there are cantons within the department. The mem- 
bers of each cantonal section are recruited among local citi- 
zens who seem qualified to befriend or otherwise assist indi- 
vidual wards. One of their functions is to see that all war 
orphans within the community are reported as entitled to the 
benefits of the law. 

The membership of all, these bodies — national, depart- 
mental, cantonal — includes women. The labors of all, except 
the regular staff employes in the national and departmental 
offices, are gratuitous. 

The essential steps taken with respect to each child who 
has been reported by a relative or a member of the cantonal 
section as eligible to become a war orphan, start with a hear- 
ing by a district court. If the facts in the case fall within 
the definitions prescribed by the law, the court simply decrees 
that the war orphan is adopted as a ward of the nation. With 
this pronouncement the duty of the court ends. 

Within fifteen days thereafter, upon the request of the 
child's surviving parent (if there be one) or upon an order 
of a justice of the peace, a "family council" is convened. This 



is a highly cherished conference long provided for in the civil 
code for the purpose of nominating a guardian whenever one 
is to be appointed, and of making recommendations concerning 
the safeguarding and advancement of the child's interests. It 
is ordinarily made up of the child's close relatives ; but under 
the new law relating to war orphans, if any of the relatives 
are incapable or unworthy, the justice of the peace may ex- 
clude such persons from the deliberations and may fill any 
vacancies by calling for delegates from the departmental 
office or the cantonal section. Whenever possible, the council 
appoints the surviving parent, some other near relative or a 
testamentary guardian (previously named by the last de- 
ceased parent) as the legal guardian of the new ward of the 
nation. If such a course is impractical, the duty of making 
the appointment is referred to the departmental office, which 
may designate one of its own members or any other suitable 
man or woman. Thus each war orphan has his or her own 
individual guardian. 

Formerly the power of appointment of women as guardians 
was very restricted. The present law, by permitting the ap- 
pointment of women upon an equal footing with men, recog- 
nizes in the language of one of the parliamentary reports that 
guardianship should have its maternal side. 

As a means of assuring the proper performance of the duties 
of guardianship, the family council may also propose, if 
deemed necessary, the appointment by the departmental of- 
fice of a so-called guardianship counselor, who is expected to 
advise with the guardian and to inform the departmental 
office if everything does not go all right. Should the mother 
or testamentary guardian happen to be the guardian named 
under the new law, no such counselor may be designated with- 
out the guardian's approval. Under other circumstances the 
departmental office may intervene and appoint a counselor. 
The guardianship counselors are supposed to be chosen from 
a list of persons of character and fitness recommended by the 
cantonal section, and are not, as a rule, attorneys. 

in case the guardian at any time becomes negligent or 
culpable, the departmental office is authorized to call a meet- 
ing of the family council for the purpose of considering the 
situation and making suggestions. Failing to secure the de- 
sired results by this means, the departmental office may have 
court proceedings instituted and request that the child be 
committed to its custody. 

Under the French law, adoption with full parental rights 
in the sense in which we use the term, has never been en- 
couraged ; but the new law provides a way whereby after a 
person has had a child for three years adoption is somewhat 
facilitated. 

Money payments for the support, education and other needs 
of the wards are to be made by the departmental office ac- 
cording to the individual circumstances. While the money is 
expected to come largely from state and other public funds, 
the departmental offices as well as the national council are 
empowered to receive and expend legacies and other private 
donations. The distribution of grants promises to be much 
more elastic than would be likely under any ordinary system 
of pensions. Upon request of the guardian as well as after 
commitment to it, a departmental office may place any ward 
in a public or private institution, school, or other child-caring 
or placing agency, or in a private family. Parental desires 
as to religious predilections and the means of education are 
respected. 

In working out the machinery and procedure for the guar- 
dianship of war orphans extreme care had to be taken not 
to violate parental rights or arouse the inherent aversion of 
the French people to anything smacking of bureaucracy. A 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 1917 



study of the law in the light of the time-honored judicial prac- 
tices in the matter of guardianship discloses that the methods 
provided for the selection of guardians are based upon a keen 
appreciation of the wishes of the child's family and friends 
represented in the traditional family council. Except in cases 
of commitment of children to a departmental office, and where 
the family council itself requests the departmental office to 
name the guardian, the powers of the public administrative 
authorities are almost wholly inspectorial and supervisory. 
One cannot help but admire the skill with which this happy 
combination has been worked out. 

The adoption of children as wards of the nation is not 
without certain precedents. After the war of 1870 and even 
in isolated instances in the days of the Napoleonic era, the 
government adopted certain few children. The public relief 
laws authorize the government to accept the guardianship of 
child recipients of public relief. There were sentimental 
grounds for looking with disapproval upon any suggestion 
that the children of the nation's war heroes should be classed, 
however, in the same category with dependents. While the 
so-called assisted children will remain under the jurisdiction 
of the charitable authorities, the war orphans are spared from 
any stigma that might possibly attach to them through a 
similar connection, and, as indicated above, are to be under the 
ultimate patronage of the educational authorities of the state. 

It will be interesting to see as time goes on whether there 
will be any extension of the excellent system provided for 
war orphans to other classes of children who may be in need 
of similar treatment and opportunities. 



The measure of success to be attained by the proposed plan 
can be ascertained only through the test of experience. Much 
depends upon the development of proper social standards and 
methods, both among those officially charged with the admin- 
istration of the law and among the various cooperating 
agencies. It will be no easy task to secure enough workers, 
paid and volunteer, having the requisite technical knowledge 
and skill to do this highly delicate type of work efficiently. 
It will be interesting to observe whether some of the inspec- 
torial duties now devolving upon cantonal volunteers may 
not ultimately be taken over, at least in part, by professional 
workers. 

One of the greatest difficulties in carrying out the excel- 
lent provisions of the law will be the financial one. The 
measure carries with it no appropriation as yet. Before its 
adoption, the government had been paying a very small amount 
for the relief of children suffering from war exigencies; and 
certain few private enterprises, such as emergency colonies for 
some of the orphans, have been struggling along as best they 
can with the limited means at their disposal. To carry 
out the new governmental program over a number of years 
on the scale now contemplated will require extensive funds, 
it is to be hoped that the fiscal resources of the country 
will permit appropriations which, supplemented by generous 
private gifts, may insure that this new child welfare under- 
taking by the nation will prove thoroughly workable and 
successful. 

All in all, the law is a splendid testimonial to the patriotism, 
the democracy and the future of France. 






Back and Forth to Mexico 

By /. B. Gwin 



SECRETARY ASSOCIATED CHARITIES EL PASO, TEXAS 



THE war has been such a potent factor in its effect 
on immigration that the new law which provides for 
a literary test and a head tax of eight dollars has 
not received the attention which such a radical 
change in our method for controlling and restricting im- 
migration merits. Even on the Mexican border the war, and 
more especially the conscription law, have decreased and com- 
plicated our figures for new arrivals so that they lose much 
of their value unless carefully interpreted. 

According to general reports supplied by employment 
agencies, business houses, railroads and immigration officials, 
the trend of Mexican migration during the past three months 
has been south instead of north. No records are kept of re- 
turning Mexicans at border stations so that the truth as re- 
gards their migration homeward can only be guessed at. 
The exodus has two fundamentally different causes. The 
cessation of activities on the part of bandits in most of Mexico 
and the partial restoration of that country to a condition ap- 
proaching peace but not plenty, has undoubtedly caused hun- 
dreds of homesick refugees to quietly gather their few belong- 
ings together and turn their faces homeward one by one. 
The Americans hardly know when they leave the border 
towns but they do know that many well-known Mexican fam- 
ilies have disappeared from their midst. 

A more recent cause of migration has been the conscrip- 
tion law. In some unknown manner, word was sent out all 
along the border that Mexican aliens would be conscripted. 
The Mexican authorities were accused of using this method to 



induce their citizens to return, but this has been denied. Ac- 
cording to immigration officials, there has been a fairly steady 
stream of returning Mexicans of military age with their 
families and a corresponding decrease in the new arrivals of 
similar age. Part of this exodus was due no doubt to the 
fact that all Mexicans who had declared their intentions of 
becoming citizens by taking out their "first papers" are sub- 
ject to draft. From 70 to 75 per cent of these in El Paso, 
when notified to appear before the examining board, did 
not appear and have either crossed over into Mexico or are 
in hiding. Not a single Mexican in the same district who 
could claim exemption as an alien has failed to do so. 

Since the new immigration law went into effect on May 
1, every new arrival at any port in the United States has 
had to pass the literacy test and pay a head tax of eight dollars 
if he intended to remain in this country. The officials at the 
Mexican border ports have made a ruling that every new 
arrival (children under 16 are excepted if they are with their 
parents or guardians) must deposit eight dollars, to be re- 
funded if he returns in less than six months. Basing their 
estimate upon the three months the law has been in effect, the 
officials at the El Paso station estimate that not less than 
$250,000 will be turned into the United States treasury' in 
one year from this port in head-tax money. 

The literacy test provides that every entrant must be able 
to read from twenty to forty lines in any language he cares 
to be tested in. The lines are always taken from the Bible. 
The immigration officials are not able to give more than an 



10 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 19 17 



estimate of the effects of this feature of the new law, but 
they have not hesitated to say though that from 50 to 75 
per cent of all Mexicans applying for admission are de- 
barred because of inability to read. This had debarred, ac- 
cording to railroad officials, over 50 per cent of the laborers 
upon whom they depend for their usual summer construction 
work and they are very much opposed to the law as it 
stands. 

The provisions of the law are enforceable largely because 
of the new quarantine station located at the international 
bridge at El Paso. Those who do not come in "legally" but 
cross the Rio Grande at some fordable point, must have a 
certificate issued by the officials of the quarantine station 
before they can be shipped out by the railroads or by the 
private employment agencies. Consequently they are forced 
to report at the immigration station before they can secure 
employment out of the city. There they must pass the lit- 
eracy test, pay the head tax, be bathed, "de-loused" and 
passed upon by the physicians. 



The effect of the quarantine regulations upon the arrival 
figures of the immigration station at El Paso is rather start- 
ling. Despite the complaint of the railroads that they are 
not securing one-half the laborers they have formerly re- 
ceived from Mexico and despite the effects of the literacy 
test and the higher head tax, which must together debar at 
least 75 per cent of those seeking to enter, and despite the 
effect of the conscription law, the officials are quite certain 
that their report will show more Mexicans admitted at 
this port during the past three months than for the same 
months of any other year. While this will be the condition 
as shown by the immigration statistics the actual facts are 
that probably the number of Mexican labqrers coming north 
to do "rengancia" work had decreased 75 per cent for this 
summer. 

Organized opposition to the new law has already centered 
largely upon the literacy test and, according to border news- 
papers, the railroads and business men of the district will 
endeavor to have this feature of the law repealed. 



And the Worm Turned 

By Gertrude E. Hall 

AGENT FOR MOTHERS' AID MAINE STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS 



I. THE COMMUNITY INDICTS THE FEEBLEMINDED 

WE, the community, object to the feebleminded 
on the following grounds: 
1. They are physically imperfect, mentally 
dull and morally vacuous. 

2. They are not provident and become dependent in their 
old age. 

3. It offends us to see such poor wretches in our midst. 

4. We give them charity, but they never get ahead. 

5. They require custody to keep them from reproducing 
their kind. 

6. They have many children and are not fit to bring 
them up. 

7. Their children are repeaters in school, clog up the 
lower grades, and interfere with the economy and regular 
progress of the school. 

8. They cannot understand numbers, do not love reading, 
do not keep up with current events or know what is going 
on in the world. They are vegetative animals. 

9. Their daughters are "easy marks," and produce illegiti- 
mate children who fill up the orphan asylums. 

10. Their sons are suggestible and fall into crime. They 
burn our barns, steal our crops, and sometimes commit mur- 
der. We are afraid of them. Our jails and prisons are filled 
with them. 

11. Their men are likely to assault little girls. 

12. The feebleminded cannot protect themselves from dan- 
ger. They get under our automobiles and trains, become en- 
tangled in machinery, and use poor judgment in all crises. 

13. They work well only under direction. Even then they 
make stupid blunders. 

14. Their health is not good and they lack resistance to con- 
tagious diseases. Through filth and carelessness they spread 
disease, and cost the community large sums. 

15. They live in poor houses and tend to create a slum. 
Property in their neighborhood decreases in value. 

16. They are promiscuous in domestic relations and trade 



wives. The extra sets of children are placed in orphan 
asylums at our expense. 

17. They have low standards of living. 

18. They hand down their defects from generation to gen- 
eration and impede the progress of the race. 

19. The cost of them in orphan asylums, reformatories, 
jails, prisons, almshouses, and in outdoor relief is a shocking 
burden to normal taxpayers. 

20. They are not fit for citizens and should be extermi- 
nated. 

II. THE FEEBLEMINDED INDICT THE COMMUNITY 

1. You have investigated us, pried into our homes, in- 
quired into our most private affairs, and we have suffered it. 
Now you call us degenerates and delinquents and say that we 
are going to ruin the race. We have never ruined it yet. 

2. It is true we are poor, for we set no store by wealth. 
There have been those that embraced poverty with your full 
commendation, as, for instance, St. Francis of Assisi. But 
he was one of your own class. When a feebleminded man 
gives his whole life to serve others for a pittance, and has 
generously given of his strength to plow the fields and harvest 
the crops of others, will you deny him bread when he can no 
longer do his daily toil? 

3. We are naturally happy and sunny in temperament, 
but your children tease and torment our children and make 
their lives miserable. 

4. We want your friendship more than your charity, but 
if you must give us charity let it be mental rather than metal. 

5. Idiots and imbeciles, we admit, require custody in 
their own homes or in public institutions, because they are 
incapable of self-support. But we, the morons, with mentali- 
ties from eight years up, can earn our livelihood, provided you 
give us the right chance. We haven't had it yet, and that 
is why so many of us have failed. Every feebleminded hobo 
on the road is one of your failures. 

6. The reason that we have many children is because we 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6 , 1917 



11 



do not practice birth control. Let the Creator who implanted 
the reproductive instinct in the race judge between you and 
us on race suicide. 

7. Our greatest grievance against you is in regard to 
school training. We are trainable, not in books, but with 
our hands. We can weave, braid, cobble, tinker, and learn 
every simple kind of work. You give us nothing but ab- 
stractions, words, numbers, rules and definitions. Your ten 
years of school training which you enforce upon us are a 
Sahara to us. We love nature and animals and plants. Like 
us they are vegetative. In the name of common sense, give 
us concrete instruction. 

8. As for knowledge of current topics, we admit that 
we do not enjoy reading the Outlook or the Literary Digest. 
Rather would we prefer of a spring day to sit under a blos- 
soming tree and whittle a stick when the day's work is done. 
Neither can our growing boys bear to sit forever in a school 
room under the compulsory non-education law, when they 
might be playing hookey and steal away to a tumbling brook 
to catch a string of speckled beauties. And if, sirs, you had 
the real red blood in 3'our veins that you talk so much about, 
you would have your schools out-of-doors, near to nature's 
heart. 

9. Our daughters are natural, simple and trusting. When 
you make false love to them they believe you. It were better 
if you were worthy of their simple faith. But if you blame 
them for their innocence let the man of you who is sexually 
chaste cast the first stone. 

10. The crimes that are punishable are the ones that we 
commit. You get away with youYs. Suppose there is a 
sheep at pasture and a feebleminded man kills and eats of it 
because he is hungry. You cry "thief, thief," brand him as 
a degenerate and give him the limit of the law. But if one 
of your normal men can make a million off from stocks, you 
laud his shrewdness. He is not arrested for taking the value 
of 100,000 sheep which he has not earned. 

11. Your sons rape our daughters. Is it any worse if an 
occasional one of us rapes one of yours ? 

12. Your speed-crazed autos take toll of normal as well 
as feebleminded persons. But the moron is safest on the 
farm, tilling the soil, plodding along with oxen and domestic 
fowls. 

13. We, though stupid, are industrious, good at hand 
labor, willing to work early and late if you give us a kind 
word. You can afford to direct our industry, for our toil 
is surely worth a little more than our simple living costs. 

14. We are not perfectly well, but neither are you. Our 
nerves at least are steady and yours are not. We can bear 
pain well, can endure privation and can stand extremes of 
heat and cold. In the name of public health and race prog- 
ress, we indict you because you overwork, overworry, live 
at too fast a pace, burn the candle at both ends, overstimulate 
yourselves with food and drink, shorten your hours of sleep, 
compete too keenly with others for hollow honors, and have 
too many terminal breakdowns. If you keep on at the present 
neurasthenic rate you will presently need some of our stable 
blood to mix with your over-excited systems, to keep the race 
from ending in the mad-house. 

15. You rent us houses that are not fit to live in. Is it 
the tenant or the landlord who creates the slum? You have 
brought it about that more than half of the race lives in big 
cities. That is hard on us, we confess. You, thoughtful 
people, have built that great monstrosity, New York city, 



with its burning pavements, treeless streets and congested 
tenements. Do you really call that a normal, sensible thing 
to have done? Better for us is the little cabin on the moun- 
tain side, amid green trees and grass, with a brook to fish in, 
and furry animals to trap, field strawberries to pick, apples 
to shake from the trees, a sack of cornmeal to go to, and a 
pig to fatten and kill. Man's days are as grass. You say in 
your "write-ups" that our shanties are unpainted and our 
window lights gone. That at least lets in the light and air. 
We have seen in your walls grated holes, rather dusty, to be 
sure, which you point out proudly as ventilators. To our 
dazed minds you have chosen ill to pack the poor people into 
tenements. Better a Hebrew patriarch tending his flocks on 
the hills of Judea than a dyspeptic bank president of the 
metropolis, with a private secretary at one elbow to rush him 
from one engagement to another, and a doctor at the other 
elbow to keep him from going insane. 

16. We know the divorce court is the correct and proper 
way of trading wives, but we cannot afford it. So we bind 
the bargain with a pouch of tobacco. When in domestic 
difficulties, it is easy for you to send your children to finish 
at boarding schools. Those are your orphan asylums. We 
are not better than you, but are we worse? 

17. We admit that our standards of living are different 
from yours and confess our inability to understand all of 
yours. You keep dogs, cats, parrots and alligators in your 
houses, but not hens. You bare your necks, we bare our 
feet. You eat asparagus tips with your fingers and we eat 
pie with ours. You accuse us of keeping our table set all 
the time, but if we recollect, the thanes of merry England 
kept a bountiful roast of beef always on the sideboard. You 
polish your nails and we polish our noses. It would require 
your wisdom, which we lack, to explain these differences. 

18. You profess to be afraid of the feebleminded stock for 
fear it will propagate faster than yours and ultimately get to 
be in the majority. If, in the survival of the fittest, this ever 
happens, we will courteously exchange places with you, and 
set apart for your use the custodial asylums, to conserve your 
feeble strains. 

19. You want to cut us off body and soul, so that the race 
will have no bottom layer. Forsooth, you remind us of the 
feebleminded man — or was he Irish? (our memory is poor) — 
who thought that rear-end railroad collisions can be pre- 
vented by detaching the rear coach from each train. 

20. We are not predisposed to crime and lust and alcoholic 
excess any more than you, but we are easily influenced. Take 
the saloon away from us, purify our environment, teach us 
to do the work that we are fitted to do, protect us as you 
protect children, house us as well as you house your stock, 
pay us in kind for our labor, be thankful that we are not noisy 
agitators like the socialists or peevish and unhappy like your 
own neurasthenics. We represent in a way the childhood of 
the race, the dawn of human history, the making of a man, 
and why is that a more despicable job in the twentieth cen- 
tury than in the beginning? And remember, last of all, that 
WE ARE YOUR COMMON LABORERS. If you 
lacked us you would miss us. As one of your own poets has 
said : 

No man is born into the world whose work 
Is not born with him. There is always work 
And tools to work withal, for those who will, 
And blessed are the horny hands of toil. 

Lowell. 



Some Myths in 

By Albert 

ONE hears a lot of the "average citizen," "average 
reader" and "average boy." Science is discounting 
the dependability of this term as a measure ; but 
popular usage has endowed it with a meaning that 
is more than approximative. The vogue it is enjoying is con- 
tributing not inconsiderably to the looseness of the language 
of achievement. 

A statistical average is understandable. The component 
units are known, they are calculable. But the computation 
of an "average" based upon the incalculable psychological 
factors entering into feeling, knowing and willing is a dan- 
gerous practice that is involving educators in grave miscon- 
ceptions. 

The "average child" is a figurative expression helpful in 
conveying an idea of unity in the midst of diversity ; but is a 
concept decidedly individual in its formation. 

The chief objection to the use of "average" lies in the 
scientific application of an unscientific term. Courses of study 
are constructed for the "average pupil." The probable error 
for a small community is perhaps negligible. The special 
class and the speed class usually rectify deviations. The town 
school may suffer little from maladjustment of the curriculum 
to its homogeneous school population. It is the city, with its 
welter of nationalities, that suffers most from the ineptness 
of the curriculum. With its birdshot ammunition it manages 
to make some "hits;" when one hunts the "average" one need 
not be a marksman — the scatter-shot saves one from a total 
"miss." 

Writers of school books exhibit this lack of approchment 
between curriculum and the individual pupil. They couch 
their contents in the language of their "average pupil." The 
result is that the books are written at pupils. They address 
the pupils du haut en bas. They bear the earmarks of hav- 
ing been constructed for a highly gifted "average pupil" per- 
sonally known, perhaps, to the author. 

Charles Kaye, writing in Printers' Ink, makes a similar 
characterization in the field of catalog writing. He instances 
one literary effort, addressed to hardware merchants of small 
towns, abounding in the finely chiseled phrases: "the diversi- 
fied occupations," "potential prospects" and "per capita basis." 
Its quotation of prices saves such a catalog from sheer pedan- 
try. There is justification for the judgment "that the small 
town merchant couldn't tell a diversified occupation from a 
hypotenuse of a triangle . . . while per capita has a gruesome 
suggestion." 

To an adult of limited education such phraseology is dis- 
maying; to immature minds it is positively stupefying. Yet a 
popular history of the United States delivers itself of this 
effusion : "It was Thomas Jefferson, president of the United 
States from 1801 to 1809, whose sound democratic instincts 
and robust political philosophy prevented the Federal Gov- 
ernment from becoming too closely allied with the interests 
of particular classes." This is not an invidious choice. It is 
a sentence taken from the body of a dissertation on Jefferson 
constituting a portion of the work for the eighth year of 
grammar school. The pupils of a certain class who made a 
study of this topic were "average pupils" of a particular local- 
ity. Yet out of a class of forty-five pupils, thirty checked this 
extract as incomprehensible ; they could get no help from the 

12 



School Keeping 

7. Lev in e 

general drift of the context ; they could generate no light from 
the antecedent statements. When the class reached this pas- 
sage they ran into a blind alley. Of the individual words 
constituting the few paragraphs studied for vocabulary the 
following words evoked faint response: "decisions, robust, 
philosophical, completeness, profound, instinct, allied, and 
endure." 

No doubt there are children who are familiar with these 
words, but the "average" class suffers from linguistic limita- 
tions peculiar to foreigners. 

The fallacy of "average pupils" has its twin in that of "class 
teaching." It proceeds on the assumption that the wide dis- 
tribution of the "average" tends to crystallize certain pupils 
into groups ; the grading of these children into classes or grades 
is an important phase of school keeping; and the chief justifi- 
cation of such classification is manipular convenience. It is 
easier and cheaper to teach a class than an individual. The 
teacher abstracts certain mental characteristics from the class 
groups and adjusts her methods to that abstraction. School 
officials standardize the methods and the taxpayer helps toward 
institutionalizing the lock-step form of school organization. 

If this diagnosis is correct, if the teaching of the "average" 
is wasteful, how can we avoid this waste? One school obvi- 
ates the difficulty by double promotions within the same grade. 
When the children are promoted, teachers are requested to 
grade the incoming pupils on their ability to continue their 
studies in the three R's. Coincidentally with this tentative 
promotion the principal sends his teachers a number of text- 
books from which they are asked to choose those that are best 
adapted for the degree of proficiency displayed by those of the 
pupils who have shown a decided weakness in language, read- 
ing and arithmetic. The teachers try out books with the 
least progressive pupils. After the lapse of one month the 
children are redistributed in classes that devote the major por- 
tion of their time to one subject. The final step in the act 
of promotion finds the pupils of one grade in one of three 
rooms or classes: an arithmetic class, a language class or a 
reading class. This affords a close approximation to a work- 
able, teachable, "average" unit. 

Classes are equipped with the books suitable to the mentality 
of their members. At the expiration of the term the classifica- 
tion is changed for the pupils whose improvement warrants 
their readmission into normal classes pursuing the traditional 
studies on standard time allotment. This form of school 
organization may be characterized as class-individual instruc- 
tion. 

To the taxpayer, scholars is scholars. The school budget 
is too often stretched out of joint to fit the procrustean bed of 
school attendance. Despite the strident cry for a business 
administration of schools, school keeping remains, for the most 
part, untouched by the business philosophy of scientific man- 
agement. It takes money to eliminate waste motion ; the 
efficiency expert is a high-priced employe. But an educational 
laboratory must be established to save the school board mem- 
bers from stultification. A beginning has already been made 
in an attempt to determine how far individual instruction 
may cut down the time consumed in turning out the completed 
school product, the public school graduate. The Speyer School 
of Columbia University is studying means of accelerating the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 1917 



13 



progress of the pupil through the grades, and New York city 
is conducting experiments in six-year courses aiming at the 
construction of a new terminal for the educational road. 

The results so far obtained by these experiments justify the 
high hopes of their sponsors. The scholastic idiosyncrasies of 
the individual are stressing the wastefulness of mass teaching. 
Mathematical ability is not always a concomitant of linguistic 
excellence. History may be a stumbling block for one pupil; 
another may find insuperable difficulties in mastering geogra- 
phy. The intellectual "square peg" is as much of a reality as 
the industrial one; and there is but one way to find out 
whether a child is a "square peg" or a "round peg," and that 
is by individual testing-out in an educational laboratory under 
supervision of trained observers conversant with educational 
scales and tests of proven merit. 

But one must not rest with mere correct labeling of a 
child ; administrative machinery must be created to give that 
child individual instruction. Methods must be devised to 
teach children through their preferred senses. With some the 
ear is more efficacious than the eye. The motor-minded must 
be given opportunity to use their hands. The eye-minded 
make little progress through oral instruction. Picturization 
of the curriculum is just as feasible, within limits, as its 
motorization. 

To effect these innovations the schojol budget committees 
must extend liberal financial aid. The attitude of the public 
is typified by the hard-fisted husband who complains of his 
wife's perennial demand for money. "What does she do with 
the money?" "I don't know," the aggrieved husband 
answered, "I haven't given her any." 

The case for individual instruction has been ably stated by 
Frederick Burk, president of the San Francisco State Normal 
School, who claims that "individual instruction saves from 
one to three years in the time needed for an elementary edu- 
cation, eliminates many wastes of present methods, and pro- 
vides a much better training for 'every child'," and "would 
conserve considerably over 50 per cent of the present school 
expenditure." [See the Survey for February 26, 1916, page 
634.] It will do all this — ultimately. But the expense 
mounts rapidly during the period of unavoidable transition. 



A not inconsiderable increase must follow the scrapping of 
useless material, the remodeling of classrooms, the temporary 
increase in the number of teachers, the training a corps of 
teachers in the technique of individual instruction — a tech- 
nique that involves the multiplication of pedagogic devices 
and the readjustment of pedagogic "laws" — the creation of 
supervisory instrumentalities to inaugurate the new system, 
and the institution of a campaign against the obstructive 
forces of conservatism. The public must cooperate. Reorgan- 
ization of any human agency — reassociating its units and uni- 
fying its new aims — entails heavy initial expense ; and the total 
expense can be estimated only after actual rehabilitation. 

If school keeping is to yield good results it must be purged 
of many misconceptions. We have yet to lay the ghosts 
of the gorgeous myths of "average child" and "class teaching." 
We are just waking up to the hopelessness of cutting our 
educational material to clothe mythical beings whose measure- 
ments are a source of conjecture. We still pretend to find 
mental homogeneity in a class membership of a heterogeneous 
city population. We yield too much to the exigencies of 
economy; and the demands of mass teaching give little scope 
for personal contact. We must stop teaching the "average 
child;" the genius and the laggard cannot learn willy-nilly. 
We must formulate a curriculum for these "types" of children. 

It has been decreed that the child must wear the educa- 
tional harness for eight years ; the dullard and the genius must 
serve the same time. Plans to test the validity of this practice 
have only reached the "conversational stage," because we are 
still without sufficient experimental data on which to base 
a reconstruction of the school curriculum. This momentous 
problem can only be settled in the educational experimental 
stations. 

Reports are reaching us of successful school organization 
based on a six-year course. Acceleration of the preparatory 
stops are becoming increasingly urgent in view of the growing 
obliteration of the line of demarcation between youth and 
manhood, between school and life. The boy must be pre- 
pared to don the toga virilis before his appointed time because 
of the compulsion of economic want; the school must help 
him burst his chrysalis. 



THE RED CROSS BANNER 

By Laura G. Woodberry 

PATTERN of Healing, soft, 
Woven of Light. 
Radiant Charity, 

Dear in men's sight. 
Emblem of Sacrifice, 
Be thou our care ! 
Thine is the burden that each One may share. 
Help ease the pillow of pain and despair! 

Sign of Devotion, 

Magnificent, rare, 
Making the Hell of 

War lighter to bear. 
Hail blessed Beacon! 

Beloved everywhere ! 
Shedding sweet Hope on the war-blackened air. 
Liberty needs the Red Cross! Do your share! 




VIEW OF THE COLORADO FUEL AND IRON COMPANY CAMP AT IDEAL, COLO. 



Two Years of the Rockefeller Plan 

By John A. Fitch 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



THIS is the story of a changed order. Who changed 
it doesn't matter, though no list would be complete 
that didn't include Mother Jones and John D. 
Rockefeller, Jr., the United Mine Workers and the 
Industrial Relations Commission. What does matter is that 
the bitterness engendered by the Colorado strike of 1913-1914 
and the events back of it is being slowly but surely wiped out 
and that a better state of affairs, industrial and political, is 
coming into being in Colorado. 

Three years ago the president of the Victor-American Fuel 
Company, the next to the largest coal company in Colorado, 
smote the table before him and swore that he would fasten 
the strands of autocratic industrial government tighter than 



ever. 



Three years ago the president of the Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Company, the largest coal company in Colorado, testified 
that his company maintained what were known as "closed" 
camps. Into these camps the public had no definite right of 
entry, although in some of them as many as 600 people were 
living. 

Three years ago the general manager of the coal-mining 
properties of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company declared 
that it was his practice to prevent anyone from entering these 
communities, even for social purposes, if he disapproved of 
them in any way. He testified in court that the company 
would not permit men to come into the camps "to discuss 
with the employes certain principles, or to carry on arguments 
with them or to appeal to their reason, or to discuss with 
them things along reasonable lines," alleging that such dis- 
cussion would lead to violence. 

Three years ago the leading coal operators of Colorado were 
refusing to meet any representatives of the coal miners' union, 
for any purpose. When they could avoid it they would not 
even sit in the same room with them. 

All that is over. Before me, as I write, there is a little 

14 



green book. On the cover is the inscription, "Agreement, by 
and between the Victor-American Fuel Company and the 
United Mine Workers of America, District No. 15, for 
period beginning March 26, 1917, and ending March 31, 
1920." Actually three years after the strike of 1913-14 we 
find the company that had the reputation of being the bitterest 
enemy of unionism in Colorado, signing a union agreement 
to run for the next three years! 

In 1914, Victor-American and Colorado Fuel and Iron 
were following the same policies. During the whole of the 
long strike no union leader crossed the threshold of either 
company. A few weeks ago I was sitting in the office of the 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company in Denver, waiting to see 
Pres. J. F. Welborn, who was engaged with callers. As I 
sat there the door of the private office swung out and two men 
emerged. I glanced up, and then looked hard. Yes, I was 
right! The men were James F. Moran, acting president of 
District No. 15, United Mine Workers of America, and John 
McLennan, president of the State Federation of Labor. They 
had been having a conference with President Welborn to dis- 
cuss matters affecting the employes of the Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Company. Their presence was no indication that the 
company has recognized the union, but it did indicate a long 
stride from the position taken by the company only three years 
before. 

I knew that a change had taken place, for I had just come 
from a visit to the coal camps in the southern part of the 
state. I had gone freely into open and closed camps alike, 
talked with whom I pleased and no one interfered and no one 
asked my business. Three years ago casual strangers were 
run out with scant ceremony. I asked a miner what my re- 
ception would have been if I had come in the same way, with- 
out credentials, during the old regime. "They'd have had 
you by the nape of the neck in fifteen minutes," he replied. 
This miner, moreover, knew whereof he spoke. He had once 



THE SURFEY FOR OCTOBER 6 , 1917 



15 



been given three hours to pack his household goods and with 
his family get out of camp. He had been suspected, without 
foundation, of being a union man. 

1 saw only one camp marshal in this trip. He was wear- 
ing a deputy-sheriff's star. He told me that he was the only 
camp marshal in the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company camps 
in that county who had a deputy's commission. The sheriff 
wouldn't issue commissions to the others, he said. And this 
was on the old stamping-ground of Sheriff J. S. Grisham, who 
picked grand juries, bullied strikers and issued commissions to 
mine guards wholesale! 

I was in Trinidad once, some years ago, when there was 
only one man in all the region round about who dared let it 
be known that he was a member of the United Mine Workers. 
He lived in Trinidad and didn't work in the mines. On 
that trip, incidentally, a muscular-looking gentleman whom I 
did not know showed a decided interest in my movements, 
ate his meals at the hotel where I stayed, and at the same 
time ; courteously waiting for me in the lobby at breakfast- 
time that I might precede him into the dining-room. 

This time I had no chaperon. The secretary of a local 
miners' union from one of the camps nearby, himself a working 
miner, stood openly on the street corner and talked with me 
of union affairs. We even got into a street car together and 
rode out to the camp. 

I learned that there are union locals in every one of the 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company camps. The union claims 
90 per cent of all the employes in the camps. The company 
denies the claim, but admits that 50 per cent belong to the 
union. In every camp union meetings are held openly. Be- 
fore the strike, three years ago, meetings had to be held in 
secret, sometimes at a distance from camp, under cover of 
darkness. 

These are some of the industrial changes that have come 
about in Colorado in three years' time. Tftere have been 
political changes that reflect no less a new order and a changed 
spirit. The state administration that was elected in a cam- 
paign of hate has given way to officials of a different tempera- 
ment. At the request of the present attorney-general the case 
against John Lawson has been quashed. The supreme court 
has ordered a new trial for Zancanelli, a striker who was in- 
dicted and tried in the heat of passion and sentenced to life 
imprisonment. Hundreds of indictments still pending against 
the striking miners of three years ago have been dismissed. 

Nothing more strikingly illustrates the change than the de- 
feat of Sheriff Grisham in Las Animas county and Sheriff 
Farr in Huerfano county, the two big coal companies of 
southern Colorado. These two men had faithfully served 
the coal companies and viciously fought the miners whenever 
a controversy between the two arose. Grisham personally 
named the grand jury that indicted John Lawson and ad- 
mitted that at least half of the men he selected were friendly 
or under obligations to the coal company. 

Farr was known as the "king of Huerfano county," where 
he had been sheriff for twenty years. His first setback came 
after the 1914 election. It was a hot campaign, but Farr 
was declared elected. His opponent appealed to the courts. 
The supreme court of Colorado, in an opinion that relentlessly 
excoriated the political methods by which Farr's supremacy 
had been built up, threw out the returns from several precincts 
where, by the worst tactics of intimidation, a free election 
had been made impossible, and declared Neelley, the contest- 
ant, entitled to the office. In the 1916 election Neelley was 
again elected, this time by an unquestioned majority. 

Then there is Judge Granby Hillyer, who was appointed 



by the governor to try the cases growing out of the strike. 
It was Judge Hillyer who sentenced both Lawson and Zan- 
canelli to life imprisonment, before he was barred by the su- 
preme court from sitting in further strike cases, on account 
of prejudice. In the Zancanelli case Judge Hillyer's rulings 
were so biased and so prejudicial to the interests of the de- 
fense that the supreme court, in ordering a new trial, could 
not restrain itself from expressing amazement. The errors in 
these rulings were, according to the court, "so numerous, so 
obvious, and so fatal to the validity of the proceedings that 
unless they were written into the record as they are, under 
the seal of the trial court, we could not believe that such things 
had occurred in the trial of a cause in a court of record." 

Judge Hillyer, too, has been relegated to private life, as 
the result of a regular election in the judicial district where 
he exercised temporary authority through the favor of a 
governor. 

For such changes as these to occur in the space of three 
years seems little short of amazing. But they are wholly 
explicable. Colorado was ripe for change. The strike itself 
indicated that. After so prolonged and so determined a con- 
test it was impossible that there should be a return to the 
status quo ante. 

The strike, without doubt, had a profound influence on 
the people of southern Colorado. It aroused them to a new 
sort of thinking. They saw their elected officials violating 
their obligations to the people. What they did not see they 
heard and read about in the testimony before the congres- 
sional committee that investigated the strike, in the hearings 
of the Industrial Relations Commission, and above all in the 
scathing words of the supreme court of the state in the de- 
cision depriving Jeff Farr of the office of sheriff of Huerfano 
county. In describing the condition that existed in certain 
"closed" camps on election day, 1914, the court said: 

There can be no free, open, and fair election as contemplated by 
the Constitution where private industrial corporations so throttle 
public opinion, deny the free exercise of choice by sovereign electors, 
dictate and control all election officers, prohibit public discussion of 
public questions, and imperially command what citizens may and 
what citizens may not peacefully and for lawful purposes, enter 
upon election or public territory. (Neeley vs. Farr, Colorado Re- 
ports, 1916.) 

It is reasonable to believe, also, that the same publicity 
which opened the eyes of the people to the political abuses 
for which the coal companies were responsible had a profound 
influence in the correcting of many abuses by the company. 

Another factor, too, has wrought this change — the war. 
As business picked up after the temporary depression of 1914 
there was and still is, as everyone knows, a great demand for 




THE BERWIND-TABASCO Y. M. C A. BUILDING UNDER CON- 
STRUCTION 



16 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 1917 



coal and a shortage of men. It has been a time for the ex- 
tension of union influence all over the country, and Colorado 
has been no exception. In Colorado the explanation given 
for the capitulation of the arch enemy of the union, the 
Victor-American Fuel Company, is the growth of the union 
in the coal camps, the shortage of labor and the necessity of 
getting out coal. 

All of these factors have doubtless been equally influential 
with the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. But though the 
camps are open, the men free to organize and strangers 
come and go without interference, the Colorado Fuel and Iron 
Company so far has refused recognition of the union. Instead 
it has adopted a policy of actually competing with the unions 
for the benefit and interest of the men through the establish- 
ment of the famous Rockefeller Plan. No description of af- 
fairs in Colorado would be complete without some account 
of this interesting experiment. 

The Rockefeller Plan 
When John D. Rockefeller, Jr., visited Colorado in 1915 
he outlined a scheme generally understood to have been de- 
vised by W. L. Mackenzie King for the adjustment of griev- 
ances and for the cooperation of the employes with the com- 
pany in the improvement of working and living conditions. 
Officially this is known as the Industrial Representation, but 
unofficially as the Rockefeller Plan. 

It provides for an annual meeting of the employes of each 
camp and in each department of the steel works at Pueblo, 
to elect one representative for every one hundred and fifty 
wage-earners. Soon after these annual elections meetings of 
all the representatives are held in each of the five mining dis- 
tricts and at the steel works, which are also attended by the 
president of the company or his representative, and other com- 
pany officials. Subsequent meetings are held every four 
months. At the first district meeting, in addition to the dis- 
cussion of "matters of mutual interest," there are selected four 
committees for the district, as follows: industrial cooperation 
and conciliation ; safety and accident ; sanitation, health and 
housing, and recreation and education. Each committee has 
six members, three of whom are chosen by the employes' rep- 
resentative and the other three by the president of the com- 
pany or his representative. 

In December of each year a general meeting is held which 
is attended by the employes' representatives in all of the 
districts and by the president and other officers of the com- 
pany. At this meeting reports are made by the joint com- 
mittees and "matters of common interest requiring collective 
action" are considered. 

The employes' representatives in each camp, chosen under 
the plan, are expected to take up with the superintendent 
or other camp official all grievances to which their attention is 
called by other employes. If justice cannot be secured, or a 
satisfactory adjustment made, the representative may send 
for the president's "personal representative," who is constantly 
moving about among the camps for the purpose of promoting 
harmonious relations. This is David Griffiths, a former 
state mining inspector and mine superintendent, a genial, con- 
scientious and fair-minded old Welshman, who has had consid- 
erable success in restoring amicable relations when they have 
become strained. 

If he fails, however, the employe or his representative may 
appeal to all the higher officers in turn up to the president, 
or they may refer the matter to the committee on cooperation 
and conciliation for final adjustment. If there is a deadlock 
in the committee the matter may be referred to the state in- 



dustrial commission for final determination. Similar steps 
are followed for the adjustment of differences at the steel 
works. 

This plan was proposed to the men at a convention inclu- 
ding representatives from each camp in October, 1915. It 
was adopted, the action later being ratified by a vote of the 
miners taken in the camps. At the same time an agreement 
covering wages, hours and working conditions was entered 
into, to run until January, 1918. The eight-hour day, re- 
quired by state law, was written into the contract ; wages, 
according to the stipulation, were to remain the same unless 
wages were raised in competitive districts, when a propor- 
tional increase would be granted in the mines of the Colo- 
rado Fuel and Iron Company. Under this clause there have 
been several advances since the agreement was made. 

It must be understood, first of all, that the development of 
the Rockefeller Plan and the growth of the union, side by side, 
present two -mutually incompatible and therefore discordant 
elements. The union is an organization that owes its origin 
to the workers themselves. The Rockefeller Plan was de- 
vised by the employing interests and proffered without pre- 
vious consultation or conference to the men. It was accepted 
by a convention of miners' representatives and company 
officials which had power to amend it. Nevertheless, the 
psychological basis for friction in a situation of this kind must 
be evident. 

The union has consequently worked steadily against the 
plan from the beginning, and has done what it could to make 
it a failure. While the open, acknowledged presence of the 
union is in itself evidence of good faith on the part of the 
company in adhering to that part of the plan that guarantees 
the right of union membership, the presence of the union, with 
its organizers, has undoubtedly had a tendency to hamper 
the successful operation of the plan as a whole. 

Infrequency of Grievances 
It is a noteworthy fact that the miners do not resort with 
utmost freedom to the grievance-adjusting machinery. In- 
deed, I should judge that the tendency is in the direction of 
less and less interest in the plan. All of the camp represen- 
tatives with whom I talked told me that very few grievances 
were brought to their attention — evidence, to some, that there 
are no grievances. One of them had had only two com- 
plaints in three months. The frequency of appeal is in such 
marked contrast, however, to the customary reactions where 
there is a democratic plan in which the workers have full 
confidence, that one is inclined to question the basis for such 
optimism. At the firm of Hart Schaffner & Marx, for 
example, there is a board of grievances, created by agreement 
with a union. The board is in session nearly every day and 
often for all day, wrestling with all sorts of trade problems. 
Not all "grievances" are complaints, unless they remain un- 
considered and unadjusted. 

Under the influence of the union, also, the meetings called 
by President Welborn for the election of representatives have 
(iften had a very slim attendance. In one of the camps where 
a regular meeting was held, last winter, with coal company 
officers from Denver present, the union arranged a meeting 
for the same evening as a sort of counter-demonstration. A 
bare handful of miners attended the Rockefeller Plan meeting 
while the union meeting, a short distance away, attracted a 
majority of the men in camp. 

At the steel works there is no difficulty about getting 
a full vote because no meetings are ever held. On the day 
for electing representatives, the superintendent of each de- 



THE SURVEY FUR OCTOBER 6 , 1917 



U 



partment rakes a ballot-box into the mill and every man 
is expected to drop his ballot in as he goes to work. This 
insures a 100 per cent vote. It has worked so well, officials 
of the company tell me, that it is planned to abolish the usual 
form of election at the mining camps and take the ballot-box 
to the mouth of the mine. In that way they would get 
every man as he went to work. 

Among outside observers with whom I talked in Colorado 
the testimony was almost unanimous that the Rockefeller Plan 
is being adhered to and its terms are being scrupulously ob- 
served. This report came from men who have long been un- 
friendly to the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, as well as 
from those whose words are to be discounted because of per- 
sonal connection and obligation. But the only people who 
have personal knowledge of the plan and its workings are, 
of course, the miners in the camps. I visited a half-dozen 
camps and talked with the men who live and work there. 1 
met them also in the city of Trinidad, which is in the heart 



to me that such a classification was sufficient to account for 
several of the opinions. 

Perhaps I can describe the situation best by telling of three 
different camp representatives whom I met in succession on the 
same day. The first was an Italian, 1 was told, but he spoke 
such excellent English and his stature was such — he was close 
to six feet tall — that I could not have guessed his nationality. 
He was taking a day off on account of a wedding and was 
wearing his best suit of clothes, in which, with his excellent 
physique, he made a fine appearance. He was riding about 
the camp in his own automobile when I met him and in- 
vited me to take a ride. The Rockefeller Plan is a great 
success, he told me. As representative he has very few 
complaints to handle, and their disposition gives him no trouble 
whatever. There is no reason why there should be many 
complaints anyway because conditions are just about right. 
In reply to my question, he said that a majority of the men 
in camp belong to the union, and he hears a good deal of talk 




COMMITTEE ON SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS, MINNEQUA STEEL WORKS OF THE COLORADO FUEL AND IRON COMPANY 



of the coal-mining regions of Las Animas county. Wherever 
I could I talked with the camp representatives, the men who 
are elected under the Rockefeller Plan to look after the inter- 
ests of the company employes. 

Most of the camp representatives spoke very highly of the 
plan — just a shade too enthusiastically, with too little dis- 
crimination. This must be a very phenomenon of a plan, I 
thought, if it works with such absolute smoothness. I have 
had some experience in talking with workingmen, and I have 
learned to be somewhat suspicious of men who are absolutely 
satisfied, because in general I have found but two classes of 
workmen who say they are, men who want to curry favor 
with the higher-ups in the hope of special rewards — "com- 
pany men" their fellows call them — and men who are afraid, 
for one reason or another, to express their true feelings. I 
do not mean to imply that all of the camp representatives be- 
long to one or the other of these two classes, but it was clear 



about a strike. He is not a member but he attends union 
meetings occasionally as a "spotter" for the pit boss. I asked 
him how they happened to let him in. "Well, I'm pretty 
well known here," he replied, "and they are very anxious to 
get me as a member, so they treat me pretty well." He had 
worked for the company seventeen years, he said, and had 
remained at work through both of the last big strikes, those of 
1903-4 and 1913-14. 

The next representative I met was clearly Italian. I went 
up to his house just after the men had come out of the mine 
and found him preparing to wash from his face the absolutely 
complete disguise that he had acquired that day in the mine. 
He gazed at me with a suspicious air that was heightened into 
an expression almost menacing, due to his coal-dust adorn- 
ments, as I tried to explain that I wanted to know what it 
meant to be a camp representative. He could not understand 
me for a while, but when at last he did understand he be- 



18 



THE SURVEY EO R OCTOBER 6 , i 9 ' 7 



came volubly excited. Absolutely incomprehensible at first 
was the torrent of broken English that he flung at me, but 
finally a few words, constantly recurring, began to stand out: 
"I not talk about company, I not talk about men, I not talk 
about anything, I got family." I have met that fear before. 
I could understand, and told him so. When I had made that 
clear to him his relief was unmistakable. Suspicion gave way 
to the most cheerful hospitality and we tried with ill success 
to talk for a few minutes longer of other matters. As I left 
he called out, "You see Jim Smith, he talk." 

Smith, which was not his name, was another camp repre- 
sentative, who lived not far away. I had intended going to 
see him, because I had been told that he was a member of 
the union, and I was especially curious to get criticism from 
a union member who was also a part of the machinery of the 
plan. I had met Smith before that day as I went about the 
camp, but he would not talk to me then. He suggested that I 
go down to his house later in the afternoon. 

When I called, he seemed disinclined to talk freely. He 
told me briefly that the plan works well. He said, just as 
did every other camp representative, that the complaints are 
very few and easy to adjust. He said that conditions in the 
camp had greatly improved since the adoption of the Rocke- 
feller Plan, mentioning especially the fact that it is now an 
open instead of a closed camp. But when I asked him about 
the union he denied being a member, and became increasingly 
uncommunicative until I left. 

Attitude of the Union 

It was not until I managed to get in touch with some union 
men in Trinidad that I could get a miner to talk with me 
freely about affairs under the present regime. I found them, 
as I expected, very hostile to the Rockefeller Plan. They 
assured me that there was discrimination against union men 
and named several union members, including some officers in 
one of the locals who had been discharged. They felt cer- 
tain that this was on account of their union activities. They 
told me that a joint letter had been written by the officers 
of eight of the locals to President Welborn and a similar 
one to John D. Rockefeller, Jr., asking for a conference to 
make a wage scale. Neither had answered the letter and the 
unionists were apparently quite indignant that their request 
had been ignored. President Welborn later told me that no 
such letter had ever reached him. 

Another matter that had aroused their resentment con- 
cerned the raising of money for the Red Cross. A campaign 
was carried on last June under the auspices of the company 
to get the men to give one day's pay. The company agreed 
to duplicate the sum thus raised, dollar for dollar. The re- 
sponse from the men was fine — nearly 100 per cent. At 
Sopris, a Colorado Fuel and Iron Company camp, the local 
union members decided to do better. They voted to donate 1 
per cent of their wages regularly to the Red Cross throughout 
the duration of the war. They asked the company to check off 
this amount in the office and turn the money over to the secre- 
tary of the union to send to the Red Cross. The company 
refused, pointing out that the request was signed only by the 
officers of the union, whereas no money could be taken out of 
any man's pay unless the man himself signed an order author- 
izing it. They declared further that it is illegal for a man to 
assign his pay for more than one month at a time and recom- 
mended that the men adhere to the plan of one day's pay. 

As a result, the union members told me, of accumulated 
grievances, it was decided to call a strike on the first of last 
August, if the company did not show a disposition to remedy 



the situation. The strike threat actually came about in this 
way: James F. Moran, acting president of District No. 15, 
United Mine Workers of America, had called a "peace con- 
ference," in Denver on June 13, to promote coal production 
during the war. He invited 150 operators to meet with rep- 
resentatives of the miners in the district "to discuss ways and 
means of best maintaining industrial peace and promoting mu- 
tual confidence between employer and employe while our coun- 
try is engaged in this great struggle." His letter stated that 
wage scales would not be discussed. Only twelve operators 
came to the meeting and none of them represented large prop- 
erties. President Welborn wrote a letter expressing sym- 
pathy with the purposes of the meeting, but stating that they 
were being accomplished in his company by means of the 
Rockefeller Plan. Neither he nor any other officer of the 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company attended the meeting. The 
delegates appeared to be very angry over Mr. Welborn's fail- 
ure to attend, and the next day after the peace conference they 
met as a union convention and authorized President Moran to 
call a strike against the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. 
The strike, however, did not occur on August 1 as sched- 
uled, and up to the time of going to press there has been no 
coal strike in Colorado. The strike talk, nevertheless, gave 
me some opportunity to test the question of grievances. While 
the matter was pending I went to Acting President Moran 
and asked him for a list of the grievances to which he had 
referred in an open letter to the state industrial commission, 
giving notice that the strike was to be called August 1. To 
my great surprise, Mr. Moran had at that time only two 
grievances on his list, both involving discharges. It later de- 
veloped that he was mistaken about one of these — the man 
was still at work. The other man had attended the Denver 
peace conference, where the strike resolution was adopted, 
and was discharged on his return to the mine. I was unable 
to make a personal investigation of this case, so I merely 
give the union statement and the company reply. The com- 
pany officials declare that they had not known where the man 
was — merely that he was absent. He was an inexperienced 
miner, they said, and when he returned no other miner would 
work with him. Having thus no "buddy," there was no al- 
ternative for him but to quit. 

A State of Mind 

Indeed, most of the grievances do not appear to be the most 
serious in the world. Some of the union officers who were 
discharged had been guilty, I found, of some grave infractions 
of the safety rules. Why they of all men, the officers of 
the union, would set a bad example of that sort I do not 
know, unless — a perfectly natural thing — they feel rather 
cocky in their new-found liberty and are inclined to feel that 
they are immune from the operation of rules. 

On the other hand, there is no question but that the company 
and many of its lesser officials are looking upon the union 
with anything but friendliness. In one of the camps I had 
a talk with a mine clerk who dilated on the merits of the 
Rockefeller Plan. All troubles were settled without diffi- 
culty, he said. Of course, there weren't as many grievances 
brought up now as formerly. At first the union was very 
active in that direction. They used to send in a lot, but they 
soon found "the complaints wouldn't be considered." "We 
let 'em know," he said, "that we were running this business." 
This attitude is, I believe, contrary to company policy. I cite 
the incident only to show the feeling that crops out, here and 
there, because it has an important bearing on the success of 
the plan. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6 , i g i 7 



19 



The refusal of the offer of the union to donate money to the 
Red Cross on a different basis from that proposed by the 
company seems to be dictated by a rather grudging spirit. 
The reasons given seem inadequate. Of course, it is reason- 
able for the company to ask every man to sign an order before 
they check off anything from his pay, but there was nothing 
in the proposal from the union officials to indicate that they 
were not ready to do that. So far as the difficulty of it is 
concerned — the necessity of signing an order every month — ■ 
the company finds no such obstacle when they check off a 
dollar a month for hospital dues. The authorization, when 
the man is hired, is sufficient for that. The matter is not of 
utmost importance, but it seems to me to show a certain hos- 
tility toward the union — a desire not to let it have its way. 

The situation is one that justifies the expectation of fric- 
tion. It would be too much to expect, after all the repres- 
sion of the years that are gone and after all the bitterness en- 
gendered by the strike, that any plan would work without 
friction. Here are foremen and company officials who have 
for many years represented a company that fought every 
manifestation of democracy. Can it be expected that they will 
at once give their hearty and generous support to a scheme 
that allows representatives to speak for the men and permits 
a union to grow? Here, on the other hand, are men who 
dare, for the first time in their lives, some of them, openly 
to belong to a union. Is it not to be expected that they will 
magnify small grievances and perhaps be somewhat over- 
sensitive of fancied aggressions? 

The real crux of the dissatisfaction, however, seems to be 
the refusal of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company to recog- 
nize the union. So far as the threatened strike was concerned, 
the importance of the grievances was a small factor. They 
served to get a conference with officers of the company and 
there the demand for recognition was made and refused. 

The fact that no strike took place indicates rather clearly 
that the grievances are not, in themselves, considered a suffi- 
cient ground for a strike. But the demand for union recogni- 
tion will be made again. As the union grows stronger the 
demand will become more insistent. It can hardly be other- 
wise, for neither the Rockefeller Plan nor any plan dike it 
can be permanently satisfactory to the men. That is my 
firm conviction despite the wonderful improvement that has 
taken place in Colorado in three years' time, and despite 
the fact that the plan, with its many broad features and its 
radical break with the past, apparently is being administered 
in honesty and good faith. No system devised and wholly 
controlled by the employing interests, as this one is, can either 








PLAYGROUND AND SCHOOL BUILDING AT IDEAL, COLO. 



BACK YARD 



WALSEN CAMP 



command the confidence of the worker or be counted on to 
administer justice. 

In the first place, there is no adjudication of disputes under 
the plan except after a range of appeals that would tax the 
courage of the most independent worker. The camp repre- 
sentatives, who are elected by the men, have no power what- 
ever in adjusting complaints. They are attorneys, rather, for 
any miner who wishes to make an appeal to the superintendent. 
The complainant may appeal, after the superintendent has 
made his decision, to some higher official, and after that to 
the committee on cooperation and conciliation, where he 
may present his case before a board composed of equal num- 
bers of company officials and miners. The latter have no pro- 
tection, if they vote against the company's views, other than 
the company itself. They are not independent jurors, immune 
from reprisal. They would be sure to consider the matter 
very carefully before taking a stand in opposition to their em- 
ployers. The union representatives on the grievance board 
under the Hart, Schaffner & Marx agreement are in a very 
different position. They are employes of the union. They do 
not draw their pay from the company whom it may be their 
duty to oppose, and they are in no danger of discharge if they 
stand firmly against it. 

If the miner with a grievance prefers he may appeal from 
the decision of the superintendent to the president's industrial 
representative and he may then appeal, if he wishes, to "the 
division manager, assistant manager or manager, general man- 
ager or the president of the company in consecutive order." 
Or after the superintendent, some higher official and the com- 
mittee on conciliation and cooperation have in turrt passed 
on his case he may appeal to the industrial commission of the 
state. It isn't easy to conceive of the miner who would go 
through all that system of appeals. If he went through it 
and won, how happy his position would be back on the job in 
the mine under the whole hierarchy of officials over whose 
heads he had appealed, from pit boss to general manager! 
So far only one case has been appealed to the industrial com- 
mission. 

In addition to the undemocratic origin of the plan, it is, as 
might be expected, undemocratic in its most essential pro- 
visions all the way through. The plan is the company's. Not 
a single act is done under it, not even the election of repre- 
sentatives in the camps, except under the direction of the 
president of the company. The only meeting at which com- 
pany officials are not present are the meetings in each camp 
for the election of representatives, and they are called by 
President Welborn. These are the meetings spoken of above, 



20 



THE SURVEY EOR OCTOBER 6, 19 17 



that have never been held at the steel works and are to be 
done away with at the mines. The company is to place the 
ballot-boxes where the men can drop in ballots on the way to 
work. 

Over all other meetings, district meetings, annual joint 
meetings, etc., the plan provides that Mr. Welborn shall pre- 
side. There is no opportunity for the men to call their own 
meetings and take action independently of the company. The 
plan, it is true, assures to the men in each camp the right to 
hold such meetings as they desire. This is a wonderful ad- 
vance over three years ago, but obviously it is not enough. 
The miners, if they are to deal effectively with their employer, 
must have opportunity to take council together. They must 
be free to call meetings, not in one camp alone, but of dele- 
gates from two camps, a half-dozen camps, or from all of them 
whenever they feel that such action is necessary. They must 
be free to consider their needs together, as employes of the 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, not as neighbors in a 
single camp, and they must have opportunity to do that in an 
atmosphere entirely removed from the slightest suspicion of 
company interference or company dominance. 

Under the Rockefeller Plan as it exists at present there is 
no provision for such meetings. So long as that is true it is 
certain that the movement to change the plan or supersede it 
altogether will not abate. 

While the grievance adjustment part of the Rockefeller 
Plan is the most significant feature, other activities carried 
on by the three principal committees in addition to the com- 
mittee on conciliation and cooperation, must not be overlooked 
or under-estimated. Indeed, enormous advance has been made 
for the welfare of employes since the plan was instituted. 

The committees on safety and accidents make suggestions 
of methods to safeguard life and limb, bringing to a higher effi- 
ciency the work that has been carried on so effectively in the 
mines by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company for a number 
of years. The committee on sanitation and housing in each 
district makes regular trips of inspection to all the properties, 
so that the physical condition of the camps, always good, is 
kept up to standard — even improved by the building of neat 
fences and the offering of prizes for lawns, vegetable and 
flower gardens. In the field of recreation a committee has 
charge of an annual picnic and field day and encourages such 
recreational activities as the organization of baseball teams. 
In some of the camps where interest is keen the company has 
built a fence around the ball park and put up a grandstand. 

No Opportunities for Child Labor 

The educational problem in the mining camps is an unusual 
one. There is less reason for children leaving school at an 
early age than in most communities because there are no child- 
labor industries appealing to the cupidity of parents or the 
zeal of youth. The only industry is mining. Boys are not 
permitted, under the law, to work in mines until they are six- 
teen years old. For the girls there is no occupation but house- 
keeping. Yet until last year the schools in most of the camps 
had gone no further than the eighth grade. 

The company has encouraged the school boards to extend 
the schools by adding two years of high school work. This 
year, by an arrangement with the school board of the city of 
Trinidad, the superintendent of the Trinidad schools will ex- 
tend his supervision over the schools in the surrounding coal 



camps. In addition, the work of the teachers in the camps has 
Deen greatly stimulated by conferences held in Trinidad 
during the past two years under the direction of the state 
superintendent of schools, and financed by the company. 

Although not officially a part of the Rockefeller Plan, 
the work of the Young Men's Christian Association is coming 
to be so important a factor in the camps that a reference to it 
should be made. As in all of its industrial work, the asso- 
ciation has an agreement with the company that a building 
is to be furnished, rent free. In addition, the company makes 
a contribution to the association in each of the sixteen camps 
where it is located which is about equivalent to the salary of 
the secretary. The secretary is directly responsible, however, 
to the state committee of the Y. M. C. A. and receives his 
salary from them. 

Membership in the Y. M. C. A. in these camps costs fifty 
cents a month, but in all of them the secretary keeps open 
house for the camp, regardless of age, membership or sex. 
In some places the association is housed in the old saloon 
building, which was the hang-out for the camp before the 
state went dry. In others the company has built large, well- 
equipped buildings. The one at the Berwind-Tabasco 
camps, for example, cost $15,000, and is admirably adapted 
to the purposes of a clubhouse. 

The Y. M. C. A. Women Secretaries 

An interesting extension of the work of the Young Men's 
Christian Association is the employment in some of the larger 
camps of women secretaries known as "social workers," who 
devote their time to the women and girls of the camp. They 
organize the Camp-Fire Girls and their junior auxiliary, the 
Blue Birds. They take the girls picnicking or on hikes, they 
teach classes of older women in dietetics and in household 
economy. In general they act as guide, philosopher and 
friend to the women of the camp. These omnipresent ladies 
work under the direction of the Y. M. C. A., but receive their 
salaries directly from the company. 

Neither is the medical work an essential part of the Rocke- 
feller Plan, but it should be included here as an important 
part of company policy. Every employe pays one dollar a 
month and is entitled to medical service for himself and all 
ordinary service for his family. There is a doctor in every 
camp and at the head of the service is the hospital at Pueblo, 
under the superintendence of Dr. R. W. Corwin. A recent 
development is the employment of a dentist and an oculist 
to examine the teeth and eyes of all the school children in the 
camps. There is a visiting nurse at Primero and at one of the 
other camps. One thing that every camp needs badly is an 
emergency hospital to take temporary care of badly injured 
men before they can be moved to Pueblo. At the iron mines in 
Sunrise, Wyo., and at Primero, in the coal fields, two such 
emergency hospitals have recently been built and equipped as 
the personal gift of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Plans are un- 
der way for the erection of similar hospitals in all the camps. 

This is the latest chapter in the story of Rockefeller and 
Colorado. It's a better and more hopeful chapter than the 
others, but it isn-'t the end of the book. What the next chap- 
ter will be like or how long it may take to write it one can 
do no more than conjecture; but of this we may be sure — it 
will tell a story of democracy re-enforced and growing in 
power. 



OOSKBG 




NO PLACE IN GREAT BRIT- 
AIN FOR IDLERS 

A SIX-HOUR day and everybody 
at work is the prediction for Eng- 
land's industrial future recently made 
by Lord Leverhulme, the head of the fa- 
mous Lever Brothers soap works at 
Port Sunlight, England, where several 
thousand workers are employed. Ac- 
cording to the New York Tribune, 
Lord Leverhulme, who is also this year 
president of the Welsh National Eis- 
teddfod, declared in a recent interview 
that the tremendous burden of the na- 
tional debt can be borne, after the war, 
only if everyone is a worker and if the 
strength of the whole nation is conserved 
by taking advantage of what has been 
learned about fatigue. 

The logical consequence of the new 
understanding that it doesn't pay to 
overwork people, Lord Leverhulme de- 
clared, was to work the machinery lon- 
ger, and men and women fewer hours. 
"By means of six hours' shifts for men 
and women," he said, "we must work 
our machinery twelve, eighteen or twen- 
ty-four hours a day." 

The effect of this arrangement would 
be not only to stimulate output, but 
greatly to aid in the improvement of the 
condition of the people by giving oppor- 
tunity for education. So long as edu- 
cation is impossible, as it is under present 
work schedules, and so long as housing 
conditions are poor, "how can we won- 
der at what is called 'labor unrest' ?" 

Not only can we produce, Lord Lever- 
hulme went on, when all ranks and all 
classes of both sexes are workers for six 
hours each day for six days each week, all 
the ships, machinery, factories, homes and 
goods we require . . . but the homes can 
be built in beautiful, garden suburbs; we 
can provide adequately for education, men- 
tal and physical, and military training for 
national defense. 

In addition, all being workers, our burden 
of taxation will — being then wisely laid on 
wealth produced — be borne by all without 
impoverishment or oppression on any. There 
must be no idle overfed and underworked 
men or women or no overworked underfed 
men or women. 

It has been estimated, the speaker de- 
clared, that only half of the population 



of the United Kingdom are producers 
of wealth. If the war is to be won and 
"our position" maintained afterward, 

then it will require that all able-bodied 
men and women, from school age to dotage, 
of all ranks and stations, shall be workers 
for six hours each day for six days each 
week. 

There will be no place in the whole 
British Empire for the idle rich or the idle 
poor. We cannot consent as a nation to there 
being any loafers, nor can the British Em- 
pire become a loafer's paradise if it is to 
continue to exist. 

THE MEN WHO LEAD THE 
CAMPS IN SONG 

IN his article on another page of this 
issue, Joseph Lee places music among 
the first things that keep soldiers well 
and gives instances of the value of mass 
singing for the morale of the young re- 
cruits under training. The selection of 
men with the ability and right spirit for 
leadership in song at the camps was and 
remains a delicate task for the Commis- 
sion on Training Camp Activities. 

They have to be men who can frater- 
nize, with whom good fellowship is in- 
stinctive, who have good voices and know 
how to use them, men who can "stand 
the gaff" of raillery — for the army and 
navy song leaders have a very different 
task from that of the choral society di- 
rector. Usually they have to get along 
without supplementary music, often they 
have nothing more than a lumber pile 
to serve as a conductor's stand — until 
the carpenter needs the lumber and takes 
it away. They must manage with little 
time for practice, sometimes without 
much light and without song books. 



October 6, 1917 Vol. 39, No. 1 

THE S U R V E Y 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street. New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 

U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 

secretary; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 

25 cents a copy; $3 a year; foreign 

postage $1.50, Canadian 75 cents. 

Copyright, 191", by Survey Associates, 

Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 

25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 

N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



SM 



If enough men did not exist to fill the 
new job, its splendid opportunity has 
created them. Thus Geoffrey O'Hara 
the young composer, in a few months 
accomplished remarkable results in the 
big mobilization camp at Fort Ogle- 
thorpe, Ga. Kenneth Clark, music 
critic and composer of many of the 
Princeton University songs, did the same 
at Allentown. Robert Lloyd, at Fort 
Niagara, added a voice-training course 
for officers to his work. Stanley Haw- 
kins taught the officers at Madison Bar- 
racks, N. Y. 

During the summer, a National Com- 
mittee on Army and Navy Camp Music 
has been created upon which serve W. 
Kirkpatrick Brice, treasurer of the New 
York Community Chorus; Max Mor- 
genthau, Jr., of New York; John Alden 
Carpenter, the Chicago composer; Mrs. 
George Barrelle, of Buffalo, and Lee F. 
Hanmer, of the Russell Sage Founda- 
tion. Frances F. Brundage, supervisor 
of the Chicago Civic Music Association, 
was secured as executive secretary. This 
committee, with the help of Harry Barn- 
hart, leader of the New York Com- 
munity Chorus, is conducting this fall a 
short training course for leaders in New 
York. 

In the meantime, other men of the 
highest standing have come forward to 
aid in this great effort: John Archer, 
who has organized large choruses in 
Providence, Pittsfield and North Adams, 
Mass. ; Holmes Cowper, dean of music 
at Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa ; 
H. W. B. Barnes, formerly head of the 
San Antonio, Tex., School of Music; 
David Griffin, concert baritone of Phil- 
adelphia ; Albert Hoxie, leader of the 
Philadelphia Community Chorus; Her- 
bert Gould, of the Chicago Civic Music 
Association, and others whom space does 
not permit us to name. 

The compilation of a new army and 
navy song book is another task which the 
committee has set itself. The first edi- 
tion of a million copies is to be ready 
this month. It will contain the best of 
patriotic and folk songs, old hymns, and 
some new songs. Among these will be 
songs which have already made a wide 

21 



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THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, i 9 i 7 






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THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 19 17 



23 



appeal to American soldiers, including 
the most popular marching songs of their 
British brothers in arms. The stately 
Hymn of Free Russia and Farwell's 
March, March will be found beside pop- 
ular favorites with a sectional appeal — 
songs of the Dixie type. 

Incidentally, this great undertaking 
will strengthen national unity even out- 
side the ranks of army and navy and be- 
yond "the duration of the war." The 
people of this country will, for the first 
time, be provided with the means of 
common self-expression by being taught 
the same songs. Already a second edi- 
tion of the army and navy song book 
is in preparation, with mandolin and 
guitar arrangements for glee clubs, and 
a third edition, with the customary piano 
accompaniments, for general sale. This 
last-named edition will be largely used 
in the community choruses of the coun- 
try so that "the men who return will find 
that the folks back home have been 
keeping step with them in song." 



T 



A PLAN FOR REBUILDING 
EUROPE 

'HE chart of a proposed American 
reconstruction and rehabilitation 
unit for service in Europe, reproduced on 
the opposite page, was designed by Ber- 
nard J. Newman, director of the Penn- 
sylvania School for Social Service, as a 
result of the many calls that came to him 
to give advice and direction to those who 
were eager to help the people of the dev- 
astated sections of Europe. 

It takes but a glance along the row 
of titles from agriculturist to education 
and recreation worker to get Mr. New- 
man's point of view ; restored houses, and 
reclaimed fields, of course, but not mere- 
ly restored to the old order. The city 
planner and the tractor drivers suggest 
the introduction of new and improved 
ways of building cities and doing the 
world's drudgery. And the three boxes 
to the right of the city planner com- 
pletely reveal Mr. Newman's ulterior 
motive — not only better houses and bet- 
ter fields, but better boys and girls, finer 
men and women. 

He would have Americans take voca- 
tional training and guidance, better teeth, 
better food, less disease, more education 
and play, a richer life to these people 
who have endured so much. In short, 
if we intend to give, let it be the best 
that we have, something lasting, some- 
thing vital, something human and spir- 
itual to go along with the bricks and 
mortar. 

The division of the reconstruction 
work into definite assignments to corps 
of specialists, is a point that those in 
charge of equipping such units will also 
find stimulating. In fact, this little plan 
would seem to be a challenge to those 
who would undertake this work in a 
less comprehensive or less systematic way. 



THE SALVATION ARMY AT 
THE FRONT 

OVER $900,000 had been spent by 
the Salvation Army in France and 
Great Britain on the construction and 
maintenance of more than 200 rest 
rooms, 183 hutments, 70 hostels and 35 
ambulances before this country entered 
the war. At the beginning of August, 
the first American contingent of Salva- 
tionists, consisting of twenty officers, 
sailed to begin work among the Ameri- 
can soldiers in France. They will be 
commanded by Maj. G. Anderson. 

Army huts and rest rooms have also 
been opened and are being opened at 
many of the cantonments in this coun- 
try where the new draft army is under- 
going training. It is intended, further, 
so far as funds permit, to open Salva- 
tion Army rest rooms in every city near 
a camp site or where soldiers in large 
numbers are quartered in armories. The 
movement has the cordial approval of 
Secretary of War Newton D. Baker and 
is in heartiest cooperation both with the 
Red Cross and with the Y. M. C. A. 

"While there may be points of sim- 
ilarity," one of the national officers 
writes to the Survey, "our work is no 
more a duplication of the Y. M. C. A. 
work than theirs is of ours. We work 
largely with similar tools, but with the 
emphasis ever placed upon salvation." 

"They go," said Commander Evange- 
line Booth when appointing the Salva- 
tion Army "selective draft" for service 
in Europe, "to comfort and encourage 
in every way possible — with rest rooms, 
refreshment bars, recreation arrange- 
ments ; with song, with music, with des- 
patching and securing messages to and 
from the boys' homes; with the Bible, 
with affection, with advice, with teach- 
ing, with prayer and with a glad spirit." 

That the Salvation Army in these va- 
rious endeavors is making a distinctive 
contribution to social service is illustrated 
by many telling passages in the personal 
accounts of two of its officers who have 
given their experience in book form. 
They bring a message of love to men 
surrounded by evidences of hatred and 
a message of forgiveness to men tor- 
tured by the feeling of guilt for shed- 
ding the blood of fellow men. 

"The more I talk to the men," says Ad- 
jutant Mary Booth (With the B. E. F. in 
France, Salvation Army, London, 1916), "the 
more convinced I am that it is utterly un- 
natural for a man to want to kill another 
man. ... I am more than ever sure that 
the religious instinct which has been dor- 
mant in many a man's soul is often suddenly 
awakened when he is face to face with hard- 
ship, suffering and death. 

"... I have often entered a hospital ward 
wishing I were a doctor or a nurse and 
could heal some of the broken bodies of our 
brave men; but I left this one thanking God 
that I was a Salvationist, if only to help 
that one poor wounded man, who felt his 
load of sin too heavy to bear, and to help 
him to find peace." 



"In a word," writes Arthur E. Copping, 
who attempts to define the mental affinity 
between soldier and Salvationist (Souls in 
Khaki, Hodder & Stoughton, New York, 
1917), "each of those unconscripted soldiers 
was a figure of excellent unselfishness and 
as such held a passport to the hearts of all 
Salvationists who, so to speak, are in the 
same line of business. And here we read 
the secret of that bright note of brotherli- 
ness to which I have referred. The Sal- 
vationist's accustomed daily tasks lie largely 
among the fallen, the criminal, the suffering 
and the wretched, whom he or she succors 
in a spirit of compassionate love. But the 
Salvationist waited on our Tommies in a 
spirit of loving admiration. . . . 

"I came to the conclusion, after talking 
with many soldiers inside and outside the 
huts, that Tommy was drawn to the Sal- 
vationists, not merely or mainly because they 
served him with such efficiency or devotion, 
nor because of opportunities their huts sup- 
plied for writing, reading and music, but 
because Salvationists were on the side of 
truth, wisdom and the angels, and because 
of their visible character as unsanctimonious 
saints." 

RED CROSS PLANS FOR THE 
REFUGEES 

THE American Red Cross announces 
the appointment of Edward T. De- 
vine to the position of chief of the Bu- 
reau of Refugees and Home Relief un- 
der the American Red Cross Commis- 
sion in France. Maj. Grayson M. P. 
Murphy, head of the commission, cables 
from Paris: 

In the various departments outside the 
Seine there are some 850,000 refugees em- 
bracing all classes and ages except able- 
bodied men. Although employment at good 
wages is general, these refugees are never- 
theless in an unfortunate condition because 
of the complete loss of their possessions when 
driven out of the invaded territory. They 
have since been living in excessively con- 
gested quarters and, necessarily, under very 
unsanitary conditions. 

The Red Cross hopes to aid the authori- 
ties to lessen this congestion by supplying 
furniture s to those who in this way could 
move into better quarters, by completing 
buildings already partly constructed, and 
even by furnishing portable houses of cheap 
construction, when necessary, as a temporary 
makeshift. 

It is proposed to establish, in connection 
with the French authorities, health centers 
from which useful work can be done in such 
a way as fully to conserve the self-respect 
and independence of those who accept it. 
There are manv voluntary agencies, as well 
as public relief authorities, through whom 
the Red Cross can give assistance. 

Dr. Devine's immediate task will be to co- 
ordinate those agencies and arrange for con- 
structive relief for those victims of the war 
who cannot yet be returned to their own 
homes. Later it is hoped that there will be 
abundant opportunity for them to be re- 
established in the busy and fruitful regions 
in which they lived before the war. 

THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU 

ON DEFECTIVES 
""PROTECT the defective children, 
A provide for their training and 
proper care, and you will lessen the bur- 
den of dependency and delinquency." 
This is the gist of the advice contained 
in a new report on mental defectives 



24 



THE SURFEY FOR OCTOBER 6, i g i 7 



issued by the federal Children's Bureau. 
The report is based on a study of the 
social conditions of 212 mental defect- 
ives in New Castle county, Delaware. 
A total of 175, or more than four-fifths 
of these, were in need of public super- 
vision or institutional care because of 
bad home conditions, physical helpless- 
ness, or pronounced anti-social tenden- 
cies, and only 12 of them were provided 
for in an institution adapted to their 
care. Twenty-six of the defective chil- 
dren were in industrial schools for de- 
linquent children, and of these the re- 
port says: 

Institutions for the care of delinquent chil- 
dren are greatly handicapped by the presence 
of defectives, since they require special at- 
tention and exert a bad influence over the 
normal children. After a short period of 
residence these defectives are returned to the 
community without sufficient supervision. 

Other defective children with delin- 
quency records were at large in the com- 
munity; in all, 98 of the 212 defectives 
studied were delinquent or immoral or 
difficult to control. 

The report suggests that while any 
program for the care of mental defectives 
must have as its central feature suitable 
institutional provision offering training 
or custodial care according to the needs 
of the individual, other activities are 
equally essential. It is pointed out, for 
example, that institutional care is not 
necessary for all mentally defective chil- 
dren, for, contrary to the popular im- 
pression, it is found that there are cer- 
tain types who can safely remain at home 
provided they have the attention and 
study which they deserve. However, 
special provision should be made for 
their safety, care, and education, and 
out-patient work of an institution for 
the feebleminded, in cooperation with 
schools, social agencies, and families, is 
referred to as a new and important 
method of providing in the most humane 
possible way for such children. 



The possibilities of industrial training 
by which certain types of defectives may 
gradually become in part self-supporting 
and the importance of providing facili- 
ties for mental examination and diag- 
nosis of doubtful cases are also brought 
out. 

TUBERCULOSIS IN CAMPS 
AND HOMES 

THAT America's entry into the war 
may result in the reporting of more 
than 3,000 cases of tuberculosis in this 
country annually while war lasts is the 
possibility discussed by Louis I. Dublin, 
of the Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, in a paper read this week be- 
fore the North Atlantic Conference of 
the National Association for the Study 
and Prevention of Tuberculosis — the 
first of four regional conferences. Proof 
that the anti-tuberculosis movement had 
made itself felt definitely through its 
campaigns of the past quarter-century 
was to be found, Dr. Dublin said, in the 
lowered death-rate from this disease : 

In the short period since 1900 the tuber- 
culosis death-rate has declined over 25 per 
cent, which is considerably more than the 
decline in the death-rate from all causes. . . . 
In some states the death-rate is as low as in 
any part of the civilized world. Kansas, 
for example, had in 1915 a rate of 47.9 per 
100,000, while in Utah, the rate was only 26.1. 

Such is the situation as this country 
enters the war. But European experi- 
ence shows how vital is the relation be- 
tween tuberculosis and war as at present 
carried on. Dr. Biggs believed [the Sur- 
vey for May 5, 1917] 500,000 cases 
a conservative estimate for France ; a 
recent report of an increase of 50 per 
cent in certain German cities has been 
received ; figures of the registrar-general 
of England for 1915 show more than 16 
per cent increase over those of 1914; 
Holland's rate is said to have advanced 
from 154 in 1915 to 180 per 100,000 in 




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1917; and, nearer home, Ontario also 
reports increase. 

Such facts, says Dr. Dublin, make it clear 
that the conditions of modern war bring 
about higher tuberculosis rates, not only for 
the man in the ranks, but also for the civilian 
population. 

What all this means specifically for 
this country, Dr. Dublin thinks may be 
foreseen by noting certain changes re- 
sulting from participation of large num- 
bers of men in the war; then changes 
which may be expected in the civil pop- 
ulation. First, for instance, the medical 
examination of drafted men will disclose 
a large number of cases, unsuspected or 
hitherto concealed. How many cases 
will be thus discovered may perhaps be 
estimated from recent studies of condi- 
tions in the industrial field, which showed 
that from 1 to 3 per cent of the persons 
examined were tuberculous. 

Then, published death-rates are sig- 
nificant, even though the registration of 
tuberculosis as a cause is still incomplete, 
and many cases of the disease die from 
other causes — accidents, pneumonia, etc. 
Within the registration area, the tubercu- 
losis rate for males between the ages of 
20 and 30 — practically the draft age — 
is 200 per 100,000. Since from 5 to 10 
active cases may be estimated for every 
death, the total of 1,000 to 2,000 per 
100,000 is reached. This proportion 
agrees strikingly with the findings of the 
industrial investigations just referred to. 

If, therefore, says Dr. Dublin, we use the 
figure 2 per cent as the measure of active 
tuberculosis cases in the population at the 
draft ages, we certainly shall not be guilty 
of over-statement. On this basis there will 
be found in round numbers, 200,000 cases of 
active tuberculosis among the 10,000,000 men 
subject to the draft examinations, that is at 
the single age period 21 to 31, and for men 
only. We know that there are many who on 
the basis of their long experience of tuber- 
culosis work will insist that there are two or 
three times as many true cases, but it will 
be sufficient for our purpose to base the argu- 
ment that follows on the very moderate 
figure of 2 per cent. 

Full confirmation of this estimate de- 
pends, of course, upon the final reports 
of all medical examinations — figures 
which are not yet available. But Dr. 
Dublin quotes the findings of several in- 
dividual exemption boards : In one of 
the best residential districts of Chicago, 
98 men out of 1,525 were rejected be- 
cause of tuberculosis — a ratio of 6.4. 
These rejections were made only after 
four thorough examinations. In some 
counties of North Carolina the rejections 
numbered 5 per cent; the yet higher 
rate from Illinois requires further con- 
firmation ; California has already re- 
ferred 1,054 men to specialists for fur- 
ther examination. Even more striking 
is one report from New York, where 
X-ray examinations of men enlisted in 
one of the National Guard regiments 
(and therefore not new recruits, but men 
whose physical condition had already 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6 , 1917 



25 



been certified ) showed 3.6 per cent suf- 
ficiently tuberculous to disqualify them 
for military service, and 3.2 per cent 
requiring further examination to deter- 
mine the actual extent of the lesions — 
total, 6.8 per cent. 

From this, it may be concluded that 
only a small proportion of cases are 
known to the state boards of health at 
the present time ; a larger number are 
known to the medical profession and to 
patients themselves, but probably not 
more than one-quarter of this number are 
receiving proper medical attention. 

The first effect of the war will be to 
increase enormously the number of 
known cases of tuberculosis — but this, 
Dr. Dublin holds, must not be taken to 
mean an increase of the amount of the 
disease. And it may well be that as a 
result of such findings, many state and 
local authorities will decide to extend 
the examination for tuberculosis among 
other age periods and among women, in 
order to discover the extent to which 
this menace prevails among the popula- 
tion at large. 

But Dr. Dublin's argument is not lim- 
ited to war times. A certain amount of 
tuberculosis exists in every army. The 
rate in the United States army for the 
year 1915 was 3.5. It is found that a 
soldier rarely becomes infected while on 
active duty ; the majority of cases de- 
velop during the first year or during the 
period of training; hence probably these 
cases were suffering from either latent 
or arrested lesions before they entered 
the army. If the 1915 rate continues, 
the discovery of 3,500 new cases may be 
expected yearly, as new men come into 
service. 

Everything will depend, of course, upon 
the degree to which the military authorities 
will make known to the state departments of 
health the cases of tuberculosis which they 
discover through the draft examination. . . . 
The first effect of the war upon tuberculosis 
may then be considered as a distinct gain 
to the anti-tuberculosis movement. . . . The 
figures for many years will not look so well 
as before the war, but the increase in the 
number of cases will be indicative of prog- 
ress rather than of retrogression and will 
serve as the first step in a radical and con- 
structive movement for the control of the 
disease. 

It is undoubtedly true, Dr. Dublin 
recognizes, that, as compensation, the pe- 
riod of training will for many individuals 
be a distinct improvement over their 
previous habits of living. Life in the 
open, systematized work and exercise, 
wholesome and sufficient food, sanitary- 
conditions and military discipline should 
prove of much benefit. 

As to the civilian population, it is true 
that in England, despite the long cam- 
paign to control the disease, tuberculosis 
has increased during the period of the 
war. That this increase is largely among 
males may be because the strongest men 
have been called to service. The statis- 
tics of women doubtless represent more 




The Instant Summons 

"Instant, through copse and heath, arose 
Bonnets and spears and bended bows; 

% %. ;{; % -Jf. 

As if the yawning hill to heaven 
A subterranean host had given. " 



The whistled summons of Rod- 
erick Dhu, the hero of Scott's "Lady 
of the Lake," caused his Highland 
warriors literally to spring from the 
earth. Ere the echo died away, 
from behind bush and rock emerged 
the loyal and ready clansmen. In 
armed silence they awaited their 
chieftain's bidding and typified his 
might- 
Today the Commander-in-Chief 
of our nation's armed forces and the 
resources behind them, can, by lift- 
ing the telephone receiver, instan- 



taneously set in motion all the vast 
machinery of warfare, munitions, 
transportation and food conserva- 
tion. 

Like the Scottish mountaineers, 
the American people must stand in 
loyal readiness to perform any 
service in furtherance of the na- 
tion's high aim. Such a spirit of 
co-operation and sacrificing of in- 
dividual interests can alone make 
certain the accomplishment of the 
great task to which our country is 
committed. 




American Telephone and Telegraph Company 
And Associated Companies 

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One Policy 



One System 



accurately the true conditions. The in- 
crease, which is apparent at all ages over 
10, is probably traceable to their employ- 
ment in industries, the speeding up of 
work connected with the war, coupled 
with a general lowering of economic 
conditions, especially the reduced food 
supply and the deterioration in civil 
medical service. 

The program for these new condi- 
tions must include, Dr. Dublin believes, 
each of the factors mentioned : the phys- 
ical, with results of the draft boards' ex- 
aminations as a starting-point ; the eco- 



nomic, lest straitened conditions spread 
the disease through the civil population : 

In conclusion, he says, we would urge that 
our first duty if we would profit by the ex- 
perience of European countries, is to exclude 
the tuberculous from our armies at the very 
beginning and to provide medical treatment 
on a large scale for the huge number of 
men who will for the first time become aware 
of their impaired condition; and, second, to 
provide the means for a searching inquiry 
into the other groups of the population other 
than at the draft ages, to discover the un- 
cared-for cases of the disease. Our war dis- 
covery must become our peace program. 



26 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 1917 



Master Books from Three Great Nations 



The Inspiration of the German People when they awake from their present nightmare 

THE COMING DEMOCRACY 

By HERMANN FERNAU 



An examination, searching and merciless, of Germany's medieval dynastic and 
political system by the author of " Because I am a German," and a demand for 
reforms which all civilized countries of the world have enjoyed for decades. 



" The book is one of the most important which the war has produced." — The Spectator. 

"We recommend the book to every serious reader as one of the foremost books of universal and permanent value 

thus far inspired by the great war." — New York Tribune. 

" A most remarkable book, an incisive summary of the entire Teutonic situation, a book whose conclusions are 

identical with President Wilson's reply to the Pope." — Newark Evening Call. 

Net $2.00 

What the Gallant French are suffering, yet without losing heart or hope 

UNDER FIRE (LE FEU) The Story ol a Squad 

By HENRI BARBUSSE, Translated from the French by Fitz water Wray 

Over 150,000 copies of the French edition already sold 



An epic description of life and battle in the trenches that in grip and calm 
remorseless presentation of facts reminds strongly of Zola's best work. 



"There is much more than the life of a squad in this brilliant and varied narrative which records or divines wide 
areas of experience. 

"It is not a chronicle, still less a diary, but combines pictures of men in masses, and of individual types, moral- 
izings, impressions, observations, episodes, into a sort of epic of army life from the point of view of a private 
soldier. . . ." — Frank Moore Colby in The Bookman for September, 1917. 

Net $1.50 

The fighting soul of England finding a Voice 

A STUDENT IN ARMS 

By DONALD HANKEY 

Killed in action at the Battle of the Somme, October 26th, 1916 



This book has a special message for every American man or woman who has a 
loved one, a relative, or a friend who has gone or expects to go across the Atlantic 
to fight in France. 

Hundreds of war books tell what happens to the bodies of men in the trenches 
and behind the front. This book tells what happens to their souls and minds 
and is as reassuring as the others are appalling. 



"This book deserves a place beside Rupert Brooke's sonnets and 'Mr. Britling Sees It Through.' It is one of the 

few documents that reveal the spirit of England in a terrible crisis." — The New York Churchman. 

"Wherever there are men at war, this is a book not only for those who fight but for those who must remain at 

home — perhaps more for the latter than the former." — Philadelphia Press. 

" The author is interested in the great democratic experiment of the war and its lasting and beneficial results after 

the war is over. He writes with mixed humor and seriousness and always with a warm kindliness. ... It is 

wholesome and fine and human." — New York Globe. 

Net $1.50 



POSTAGE EXTRA. AT ALL BOOKSTORES 

E. P. BUTTON & COMPANY, 681 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 



THE SURVEY FOR. OCTOBER 6 , i g i 7 



27 



BABIES 



IN WAR-TIME 
AFTER 



AND 



■I' 



lllllilllllllllllllllllill 



PARTLY as a war-time emergency 
measure, the Massachusetts State 
Department of Health is launching an 
enterprise to care for every child in the 
state who needs care. This task of con- 
servation will be accomplished by the 
cooperation with the department of many 
nursing agencies, the Women's Commit- 
tee of the State Council of Defense 
and the Red Cross. In outline, here 
is the plan of work: 

In each of the eight health districts 
into which the state is divided by the 
Department of Health, a special public 
health nurse will be placed, a woman 
who has had training and successful ex- 
perience in child welfare. After con- 
ference with the district health officer, 
this nurse will go to each city or town 
in her district and make what is prac- 
tically a survey of conditions, ascertain- 
ing from the local health officer, from 
nursing organizations and any other 
child-welfare agencies just what is now 
being done there, what needs are still 
unmet. 

The questionnaire used in this prelim- 
inary looking over the ground follows 
closely that published by the federal 
Children's Bureau. It shows the provi- 
sion or otherwise of pre-natal service, 
obstetrical care, and "well-baby" as well 
as "sick-baby" clinics, and asks for the 
local worker's opinion as to what is the 
most urgent need of the babies in her 
immediate bailiwick. 

It is planned that following this gath- 
ering of facts shall be abundant publicity 
to acquaint people with the various 
agencies nearby and how these may be 
of service to them. The first of these 
surveys was made in Boston. The need 
was not the same in every one of the 
twenty-six wards ; in one place, sick-baby 
clinics were considered advisable; and in 
others, well-baby clinics. The need of 
pre-natal work was evident everywhere. 

The interest in this plan already shown 
would indicate that localities will, when 
possible, undertake whatever is neces- 
sary or desirable for their children's wel- 
fare. That the community itself meets 
the responsibility, its local agencies work- 
ing together, with any needed assistance 
and advice from the State Health De- 
partment, at once establishes the work 
upon a permanent basis, making it much 
more than a war measure, and also in- 
sures that specific needs of the individual 
community will be known and met. 

At headquarters the committee in 
charge, appointed by Dr. Allan J. Mc- 
Laughlin, state commissioner of health, 
consists of Dr. David L. Edsall, Dr. 
William J. Gallivan, and Dr. Lyman 
Asa Jones. Advisory members are Dr. 
R. L. DeNormandie, Dr. Walter Fer- 
nald and Dr. William Healy, who will 
advise on matters of delinquency and 



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"The Linen Store" 

Fifth Avenue 

New York 





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direct attention to the new Fall stocks displayed in their 
Women's Wear Departments. Like the other sections of the 
store, these cater only to good taste and deal only in reliable 
quality. The favorite materials and colors for Gowns, 
Suits, Coats, etc., in vogue for the coming season are here 
in abundance, as well as Lingerie, Underwear, Neckwear, etc. 

Gowns, Coats, Suits, Etc. 

Street Frocks in Serge, with smart pleatings in the new styles, 

$12.95, 15.95, 23.95 and up. 

Tailored Suits in Wool Jersey, Oxford Mixtures, Wool Velours, 

Garbardines, etc., $32.75, 36.00, 38.50 and up. 

Afternoon Dresses, Crepe de Chine, Soft Satins, Satin Charmeuse, 

in fascinating new colors and conceits, $21.50, 25.00 and up. 

Evening and Dinner Gowns, Satin Charmeuse, Georgette Crepe, 

Silks, Chiffon Taffeta, trimmed with figured net, $23.95, 35.00, 

36.50 and up. 

Coats in the fashionable bulky cut, in Velours, Tweeds and Plaids, 

$27.75, 28.50, 36.50 and up. 

Blouses of Georgette Crepe, Crepe de Chine, Roman Striped 

Taffeta, Cotton Voile, $2.95 to 13.75. 

Lingerie 

Somehow the -French still manage to send us attractive Em- 
broideries and new designs in fine Lingerie. We are also 
showing the beautiful new Hand Embroidery that is now 
being produced in the Philippines, and a choice assortment 
of American Lingerie, which constantly improves in beauty. 

Night Gowns, $1.95, 2.75 and up. 

Chemises (Nainsook), $1.25, 2.50, 3.00 and up. 

Envelope Chemises, $1.75, 2.00, 2.50 and up. 

Corsets— Newest Fall Styles in Batiste and Coutil Corsets to fit all 



figures. 



Send for our new Fall catalogue 



lllllllllllllllllllll 



AN INDUSTRIAL SURVEY 
IN CHINA 

The number of jinrikisha coolies in 
Peking, what they earn, how they 
live and whence they come has been 
studied by a group of native college 
students. The result — the first so- 
cial investigation in China — has been 
tabulated and brought out by a 
Chinese disciple of the Webbs, of 
London. A review of it forms the 
second of Mr. Burgess' series on 
China's Social Challenge for the 
Survey next week. 



1 



The Universalist 
Church Wants 

ministers. It affords a broad platform, 
a timely gospel, inspiring work for 
strong men who want to serve in this day 
of need. Universalism — "the religion of 
democracy" — is adequate for every world 
and individual problem. YOU can prepare 
for this ministry at the Theological De- 
partment, St. Lawrence University. Ad- 
dress for information, 

J. M. Atwood, Dean, 
Canton, N. Y. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, 1917 




INVESTMENT SECURITIES 



The Survey accepts only the advertisements of reliable banking firms, brokers, 
trust companies, savings banks and other financial institutions. 



Corn Belt Farm Loans 

offered and recommended by The Merchants Loan 
and Trust Company — the Oldest Bank in Chicago. 

These loans are all secured by First Mortgages on 
improved farms of established value in the Corn Belt — the 
safest farm loan section in the United States. They are 
made only after thorough and exhaustive personal inves- 
tigation and never for more than one -half the value of 
the land alone. 

No investor purchasing these mortgages has ever failed 
to receive principal and interest when due. 

At present, these loans are being sold to net b°Jo. 

A detailed list and description of loans aggregating 
any amount you state, will be sent upon request. 

Our service includes the examination and 
approval of title by the Banks own attorneys, an 
inspection of the properly by our own salaried exam- 
iner, the certification that all taxes are paid as they 
mature, the collection and remittance of interest and 
principal, and the facilities for renewal or substitu- 
tion of mortgages at current rates, all without charge 
to the investor. 

FARM LOAN DEPARTMENT 

F. W. THOMPSON, Vice-President (in Charge) 
112 West Adams Street, Chicago 

KXpital and Surplus -Eleven Million Dollars^ 





A First Mortgage 6% Investment 

Secured by 
Modern Steel 
_ Plant 

Borrower — Long-established, widely-known steel company. 

Assets — Six to one. 

Earnings — Nearly ten to one. 

Maturities and Denominations — 3 to 15 years; $500 and $1000. 

Send for Circular No. 924 OA 

Peabody, Houghteling & Co. 



(Established 1865) 



10 South La Salle Street 



CHICAGO, ILL. 

A.,1- 



mental defect; Dr. Richard M. Smith, 
Dr. Fritz Talbot ; Mary Beard, repre- 
senting public health nursing, and Mrs. 
William Lothrop, of the Red Cross. 

INDUSTRIAL UNREST TO BE 
STUDIED AGAIN 

THE Mooney case witness who wrote 
to a man in Illinois that he could 
make all his expenses and "$100 in the 
clear" if he would come to San Fran- 
cisco and "say you seen me on July 22" 
— F. C. Oxman — was last week ac- 
quitted of the charge of subornation of 
perjury. Immediately after his release 
he was rearrested on a warrant charging 
him with perjury, sworn to by Belle 
Hammerburg, a sister of Mrs. Mooney. 
This charge will bring again into court 
the testimony that convicted Mooney 
[the Survey for July 7]. 

Oxman swore that Mr. and Mrs. 
Mooney, Weinberg, who is charged with 
complicity in the crime, and another man 
drove down Market street in the face of 
the oncoming Preparedness Parade and 
openly placed a suitcase containing a 
bomb at the corner of Steuart street. 
To do this they must have driven nearly 
a mile on a street from which all traffic 
in either direction had been barred by po- 
lice order, and on which a policeman 
was stationed every 100 feet. 

Interest in the San Francisco bomb 
case has been re-awakened in the East 
by two events of the last few days. Last 
Monday Governor Whitman of New 
York granted a hearing to a delegation 
of trade unionists who protested against 
the extradition to San Francisco of Alex- 
ander Berkman, who has recently been 
indicted on a charge of complicity in the 
crime. It was pointed out to the gov- 
ernor that Berkman lived in San Fran- 
cisco for months after the bomb explosion 
and that his office and personal effects 
were searched more than once by the po- 
lice, yet he was allowed to leave San 
Francisco without interference. Now, 
more than a year after the crime, he is 
indicted and an attempt is made to bring 
him back in a spectacular manner, the 
governor was told, in order to lend color 
in the public mind to the idea that the 
bomb explosion was an anarchist plot. 
Governor Whitman reserved decision un- 
til he could have opportunity to examine 
the minutes of the grand jury that 
brought the indictment against Berk- 
man. 

The other event that is of interest in 
this connection is the departure for the 
West of the commission recently ap- 
pointed by the President, with Secretary 
Wilson as chairman, to investigate indus- 
trial unrest. It became known that the 
commission will make a thorough inves- 
tigation of the bomb trials in San Fran- 
cisco. President Wilson is said to have 
taken a strong personal interest in the 
matter and to be anxious to have all the 
[Continued on page JO~] 



THE SURF EY FOR OCTOBER 6 , i o 17 



29 



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1 1 NOTABLE NEW PUBLICATIONS 1 1 

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RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 
AND DEMOCRACY 

By Benjamin S. Winchester 

Yale University School of Religion 

A fresh and timely study of a subject uppermost in 

the public mind because it is a vital one. 

Crown 8vo. Cloth. Net, $1.50 postpaid. 

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order from the nearest address 

THE ADVANCED 
MONTESSOKI METHOD 

By MARIA MONTESSORI, M.D. 

Vol. 1. Spontaneous Activity in Education 
Vol. 2. The Montessori Elementary Material 

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and philosophic principles first outlined by her in 
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As a set, boxed, cloth, Svo, net $3.80. Each, sepa- 
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Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York 

AMERICAN INDIAN CORN 

A Cheap, Wholesome and Nutritious Food 

By Charles J. Murphy 

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Revised and Edited with the Addition of Many New Recipes and a Foreword by 
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In view of the threatened shortage of wheat, the important 
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By Dr. PERCY STICKNEY GRANT 

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Should we have the poor always with us? 
AN HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION TO 

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By F. STUART CHAPIN 

Professor Chapin shows that by far the larger part 
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A fascinating book by this famous author. Taking 
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By H. CALDWELL COOK 

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By Lina Rogers Struthers 

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| 12°. Illustrated. $1.75 

The school nurse has been a great factor in community wel- 
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1 Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey. 

1 By N. Forbes, A. J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, and D. G. 
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THE TRUST PROBLEM 



This book by Dr. Jeremiah W. Jenks and Dr. Walter E. 
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enlarged and is now out in a new edition. At all book- 
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Published by 
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1 dealing exclusively with Far Eastern Life, politics, commerce, economics, education, travel, religion, and social customs. 

1 The only magazine in the country devoted to the Orient. Mention THE SURVEY when you write for a sample copy. 

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30 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6 , 1917 



FOOD FACTS 



FOOD FACTS 




METROPOLITAN LIFE 
INSURANCE COMPANY 



The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company announces 
the publication of a new booklet — 

FOOD FACTS 

The following table of contents indicates its scope: 

CHAPTER I. -Where to Buy. 
CHAPTER II.— How to Buy Cheaply. 
CHAPTER III.— Clean Food and Disease 

Prevention. 
CHAPTER IV.— Wise Food and Health. 
CHAPTER V.— Cooking Foods. 
CHAPTER VI.— Good Food Habits. 

In this booklet Dr. Donald B. Armstrong, the author, 
brings out in simple language the fundamental facts in 
regard to the purchase, preparation and use of foods. 

This publication is a contribution on the part of the Com- 
pany to the present war preparation of the Country. 
Individual copies or limited supplies may be secured 
without cost from the Metropolitan Representative in 
your city or by application to the 

Welfare Division 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. 

No. 1 Madison Avenue, New York City 



[Continued from page 28] 
facts brought out. The commission is 
to make its first stop in Arizona to in- 
quire into the strike of copper miners 
and the accompanying deportations. Its 
general mission is such that it would 
seem that, three years after the dissolu- 
tion of the Industrial Relations Com- 
mission, the President has appointed an- 
other commission to the same task. 

TO MAKE HALLOWE'EN SAFE 
AND SANE 

WHILE much has been done to 
free the Fourth of July of dan- 
gerous features, only recently has a move 
been made to free Hallowe'en of rowdy- 
ism and to direct the animal spirits of 
youth toward a festival of real merri- 
ment, beauty and educational signifi- 
cance. 

At Fort Worth, Tex., for instance, 
the Park Board, the School Board and 
the Recreation Committee last year 
united with the Fall Festival Associa- 
tion in giving a great masque and pa- 
geant which brought together tens of 
thousands of people in common enjoy- 
ment. Nearly four thousand school 
children took part in a series of tab- 
leaux, a crowd thronged the park dur- 
ing the afternoon festival, and more than 
sixty thousand persons from far and wide 
came at night to view the carnival on 
the streets. 

The subject of the pageant, Elbert M. 
Vail, superintendent of recreation, writes 
to the Survey, was Preparedness for 
Peace. Its aim was fourfold: to awaken 
civic consciousness to a realization of the 
loftiest ideals of peace — not peace 
snatched at intervals from the black hor- 
rors of war, but an abiding, all- 
embracing peace made possible by the 
brotherhood of man ; to demonstrate the 
place of supervised play, recreation and 
physical training in the development of 
a race fit for peace and war ; to make the 
citizens appreciate the possibilities of 
their recreation centers; and to arouse a 
community spirit. 

The afternoon pageant was carefully 
rehearsed, gorgeously costumed and beau- 
tifully staged in the huge natural amphi- 
theater of Fort Worth's largest park. 
After the singing of Columbia, the first 
episode showed the return of Columbus 
to the court of King Ferdinand and 
Queen Isabella after the discovery of 
America. Dutch children and Pilgrim 
Fathers symbolized another strain in 
America's make-up. William Penn and 
his quiet band of Quakers were seen par- 
leying with the Indians ; France bring- 
ing aid in the War of Independence, the 
colonial life of the times, the opening of 
the Orient to American trade were other 
subjects falling into the general scheme. 
America's welcome to the immigrant, a 
massed drill of boys and girls, typifying 
the merging of her component races in a 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 6, igi 7 



31 



new commonwealth, and the Spirit of 
Peace followed in sequence. The differ- 
ent decorated floats of the evening parade 
more or less repeated the scenes of the 
earlier program. 

Fort Worth knew, writes Mr. Vail, that 
this was to be her first great fall festival ; 
but she came later to realize that through 
it she had solved her Hallowe'en problem. 
Thousands of revelers were in costume. The 
multi-colored costumes, the happy give and 
take of the throng, the shrill piping of the 
horns and the music of the bands added 
their quota to the gaiety of the scene. 

Although the crowd was double any 
which the city had ever drawn before, its 
spirit was incomparable, and good fellow- 
ship appeared to be the motto even where 
the crush was greatest. Down town there 
was not an accident, and not a single in- 
stance of disorder came to light. The police 
did not have to make a single arrest. A 
record for Hallowe'en. 

Another successful solution of the 
Hallowe'en problem is offered by Allen- 
town, Pa. In this community of some 
61,000 people, which prides itself upon 
its old customs, the Hallowe'en parade 
is a yearly event, designed to give legiti- 
mate outlet to the mischievous spirit of 
the day. City officials take the lead and 
arrange the meeting places for the va- 
rious wards. 

In last year's demonstration, each di- 
vision was headed by a band, sixteen in 
all, and seven thousand persons paraded 
in costume. Sometimes groups would 
appear in uniform costume, a row of 
follies or of football girls. The college 
boys marched in the time-honored cos- 
tume for this occasion, the ghostly night- 
shirt. Some of the more enterprising 
merchants provided floats. Clowns in 
large numbers, Zulu chiefs, ghosts, Char- 
lie Chaplins, Uncle Sams were to be 
seen everywhere. 

"I bought some calico for about twen- 
ty-seven cents," one hard-pressed little 
mother told Lucy J. Collins, who re- 
ported these events to the Survey, "and 
worked until twelve o'clock to make it 
for him. But it was all right; he can 
march." 

No one was too rich or too poor to be 
in the fun. At ten o'clock, after an eve- 
ning spent without the slightest disorder, 
everyone went home — little clowns 
sometimes carried in the strong arms of 
big clowns. There was no work at po- 
lice headquarters beyond the reprimand- 
ing of a couple of youths for talcum- 
throwing. 

Allentown, bv the way, has another 
unusual community festival. At the 
close of the playground season every 
year the children from each of the four- 
teen supervised playgrounds, with their 
parents, meet together on the fair 
grounds for Romper Day, celebrated by 
contests in volley ball and other games, 
folk-dancing and al fresco lunching. In 
this instance, as in the other, rich and 
poor meet on a footing of perfect 
equality of dress and action. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

EXPERIENCED house mother, with 
daughter, school girl, desires position child- 
caring institution. Address 2602 Survey. 

WANTED — A position as recreation in- 
structor or play leader. Preferable, Chi- 
cago. Experienced. Trained. References 
exchanged. Address 2609 Survey. 

DIRECTOR of boys' and men's work 
in settlements, several years' experience, 
wishes similar position. Address 2610 

Survey. 

SOCIAL worker, two years' experience 
as Head of Settlement House, wishes work 
in healthy location in any city. Elizabeth 
Robinson, 420 Walnut Lane, Germantown, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

HELP WANTED 

WANTED : Jewish man and wife to 
take charge of small city home for boys. 
Full time of woman and part time of man 
required. Couple with social settlement or 
institution experience preferred. Must 
speak English fluently without accent and 
reside in institution. Apply by letter only, 
stating qualifications, education and experi- 
ence, to Harry M. Lewy, 2 Rector Street, 
New York City. 

WANTED — Jewish man, experienced in 
social work as Superintendent of Relief 
Society. State age, previous employment, 
salary expected, etc. Address 2612 Survey. 

WANTED — Young Jewish woman of 
executive ability and case work experience 
to take charge of work with delinquent 
girls. Address 2011 Survey'. 

COMING MEETINGS 

[Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month.] 

American Public Health Association, War 
Meeting, Washington, D. C, Oct. 17-20. Head- 
quarters, Hotel Willard. Acting secretary, A. 
W. Hedrick, 126 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, 
Mass. 

PERIODICALS 

Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

A. L. A. Book List; monthly; $1; annotated mag- 
azine on book selection; valuable guide to best 
books; American Library Association, 78 East 
Washington St., Chicago. 

American Red Cross Magazine; monthly; $2 a 
year; Doubleday, Page & Co., publishers, New 
York. 

American Journal of Public Health; monthly; $3 
a year; 3 months' trial (4 months to Survey 
readers), 50 cents; American Public Health As- 
sociation, 126 Massachusetts Ave., Boston. 

A Voice in the Wilderness; $1 a year. A magazine 
of sane radicalism. At present deals particu- 
larly with our autocratic suppression of free 
speech, free press and peaceable assembly. An 
indispensable magazine to the lover of liberty. 

12 Mount Morris Park, New York City. 

Better Films Movement: Bulletin of Affiliated 
Committees; monthly; $1; ten cents an issue. 
Information about successful methods. Ad- 
dress National Committee for Better Films, or 
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. 

The Child Labor Bulletin; quarterly; $2 a year; 
National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22 
street, New York. 

The Club Worker; monthly; 30 cents a year; Na- 
tional League of Women Workers, 35 East 30 
St., New York. 

The Co-operatiz-e Consumer; monthly; 25 cts. per 
year. Co-operative League of America, 2 West 

13 St., New York. 



The Crtsts; monthly; $1; National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People, publisher, 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. 

The Critic and Guide; monthly; $1 a year. De- 
voted to medical sociology, rational sexology, 
birth control, etc. Wm. J. Robinson, M.D., 
Editor. 12 Mount Morris Park, New York City. 

The Dial; fortnightly; $3 a vear; five months' 
trial to Survey readers $1. Constructive articles 
on social aspects, war and peace, by H. M. 
Kallen, of Committee on Labor, Advisory Com- 
mission, Council National Defense, starts Oc- 
tober 11. The Dial, 608 So. Dearborn St., 
Chicago. 

The Journal of Home Economics; monthly; $2 
a year; foreign postage, 35c. extra; Canadian. 
20c; American Home Economics Association, 
1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

The Journal of Negro History; quarterly; $1 a 
year; foreign subscriptions 25 cents extra; con- 
cerned with facts not with opinions; Association 
for Study of Negro Life and History, 1216 You 
St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Life and Labor; $1 a year; a spirited record of 
the organized struggle of women, by women, for 
women in the economic world. Published by 
The National Women's Trade Union League, 
Room 703, 139 North Clark street, Chicago. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; National 
Committee for Mental Hygiene, 58 Union 
Square, New York. 

National Municipal Review; monthly; $5 a year; 
authoritative, public spirited, constructive; Na- 
tional Municipal League; North American Bldg.. 
Philadelphia. 

The_ Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. postpaid; permanent record of cur- 
rent events. An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

The Playground Magazine; monthly; $2; Recrea- 
tion in Industries and Vocational Recreation 
are discussed in the August Playground. Prob- 
lems involved in laying out playgrounds are 
taken up in detail by A. E. Metzdorf, of Spring- 
field, Mass. Price of this issue $.50. Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of America, 
1 Madison Ave., New York. 

Proportional Representation Review; quarterly; 
40 cents a year. American Proportional Repre- 
sentation League, 802 Franklin Bank Bldg., 
Philadelphia. 

Public Health Nurse Quarterly, $1 a year; na- 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Social Hygiene; a quarterly magazine; $2 per 
year; The Social Hygiene Bulletin; monthly; 
$.25 per year; both free to members; pub- 
lished by the American Social Hygiene Asso- 
ciation, 105 W. 40 St., New York. 

Southern Workman; monthly; illustrated; folk 
song, and corn club, and the great tidal move- 
ments of racial progress; all in a very human 
vein; $1 a year; Hampton Institute, Hampton, 
Va. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St, New York. 

CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

[Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser 
tions, copy unchanged throughout the month.] 
Order pamphlets from publishers. 

American Plan for Keeping the Bible in Pub- 
lic Schools: 32 pp., 6 cents postpaid, and A 
Primer of the Science of Internationalism; 
96 pp., 15 cents postpaid. Published by Inter- 
national Reform Bureau, 206 Pennsylvania Ave., 
S. E., Washington, D. C. 

Buying Clubs. Published by the Co-operative 
League of America, 70 Fifth avenue, New 
York. 5 cents. 

Co-operation in the United States. C. W. 
Perky, Co-operative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

The Gary Plan in New York tiiv Schools. 
Peter J. Brady, 923-4 World Building, New York. 

Law Concerning Children Born Out of Wed- 
lock (so-called Castberg law). Adopted by the 
Norwegian Storthing, April 10. 1915. 10 cents 
from chairman of committee on Castberg Law. 
679 Lincoln Parkway, Chicago. 

Making the Boss Efficient. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc. 112 East 19 St., New York. 

The Reconstruction ok Religion for Humanity. 
Baccalaureate sermon preached by Rabbi Eman- 
uel Sternheim, Sioux City, Iowa, at Nebraska 
State Normal School. 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



SUEVBY 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed ; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Americanization, Nlil. 

Better Films Movement, Ncbf. 

Birth Registration, Aaspim. 

Blindness, Ncpb. 

Cancer, Ascc. 

Central Councils, Aaoc. 

Charities, Ncsw. 

CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Amer. Assn. for Org. Charity. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Nml, Sbo. 
CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Exhibit Assn. 

Natl. Com. for Better Films. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Nspie, Praa. 
CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

(Episcopal) Jt. Com. on Soc. Ser., Pec. 

(Federal) Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

(Unitarian) Dept. of Soc. and Pub. Ser., Aua. 
CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Natl. Municipal League. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Civilian Relief, Arc. 
Clinics, Industrial, Ncl. 
Commission Government, Nml, Sbo. 
Community Organization, Aiss. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 

Coordination Social Agencies, Aadc, Aiss. 
Correction. Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 
COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca, Arc. 

County Ywca. 
Crime, Sa. 

Disfranchisement. Naacp. 
EDUCATION 

Amer. Library Assn. 

Cooperative League of America. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Natl. Soc. for Prom, of Ind. Ed. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Efficiency Work. Bmr. 
Electoral Reform, Nml, Ti, Apkl. 
Eugenics, Er. 
Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb, Nyshs. 



Fatigue, Ncl. 
Feeblemindedness, Cpfm, Ncmh. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation 
Franchises, Nml. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Pub. Health Assn. 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Com. of One Hund. on Natl. Health. 

Com. on Prov. for Feebleminded. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Natl. Soc. Hygiene Assn. 

New York Social Hygiene Society, 

Ncsw, Ncwea, 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
History, Asnlh. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work, Ncl, Nclc. 
Hospitals, Naspt. 

Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca. 
Idiocy, Cpfm. 
Imbecility, Cpfm. 

IMMIGRATION 

Council of Jewish Worn., Dept. Im. Aid. 

International Institute for Foreign-born Women 
of the Ywca. 

Natl. Lib. Im. League, Nfs, Ntas, Tas. 
Industrial hygiene, Apha. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Consumers League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Nspie. 
Insanity, Ncmh. 
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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 
Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Natl. Woman's Peace Party. 

Labor Laws, Aall, Ncl, Nclc. 

Legislative Reform, Aprl. 

Liquor, Nml. 

LIBRARIES 

American Library Assn. 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 
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Military Relief, Arc. 
Minimum Wage, Ncl. 
Mountain Whites, Rsf. 
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National Service, Aiss. 
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Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha, Arc, Nophs. 
Open Air Schools, Naspt. 

PEACE 

National Woman's Peace Party. 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 
Physical Training, Praa. 
Police, Nml. 

Protection Women Workers, Ncl, Ntas. 
Prostitution, Asha. 
Public Health, Apha, Cohnh, Nophs. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Assn. for Study Negro Life and Hist. 

Hampton Institute. 

Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 

Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 

Tuskegee Institute. 

Alil, Er. 
Reconstruction, Ncsw. 
Regulation of Motion Pictures, Near. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 

Ncbf. Ywca. 
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Russejl Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans. 
Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Self-Government, Nlww. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Natl. Fed. of Settlements. 
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Social Hygiene, Asha, Nyshs. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Amer. Inst, of Soc. Service. 

Com. on Ch. and Soe. Service, Fccca. 



Dept. of Soc. and Public Service, Aua. 
Joint Com. on Soc. Service, Pkc. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 

Ncmh, Praa, Ncwea, Nspie. 
Taxation, Nml. 

National Travelers Aid Society. 

TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers' Aid Society. 

Travelers Aid Society. 

Cjw. 
Tuberculosis, Naspt. 
Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 
Unemployment, Aall. 
WAR RELIEF 

Am. Red Cross. 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Ywca 
WOMEN 

Amei. Home Economics Assn. 

Natl. Consumers' League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 
Young Women's Christian Association. 

Working Girls. 

Cjw, Ntas, Tas. 

Nlww., Tas. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOE LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. Workmen's compensation; health in- 
surance; industrial hygiene; unemployment; one- 
day-rest-in-seven; administration of labor laws. 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ORGANIZING 
CHARITY— Mrs. W. H. Lothrop, ch'n; Francis 
H. McLean, gen. sec'y; 130 E. 22 St, New York. 
Correspondence and active field work in the or- 
ganization, and solution of problems confronting, 
charity organization societies and councils of 
social agencies; surveys of social agencies; plans 
for proper coordination of effort between different 
social agencies. 

AMERICAN ASSOC. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St, Balti- 
more. Literature on request. Traveling exhibit. 
Urges prenatal instruction; adequate obstetrical 
care; birth registration; maternal nursing; infant 
welfare consultations 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA- 
TION— Mrs. Alice P. Norton, sec'y; 1326 E. 
58 St., Chicago. Information supplied on any- 
thing that pertains to food, shelter, clothing or 
management in school, institution or home. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SERV- 
ICE — Founded by Dr. Josiah Strong. Nathaniel 
M. Pratt, gen. sec'y. Edward W. Bemis, Robert 

A. Woods, dept. directors, Bible House, Astor 
Place, New York. Welcomes inquiries as to all 
matters of community organization and progress. 
Members of its staff glad to enter into consulta- 
tion by correspondence about given conditions 
or particular projects. Assists in bringing to in- 
dividual new undertakings the combined results 
and lessons of the best productive achievement. 
Ready to aid in securing publications, speakers, 
temporary or permanent leadership. Particular 
attention given to requests from communities in 
which all such effort is at an early stage. Seeks 
to bring about better cooperation among special- 
ized national organizations, toward securing the 
more comprehensive local application of their 
types of service. Promotes the fullest extension 
of principles and methods which on a limited 
scale have conclusively shown their power for the 
upbuilding of the nation. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION— George 

B. Utley, exec, sec'y; 78 E. Washington St, Chi- 
cago. Furnishes information about organizing 
libraries, planning library buildings, training 
librarians, cataloging libraries, etc. List of publi- 
cations on request. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE— C. G. Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives. 
Literature free. Membership $1. 
AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION 
— Dr. W. A. Evans, pres., Chicago; A. W. Hed- 
rich, acting sec'y; 1039 Boylston St., Boston. Ob- 
ject: to promote public and personal health. Health 
Employment Bureau lists health officers, public 
health nurses, industrial hygienists, etc. 
AMERICAN RED CROSS — National officers: 
Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, 
president; Robert W. DeForest, vice-president; 
John Skelton Williams, treasurer; John W. Davis, 
counselor; Charles L. Magee, secretary; Hon. 
William Howard Taft, chairman central commit- 
tee; Eliot Wadsworth, vice-chairman; Harvey D. 
Gibson, general manager. 

Central Committee, appointed by the President 
of the United States: William Howard Taft, chair- 
man; Eliot Wadsworth, vice-chairman; Robert 
Lansing, Secretary of State; John Skelton Wil- 
liams, Controller of the Currency; Major-General 
William C. Gorgas, Surgeon-General, U. S. A.; 



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SOTV.TO7 




Sabotage and Disloyalty 

By John A. Fitch 

China's Social Challenge 

II. Beginnings of Social Investigation 
By J. S. Burgess 

Where Is the Money Coming From? 

By El wood Street 

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Insurance Law 



Price 10 Cents October 13, 1917 





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October 13, 1917 V»l. 39, Nt. 2 

THE SURVEY 

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: 




Sabotage and Disloyalty 



By John A. Fitch 

OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



ADVOCACY of sabotage is the principal element 
of danger in the I. W. W. Sabotage is the carry- 
ing on of the class struggle while at work. It is 
different from ordinary violence. You mustn't go 
so far as to put the establishment out of business, but you 
must raise Cain on the job. You must do something that 
will cause endless delay and vexation ; turn out spoiled or 
damaged goods ; mix up orders and shipping directions ; slow 
up without utterly destroying machinery ; harass the boss all 
you can without getting caught. 

That's the theory of sabotage and it's vicious, not only be- 
cause it is underhanded warfare, but because it destroys things 
of value. It decreases production and so, instead of creating 
anything beneficial to the workers, it decreases the stock of 
goods and thus lessens the possibility of adequate satisfaction 
of human wants. 

Worse than the act itself, though, is the spirit of sabotage. 
The theory of it may not include absolute destruction, but 
can a man acquire the habit of putting sand in the bearings 
without ever desiring to smash something with a crow-bar? 
The theory does not include taking human life, but can there 
be sabotage among bridge-builders and no danger to life? Can 
there be sabotage where steel rails are made, or brakes for 
automobiles, or steel cables, or in the mixing of cement or 
the laying of brick, and no probability of human destruction? 
Indeed, is it possible that men who stop at nothing in the 
way of interference with machinery, in order to gain their 
ends, will never contemplate the taking of life? 

It's the spirit of sabotage that constitutes the real danger. 
However the leaders may attempt to define it and set limits 
to it — however much they may discriminate, and say that this 
is sabotage and that is not, the fact remains that actions are 
not controlled by definitions. The advocate of sabotage is 
turning loose in the community a force which he cannot check 
and which may result in consequences far beyond his in- 
tention. 

This, it seems to me, is the chief reason for opposing the 
I. W. W. propaganda. It is certainly a sufficient reason. 
But is it also a reason for charging them with various and 
utterly dissociated crimes? Or is it a reason for denying 
them the equal protection of the laws? 

Certain recent events, including the indictments by a fed- 
The Survey, October 13, 1917, Volume 39, 



eral grand jury against 166 members and sympathizers of the 
I. W. W., and the general public attitude toward them, make 
these questions pertinent. Federal officers here and there all 
over the country are arresting the persons indicted. In due 
course they will doubtless have their trials and we shall then 
learn the nature of the evidence in the possession of the gov- 
ernment. 

In the meantime, two things seem to me rather clear, and 
incidentally, fairly good American doctrine. First, that if 
I. W. W. members have sought to weaken the military power 
of the government they should be restrained and punished ; 
second, that this cannot be determined in advance of a fair 
trial and that, consequently, until such trial the defendants 
must be presumed to be innocent. It may be that some of 
them have been guilty of seditious conduct. It is not at all 
likely that all of them have, nor that all of those who may be 
convicted are equally guilty. It is reasonable and decent, 
therefore, to withhold judgment. 

Yet we find that in a majority of the newspapers of the 
country the indicted members of the I. W. W. have already 
been tried and found guilty. Despite the fact that we do 
not yet know what evidence the government has to present, 
some of the newspapers are going wild over the fact that Wil- 
liam D. Haywood made' arrangements to have Pouget's book, 
Sabotage, translated into Finnish. Sabotage is a pernicious 
doctrine, as I said above, but preaching it does not constitute 
seditious conspiracy, as the newspaper writers very well know. 
Moreover, we have known, since the I. W. W. was organized, 
in 1904, that one of its doctrines is the practice of sabotage. 
It was partly on that ground that Haywood was eliminated 
from the Socialist party in 1913. It isn't a new discovery. 
It's no basis for the charge, therefore, in 1917, that Haywood 
and the others have been too close to German influence for 
toleration in a country at war with Germany. There may 
be such evidence, but if so it lies elsewhere than in the doc- 
trines that for a dozen years have been openly preached and 
practiced. 

Growing out of this newspaper attitude is a tendency even 
more serious because more widespread — a hot-headed intol- 
erance that will believe any accusation of the I. W. W., how- 
ever unsupported by facts; and support any aggression, how- 
ever unjustifiable or lawless, that may be directed against 
No. 2, 112 East 19 street, New York city 35 



36 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



them. Because of this tendency, unscrupulous employers are 
endeavoring to take advantage of the disrepute of the I. W. 
W. in order to further their own ulterior ends. Hardly a 
strike occurs in which the cry of "I. W. W. influence" is not 
immediately raised. The street car strike in San Francisco, 
now in progress, was ascribed to the I. W. W., though it is 
being handled by a representative of the Amalgamated Asso- 
ciation of Street and Electric Railway Employes, a union af- 
filiated with the American Federation of Labor. The strike 
of iron workers in the shipyards, all members of unions affil- 
iated with the American Federation of Labor, was said to 
be fomented by the I. W. W. The move for an eight-hour 
day in the lumber camps of Washington, endorsed by no less 
a person than Newton D. Baker, secretary of war, was de- 
nounced to the world as a part of the I. W. W. conspiracy 
to injure the government. 

The evidence that is most outstanding, of this state of 
mind, at once intolerant and susceptible to the artifices of un- 
scrupulous employers, is that concerning the recent deporta- 
tions of strikers in the Southwest. The strikes in the copper 
regions from Butte, Mont., to Bisbee, Ariz., were based on 
legitimate grievances. The intolerable "rustling card" sys- 
tem, which is nothing but an automatic blacklisting device, 
was in itself sufficient to warrant the most vigorous sort of 
a protest. 

Furthermore, the strikers were not all members of the I. 
W. W. by any means. Members of the Mill, Mine and 
Smelters' Union, affiliated with the American Federation of 
Labor, were also on strike in Bisbee, and they, together with 
other citizens who belonged to neither organization, were de- 
ported by a mob who called themselves — Heaven save the 
mark — the Loyalty League! 

That it is more than a desire to combat a seditious con- 
spiracy that has led to these illegal activities is shown not 



only by the indiscriminate kidnappings at Bisbee, but by an 
incident in another state, connected with an altogether dif- 
ferent union. Members of the United Mine Workers were 
on strike at Gallup, N. M., to enforce a contract. Under 
cover of the Bisbee excitement and the charges of disloyalty, 
men were deported from Gallup by citizens presumably in- 
spired by a loyalty quite similar to that of the Loyalty League. 

This incident is sufficient to make it clear that legitimate 
endeavor for the purpose of improving the condition of the 
wage-earners is likely to be opposed just now in violent and 
unusual ways. It is pertinent, therefore, to recall the fact 
that the purposes of the I. W. W. are not utterly destructive. 
Whatever one may say of their philosophy, they have espoused 
the cause of a class of workers who had no one else to plead 
their case and who have been desperately exploited — the casual 
and unskilled laborers. They have infused into this class 
a new hope and to some degree they have been responsible 
for an improvement in its condition. It must not be over- 
looked that activities of that character, and not alone co- 
operating with the enemy, are sufficient to arouse the bitterest 
opposition from those who profit by exploitation. 

It is most disheartening that these exploiters can resort to 
extreme lawlessness in the furtherance of their ends without 
evoking a protest from the public. Because of this spirit of 
acquiescence, the dread initials of the Industrial Workers of 
the World can be used not only to injure the legitimate labor 
movement everywhere, but also as a red herring across the 
trail of those employers who do not hesitate to use the na- 
tion's plight as an opportunity to strengthen their own unjust 
practices. 

There can be no two opinions about the necessity of sup- 
pressing treasonable activities, of whatever character. There 
ought not to be two opinions about the injustice of accepting 
the outcries of interested persons as evidence of treason. 



Where's the Money Coming From? 



By El wood Street 

OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



PUBLICITY and finance for social organizations, 
always important, are of pressing concern in these 
war times. Social agencies are hard hit by the in- 
creased cost of supplies and food. Many will soon 
have added burdens. Contributions are hard to keep up be- 
cause of war appeals and the uncertainty of contributors as 
to the effect which the cost of living and war taxes will 
have on their incomes and expenditures. Newspapers, full 
of military news, have little room for the material which 
social organizations try to have published. The social agency 
which would get public attention and interest and capitalize 
this interest into contributions must adopt more effective 
methods than have been in vogue in the past. 

Publicity and finance of social work are inextricably con- 
nected. An organization which needs funds must make its 
work known to the public. Publicity without financial pur- 
pose is, of course, of educational value, but is most effective 
when carefully coordinated with efforts to raise funds. This 
.financial work need not be apparent. It may be carried on 
under cover of the publicity. Identical material may be used 
in newspapers and appeal letters, and points thus driven 
home in a variety of ways. The methods most successful in 
publicity — the securing of attention, the arousing of interest, 



the securing of understanding, the getting of decision and 
the inducement of action — are equally effective for appeals. 
The same need for simplicity, directness and human interest 
exists in both. Contributions both grow out of publicity 
and follow it ; the question of publicity will be considered 
first. 

Social workers have had so many problems of technique and 
organization to solve, have struggled against such crippling 
financial difficulties, have, indeed, been so unversed in the 
method of informing the public of what they are doing, that 
they quite generally have failed either to get their message 
across to the public or to get it across in popular fashion. 
On the other hand, the newspapers, which are the chief vol- 
untary agencies for informing the people, have understood 
too little of the principles of social work and have been too 
busy to stop and pry out principles and details from social 
workers, often all too crustaceous when approached by a re- 
porter. 

The most valuable type of publicity is that found in the 
daily newspaper. Through its columns the social worker can 
indefinitely extend his personality. He writes to thousands 
and to hundreds of thousands where his own voice might 
reach but scores. Further value is given newspaper publicity 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



37 



by what Prof. Walter Dill Scott calls "social approval." The 
reader is impressed not only by what he is reading, but also 
by the fact that multitudes of others are reading and think- 
ing the same thing. The newspaper is the most legitimate 
and most fruitful field for the activities of the social worker 
who would "get his message across." 

The average newspaper editor is glad to use social service 
publicity. He realizes that the social agency is conducted 
for the welfare of the community which his own paper pre- 
sumably is trying to serve. He knows that each organization 
has buried in it a mass of tremendously interesting material 
about which people would like to hear. He does not regard 
the man or woman offering social service publicity with the 
suspicion which often is the lot of the commercial press- 
agent. 

The first thing to be remembered by the one who hopes to 
get the newspapers to use his material is that he must become, 
in effect, a member of that paper's staff. He must feel a 
responsibility to give to that paper all the news he can, truly, 
fairly, accurately and in the best possible shape. He must 
be courteous, patient and obliging. He must not object when 
a reporter rouses him at midnight to explain his view of 
some trivial topic. He must not shun all reporters and re- 
fuse to answer their inquiries, which often seem sensational. 
Such a refusal but tempts a really resourceful reporter to 
write a story, any way, with what meager facts he can ascer- 
tain. The social worker must take the reporter into his con- 
fidence, show him the facts and explain why some or all 
must be omitted. If the social worker is reasonable with 
him, the reporter will be reasonable too. I have never known 
a reporter who would abuse a confidence. 

The social worker must realize the limitations of news- 
paper space and not complain when war or election news 
combined with a big fire crowd out his pet story. He must 
take the attitude that if a story is rejected, it is his fault 
for failing to make it suit the editorial taste, and try again. 
He never should ask for favors, but present his material on 
its merits in competition with all the other matter. If such 
a spirit of complete helpfulness is adopted, the newspaper, 
delighted at being humanly treated, will come much more 
than half way and will voluntarily grant favors which never 
could have been gained if asked for. 

The most obvious material for publicity is contained in 
what is known as the news story — of a coming meeting, play, 
entertainment, or scheduled event of any sort; the story of 
such an event when it occurs; the coming of new workers 
or the departure of old ones; happenings such as the saving 
of a building from fire by Boy Scouts. Such stories are 
legitimate material for the newspaper. They must be pre- 
sented while they are news — before they come, if scheduled, 
and certainly on the day they happen. While news stories 
are most useful because they let people know that the organ- 
ization is on the job and in daily activity, they often can 
be made to exhibit some of the principles of the society. Re- 
ports presented at meetings can be made significant of the 
work of the organization. The coming of new workers 
may be the excuse for describing a principle of service. 

Principles from Personalities 
Next in availability to news is the "human interest" story, 
in which an interesting fact about some individual is told. 
Some worker may have a unique way of getting at his or her 
work. Some client of the organization may have an interest- 
ing history, which, if necessary, can be published anonymously 
and disguised so as to prevent recognition. Such anonymous 
stories require great education of your editor's point of view, 



but they are most helpful as revealing the successes of social 
work. Some boy in a manual training class may have done 
especially good cabinet work. The story of the individual 
will reveal some of the organization's fundamental principles. 
It is important to distinguish between stories which will harm 
the individual concerned and those which may stimulate him 
to better effort. The "human interest" story, when well 
handled, is perhaps most effective of all. 

Another type is the "feature" story, describing some in- 
teresting phase of social work: An interesting study is under 
progress ; unusual methods of procedure may be tried out ; 
the organization may have some unique historical connec- 
tions ; recent experience may have light to throw on live prob- 
lems, such as illegitimacy or the training of war-cripples. 
Stories of these, illustrated, not only are easy to get into 
the daily papers, but often are available for use in illustrated 
Sunday magazine sections. 

Follow the Calendar 

A PHASE of interpretive publicity particularly worth while 
is the reporting of speeches given by social workers. A few 
of the keynote sentences of a speech, given the newspapers, 
will generally be readily published and thousands will get the 
message. 

Advantage should be taken, too, of the opportunities for 
"seasonal" publicity — stories about fresh-air camps and baby 
dispensaries in hot weather; about charity organization work 
in cold weather; about the opportunities of medical agencies 
in times of epidemics ; and so on through a long range of 
possibilities which an active imagination will readily suggest. 
So-called "case appeals" may often be used with good effect. 
They stimulate sympathy with the organization and under- 
standing of its work, and bring valuable help. One good 
scheme has been the frequent publication of "little needs of 
the needy" for articles such as baby carriages, mattresses and 
invalid chairs. 

The newspaper, wise in experience, is anxious to use photo- 
graphs whenever possible. A photograph about doubles a 
story's chances of use, attracts attention of readers and in- 
tensifies the effect of the text. On the other hand, there are 
obvious disadvantages in using photographs of clients, just 
as in the use of names and addresses. Some organizations, 
particularly those dealing with families in their homes, quite 
properly refuse to give any publicity which will identify in- 
dividuals. Pictures of groups in plays or other activities often 
can be used. From the newspaper point of view, the number 
of figures in groups should be kept as low as possible and 
every member should be doing something definite. In other 
words, the picture should tell a story. An amateur photog- 
rapher on the organization staff may take acceptable pic- 
tures. If such free service is not available, it is often worth 
while to pay for good professional photographs. Newspaper 
photographers may be sent if the editor is notified of a com- 
ing event. Sometimes it is possible to enter into an agreement 
with a local portrait photographer who will take free pictures 
of staff and volunteer workers for the orders he may get 
and for the publicity which comes from the credit marks most 
newspapers are willing to attach to reproductions. 

Many newspapers are eager to get charts and diagrams. 
Such graphic presentation of tendencies in the work of the 
organization or conditions in the city puts significant informa- 
tion vividly before the people. 

A division of opinion seems to exist as to whether the social 
worker should prepare his own material and submit it to the 
papers or give it to a reporter. In spite of some expert 
evidence to the contrary, it would seem that the most ef- 



38 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



fective method is for the social worker to put his material 
in the best shape possible and submit it to the editor, rather 
than let the reporter gather the story from a conversation. 
The reason is this: Social service, though a relatively new 
profession, is somewhat highly technical, with delicate points 
of policy. More defects in expression and transmission to 
the public are likely to occur if the social worker passes his 
opinions through the mind of a person unfamiliar with the 
ideals and principles of social work than if he sets them down 
on paper and trusts to the discretion of the editor. 

A good combination is found where a person trained in 
newspaper work makes a close study of social work and settles 
down to the profession of social service publicity. Such a 
combination is, of course, rare, and few organizations, unless 
allied in some sort of a federation, can afford such trained 
service. In lieu of it, the best thing for a social executive 
to do is to prepare, or have prepared, his material in written 
form, even when expecting to give it to a reporter instead of 
to an editor. Fewer mistakes occur in this way and the editor 
appreciates having it in a more or less usable form, which 
saves him time. This does not mean that one should refuse 
to give reporters interviews when they come asking for them, 
but that all your publicity should be put in written form 
whenever feasible. 

How to Write Newspaper "Copy" 
Here are suggestions for submitting material: Typewrite 
everything and triple space it ; the combination makes your 
"copy" easy to read and easy to edit. Use white paper of 
fair quality. Leave plenty of white space at the top of your 
first sheet. Avoid adjectives and statements of opinion unless 
they are in the form of quotations from authority; a reporter 
is not supposed to editorialize. Put the vital part of your 
story first and follow with the details — a newspaper story 
has no climax. Make the story as short as possible, it won't 
have to be cut so much by the man on the "copy desk" and 
will have a better chance of getting in the paper. Four short 
stories are much more effective than one of their combined 
length. Do not write headlines; the newspaper has a special 
man to do that. Take the material to the city editor your- 
self, or telephone to him that you have some material which 
you would be glad to give to a reporter and answer questions 
upon. 

Other fruitful forms of publicity are letters to the editor 
on topics of current interest, for publication in the com- 
munication columns which most papers conduct. Letter de- 
bates sometimes are started in this way and can be worked 
to the advantage of the acute executive. Suggestions as to 
editorials on timely topics, even those not necessarily closely 
connected with the organization's work, are often appreciated 
by editorial writers. Cartoons, too, may sometimes be in- 
spired by a friendly suggestion. 

Next to consistent use of the newspaper, perhaps the most 
effective means of publicity is through the spoken word. Every 
social executive should plan several effective talks and have 
his staff members do the same. Lantern slides should be 
used whenever possible. A list of these speakers, their posi- 
tions and their subjects, with notations as to illustrated talks, 
should be sent to all churches, women's clubs, civic associa- 
tions, lodges and other bodies. Return envelopes and blanks 
for engagements desired may be enclosed. A telephone fol- 
low-up, too, is useful. Have your list of speakers and sub- 
jects published in the papers. Try to supply a speaker for 
every engagement requested, even if the particular speaker 
desired is not available. Get up a set of lantern slides on 



your work and supply a suitable manuscript, so that anyone 
can use it. Lend it to organizations to which you cannot 
supply speakers. See that you have notices in the papers 
before filling engagements and then supply abstracts of the 
talks that are given. The write-up of an evening speech 
should be sent the papers late in the afternoon for use the 
following morning. 

Many organizations, particularly those engaged in city- 
wide work, are using illustrated posters. These posters, with 
large photographs or cartoons showing some phase of the 
organization's work with a relatively small amount of read- 
ing matter set in large type, will often be used for window- 
display by stores and for conspicuous posting by churches, 
clubs, schools, libraries and factories. The poster should be 
changed every week or two so that it may retain news value. 

A recent development has been the insertion of social serv- 
ice folders with the monthly statements of public utility com- 
panies, such as those furnishing electric light, gas or telephone 
service. Practically the whole householding population of a 
city may be reached in this way at the cost of printing the 
circulars. 

Window exhibits, consisting of pictures, charts, models, 
moving objects and flashing lights, can be used as continuous 
publicity by showing successively in different parts of the 
town. Exhibits are too expensive for anything short of con- 
tinuous service. 

Valuable as publicity is by itself, it is most effective when 
coordinated with appeals for funds made through appeal 
letters. While many organizations are making splendid use 
of appeal letters, others are using expensive solicitors or de- 
pending upon volunteer efforts which are not adequate to 
make the circle of givers truly democratic. A good appeal 
letter, backed by careful publicity and sent to well selected 
lists, will prove profitable to the organization both in funds 
and in a widened circle of supporters. 

The principles of good publicity apply equally well to the 
good appeal letter. It should secure attention, arouse in- 
terest, secure understanding, induce resolve, get action and 
secure the contribution. It must be simple, direct and human, 
and visualize the proposition. A little "case" story will get 
attention and interest and illustrate the kind of work the 
organization does. Pictures are tremendously helpful. A 
descriptive folder can help bring home the story of the 
letter. 

First Class Postage vs. Third 

Often a great saving can be made by using third-class 
postage. First-class postage will pay on a highly specialized 
list where results are certain. Letters with first-class postage 
should be individually typewritten or multigraphed and 
"matched" in with the utmost care, on good paper. But if 
all these pains are not taken, one might as well use third- 
class postage and dispense with filling in the name, or use a 
printed, illustrated letter which is frankly a circular. Money 
put into printing and attractive pictures is often found to 
bring better returns than if spent for two-cent stamps (three 
cents after November 2). In other words, if one can visualize 
his proposal, give it human interest, and secure favorable at- 
tention, the kind of postage and the personal fill-in make little 
difference when a large number of people are being approached 
on a general proposition. 

Coordination of publicity is of the first importance. Spe- 
cial efforts should be made to get stories about your work in 
the newspapers on the days immediately before letters are 
mailed, and then during the days in which they are received. 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



39 



Other elements of publicity may be used at the same time. 
The publicity should use the same material which is found 
in the appeal letters, but it is not necessary to mention the 
fact that funds are being sought. Appeal letters are often 
most effective if the public merely has its interest aroused 
and is not informed that it is going to be asked for money. 
And the people who aren't reached by letter don't feel them- 
selves subjected to an irritating campaign. 

The "house organ" or magazine describing in an attractive 
way the work of a business organization, is now in great 
favor among advertising men. It is used to keep customers 
informed of the work and products of the business and to 
interest prospective customers. A "house organ" worked out 
by a social agency without the appeal element, and mailed 
to contributors and prospective contributors, pays good divi- 
dends in increased contributions of those renewing and in gifts 
of those not before listed as givers. Annual reports should 
be prepared also from the point of view of good sales methods. 

It is well for the social organization to remember in both 
publicity and appeals that the public likes to be cheerful. It 
is all right to paint unpleasant conditions as they exist, but 
it is important also to show the good work the organization 
is doing and to point out the happy results which already have 
been attained or will be attained if the organization is given 
the money to carry on the work. 

The suggestions made here for social publicity and finance 
have all been tested. They are most effective when combined. 
A social executive may carry them out, or he may delegate 



this function to an assistant, a volunteer, a committee of 
volunteers, or even to a trained financial and publicity man 
(or woman) on an adequate salary. 

The results of such methods would be greatly increased 
by cooperative effort among social agencies. A group of 
organizations which could not afford separate publicity agents 
could well afford to share the expense of one, who would be 
able to prepare material for the newspapers and arrange for 
the presentation of organization work in the other ways sug- 
gested. Still greater efficiency results from pooling financial 
endeavors as in the increasingly numerous financial federa- 
tions. A city-wide sweep of organizations making a well- 
coordinated appeal on behalf of all community needs is gen- 
erally more effective than one organization appealing for a 
fraction of the needs. Objections to financial federation are 
many and may outweigh the advantages in particular in- 
stances. Such a federation is but the final step, however, in 
the development of that analogy with business methods which 
calls for publicity and appeals based on the same principles 
as successful advertising and sales, and which might well 
culminate in the federation as compared with the successful 
business combination. 

Federation or no federation, these principles will greatly 
benefit the organization which will conscientiously follow 
them ; will secure more funds and more cooperation ; and be- 
cause more efficient, either give the executive more results from 
the same endeavor, or while getting the same results, give 
him more time for the social work of his organization. 



The Soldiers' and Sailors' Insurance Law 



WHEN the conferees of Senate and House reached 
final agreement last week on the soldiers' and 
sailors' insurance bill, they determined the degree 
of generosity of the United States toward those 
who are to fight its battles in the present war, and toward 
their families. The bill, which now needs only the signature 
of the President to make it law, was widely discussed as it 
traveled through the two branches of Congress and was gen- 
erally approved for its liberality. The final form reduces the 
compensation for death and disability, but retains substantially 
unchanged the provisions respecting insurance and allowances 
to the families of enlisted men. 1 

The law first takes up the subject of allotments and family 
allowances. As in the original draft, the enlisted man is 
compelled to allot to his family not more than half his pay 
(the pay of an army private is $33 a month), nor less than 
$15. The wife of the man may waive the compulsory allot- 
ment upon producing satisfactory evidence of her ability to 
support herself and children, and exemption may be granted 
also "for good cause shown," such as the infidelity of the wife. 
In addition to the compulsory allotment to his immediate fam- 
ily, the enlisted man may allot further portions of his pay to 
any person he may designate, subject to the regulations of the 
War and Navy Departments. 

The monthly allowance to be paid by the government to 
the immediate family of the enlisted man is the same as in 
the original bill: 



1 The provisions and progress of this act have been discussed in detail in 
the Survey. The original form was analyzed in the issue of August 18. page 
435. In the issue of September 8 Joseph P. Chamberlain discussed the in- 
surance features, Porter R. Lee discussed the allowances for dependent 
families in the issue of September 15, and I. M. Rubinow discussed the com- 
pensation provisions in the issue of September 22. 



Wife without children $15.00 

Wife and one child 25.00' 

Wife and two children 32.50 

For each additional child 5.00 

No wife, but one child 5.00 

No wife, but two children 12.50 

No wife, but three children 20.00 

No wife, but four children 30.00 

For each additional child 5.00 

This was declared by Porter R. Lee in the Survey to be a 
generous provision. The schedule of monthly allowances to 
be paid by the government to other persons specified by the 
enlisted man, provided these persons are wholly or partly 
dependent upon him, is as follows: 

One parent $10.00 

Two parents 20.00 

Each grandchild, brother or sister 5.00 

The maximum allowance to the dependents of any one en- 
listed man is $50 a month. The law departs from its original 
form in declaring that no allowance shall be made for any 
period preceding November 1, 1917. The allowance is to 
continue till death or one month after discharge, but not for 
more than one month after the end of the "present war emer- 
gency." The term "child" in the act includes an illegitimate 
child, if acknowledged by the father, but does not include such 
a child if born outside of the United States or its insular 
possessions after 1917. This definition applies to both the in- 
surance and compensation sections. 

The law deals next with compensation for death or dis- 
ability. This section applies to nurses in active service under 
the War and Navy Departments, as well as to enlisted men. 
The House increased the monthly amounts allowed in case of 



40 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER i 



i 917 



death, but the final form of the law makes these even lower 
than in the original bill. They now stand: 

For a widow alone $25.00 

For a widow and one child 35.00 

For a widow and two children 47.50 

For each additional child up to two 5.00 

No widow, but one child 20.00 

No widow, but two children 30.00 

No widow, but three children 40.00 

Each additional child up to two 5.00 

For a widowed mother 20.00 

The amount payable to a widowed mother shall not be 
greater than a sum which, when added to the total amount 
payable to the widow and children, does not exceed $75. 

The monthly compensation for total disability is reduced to 
the following: 

If neither wife nor child living $30.00 

If wife but no child living 45.00 

If wife and one child living 55.00 

If wife and two children living. 65.00 

If wife and three or more children living 75.00 

If no wife but one child living 40.00 

Each additional child up to two 10.00 

In addition, if a dependent widowed mother living 10.00 

To the provision which granted $100 a month to a man 
for the loss of both feet, both hands, both eyes or total blind- 
ness, the final form of the law adds "or helplessly and perma- 
nently bedridden." This applies regardless of whether a man 
is a bachelor or married. 

If the enlisted man's disability is partial, the monthly com- 
pensation is to be a percentage of the compensation that would 
be payable for his total disability, equal to the degree of the 
reduction in earning capacity resulting from the disability. 
No compensation shall be payable, however, for a reduction 
in earning capacity rated at less than 10 per cent. The bu- 
reau created to administer the act is to adopt a schedule of 
reductions in earning capacity. This schedule is to be based, 
as far as practicable, upon the average impairments of earn- 
ing capacity resulting from such injuries in civil occupations 
and not upon the impairment in earning capacity in each indi- 
vidual case, so that there can be no reduction in the rate of 
compensation for individual success in overcoming the handi- 
cap of a permanent injury. The bureau is directed to read- 
just its schedule in accordance with actual experience. 

Proof of marriage for the purposes of receiving both com- 
pensation and insurance under the law is made similar to that 
required by the pension bureau. One stipulation is that the 
open and notorious illicit cohabitation of the widow termi- 



nates her right to both. The wife who marries an injured 
man more than ten years after his injury gets no compensa- 
tion after his death. 

The elimination of all distinction between officers and men 
so far as disability and death benefits are concerned is retained 
in the final form. On the other hand, permission to commute 
for a lump sum all or part of one's compensation payments 
is stricken out. A five-year statute of limitations (instead of 
ten years as the House proposed and two years as the original 
bill proposed) is part of the law. 

The insurance feature of the measure aroused perhaps 
the most vigorous opposition. This also applies to nurses. 
The United States is to grant insurance against the death 
or total permanent disability of an enlisted man or nurse in 
any multiple of $500, but not less than $1,000 or more than 
$10,000. This maximum was reduced in course of passage 
to $5,000, but was raised in final form. The insurance is 
payable only to the beneficiaries specified in the measure, 
namely, spouse, child, grandchild, parent, brother, sister, and 
during total and permanent disability to the injured person, 
or to any or all of them. 

The insurance must be applied for within 120 days after 
enlistment, or, for those already in active service, within 
120 days after the publication of the terms of the insurance 
contract, which must be "promptly" on the passage of the act. 
If a person entitled to apply dies or is totally and permanently 
disabled within the 120 days, without having made his appli- 
cation, he is deemed to have applied. The insurance is made 
expressly payable in 240 equal monthly installments, but these 
will be continued for the life of a disabled man and may, 
under regulations, be converted into continuous installments 
for a beneficiary. Premium rates shall be the net rates based 
upon the American Experience Table of Mortality. Pay- 
ments of premiums may not be required in advance for periods 
of more than one month each and may be deducted from the 
pay or deposit of the insured or be otherwise made at his 
election. 

By a rider to the law all present pensions to widows are 
increased to $25 a month. 

The passage of this act represents an important step in the 
social-insurance movement in this country. The act was 
drafted by Judge Julian W. Mack, and was introduced into 
the House and Senate August 10. It has had the active sup- 
port of President Wilson, Secretary of the Treasury McAdoo, 
Julia C. Lathrop, chief of the Children's Bureau, Henry P. 
Davison, chairman of the Red Cross War Council, and others. 



THE RED CROSS 

By O. R. Howard Thomson 



I SAW the golden gates roll back 
As up the path they came; 
No angel questioned them of sin, 

Nor asked of one his name: 
But the cedar trees before the mount 
Were aureoled in flame. 

They came from barren, war-flailed fields, 

From which all life had fled, 
And little phrases walked with them — 

Words they aforetime said — 
That dying men might easier pass 

To the valleys of the dead. 



And following close, from low-pitched tents, 

Moved, like a gentle breeze 
That brings the scent of a garden close 

To the temples of the trees, 
Blessings of those whose bodies lay 

Now healing at their ease. 

And songs of children who had learned 

The Red Cross knows not fear; 
That it walketh through a man-made hell 

Yet holdeth each man dear; 
Daring the steel-sheathed claws of death 

To wipe away a tear. 



Therefore, they entered as of right — 

Agnostic, Christian, Jew — 
Through the Golden gates that gave upon 

The lake where the lilies grew; 
And in the distance by the mount, 

Angels on trumpets blew. 




CHINESE CABSTAND I THERE ARE 25,000 JINRIKISHA PULLERS IN PEKING ALONE 



China's Social Challenge 1 

II. Beginnings of Social Investigation 
By J. S. Burgess 



THE Chinese seldom describe anything at length with- 
out a copious use of that aid to inaccurate expression 
"Cha-pu-to," or "differing not a great deal from" — 
their way of saying "about." There is a notable 
lack of precise phrasing in the colloquial because the thought 
back of the phrasing is inaccurate. 

Absence of the habit of careful analysis and inductive study 
of fact, especially of social phenomena, is very apparent. The 
one great exception is found in the conversation among the 
lower classes regarding money. The struggle for the neces- 
sities of life requires an extreme nicety in exact estimate of 
expense and income. The rise by a fraction of a cent in the 
market price of peanuts or rice will at once be known far and 
wide and will start great numbers of wheelbarrows on fifty- 
mile pilgrimages. 

The scientific study of social facts is as yet in its infancy. 
In Peking I have heard a noted American college president, 
then an adviser to the Chinese government, discussing with 
a group of Chinese who had degrees from western universities 
whether there really was much surplus wealth in China. No 
one seemed to know. It is impossible to guess what the per 
capita wealth is and no one knows 
how many millions are hoarded up 
by the old Manchu nobility or by the 
Chinese officials. , 

Such a question as why so many 
Chinese, in spite of the fact that they 
are by temperament hard-working 
and frugal, are miserably poor, and 
the question of just how poor they 
are, are problems that have to be 
guessed about, for little real study 
has been made. Bishop Bashford's 
recent work, China — An Interpreta- 
tion, has much valuable observation 







'Mr. Burgess' first article, An Opportunity for American Social Workers, was published in the Survey (or September 8. 

Social Institutions, Old and New 



but few tabulated statistics are available on any subject. 
One is struck by the large number of extremely interest- 
ing and valuable themes of important social study which 
China presents. In the realm of social origins little has 
been done in an intensive way. One massive book on de- 
scriptive sociology of the Chinese was prepared many years 
ago by an ardent Spencerian. It is a mass of heterogeneous 
facts representing not much more than an outline of subjects 
to be studied. 

A few years ago Philip Gillett, the Y. M. C. A. secretary 
in Seoul, Korea, collected a lot of valuable information on 
guild organization. A large number of ancient constitutions 
of these organizations, some of the documents dating back 
three thousand years, was obtained. A wealth of information 
on various phases of primitive village organization was dis- 
covered which threw light on such themes as, the approach to 
representative government in early Korean clan life, the 
primitive place of religion in its relation to government and 
trade, early industrial organizations and conditions of labor, 
primitive methods of preventing fire and primitive methods 
of afforestation. The old documents of one of these guilds 

were in a locked box opened once 
yearly. To this were attached three 
padlocks, a different man holding 
each key. The box in this way 
could be opened only when all three 
men met. Mr. Gilbert got permis- 
sion for a number of Korean schol- 
ars to be present when the box was 
opened and to copy as many of the 
ancient manuscripts therein contained 
as possible. He found that these an- 
cient Korean guilds all copied their 
constitutions from still earlier and 
as yet unstudied Chinese guilds. 

His next one will be on 

41 



42 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 







COURTYARD OF JINRIKISHA COOLIES' HOUSES 

One-room houses close in the courtyard on all sides. At the left of the picture is a cooperative summer kitchen. 
Fully one-third of the coolies have no homes at all but sleep in the jinrikisha yards 



Here is a rich field for a social scholar who has confined his 
observations to social origins in Europe. In fact most of 
the works on sociology ignore at least one-half of the human 
race in conclusions regarding the early field of social discovery. 

But one need not go back three thousand years to find un- 
explored social problems in China, especially in a great 
oriental city like Peking, where so little scientific study of 




JINRIKISHA YARD 

None of the coolies own their own vehicles but hire 

them at rentals which net the owners 100 per cent a 

year on their investment 



life has been made. Gay pictures of the beauty of oriental 
life, or repulsive descriptions of the squalor of the East, 
often leave one in ignorance as to the real social forces and 
underlying needs. 

Just across the street from where I first lived in Peking 
was a so-called "home" of a jinrikisha coolie. This house 
was built of mud, one story high, with one door and no 
windows. Three generations occupied this small dwelling, 
grandfather and grandmother, the coolie and his wife, and 
two or three children. Occasionally I used the coolie's un- 
comfortable jinrikisha, largely through pity for his condition. 
The year after I had moved my home to another part of the 
city a caller was announced one day, and my friend, the 
jinrikisha man, walked in. He had around his head a piece 
of white cloth, which indicated that one of his parents had 
died. He had lost his father a few days before and he was 
trying to borrow a little money to buy a coffin. It had been 
raining heavily and the roof of his house had fallen in. The 
unburied body was still lying in his roofless house, the chil- 
dren were terribly frightened and he did not know what to do. 

It was for the purpose of getting at the actual conditions of 
this class of working men that one spring day in 1912 four 
Chinese college students and one young American met together 
in an old Chinese court on a side alley off one of the main 
streets of China's capital. The aged gateman was sent through 
the mud to the well macadamized main street and told to 
summon the first rikisha coolie that he could find. Eager for 
trade the coolie quickly responded, dragging his rikisha behind 
him. To his utter astonishment he was politely asked to be 
seated and offered a cup of Chinese tea. 

Then a youthful investigator started plying him with ques- 
tions. How much did he pay for his rikisha? Where did 
he get it? How much did he earn a day? Where did he 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



43 




INTERIOR OF JINRIKISHA COOLIES HOME 

At the left the kang, or brick bed, heated by a fire built underneath. The kitchen gods and others are shown in 
paper pictures on the ivalls. As usual in visiting the homes, the women are not visible 



live? How many were in his family? How had his health 
been during the last few years? What illnesses had he had? 
Could he read, and if so, how much? What were his re- 
ligious beliefs? The coolie was utterly astonished at these 
questions, for when in the history of the celestial empire had 
a group of young scholars been interested in the habits and 
needs of a poor uneducated coolie ! 

The replies were prompt and apparently truthful. The 
plan was such a new one that there was no time to devise 
cunning answers, nor did there seem to be any reason to do 
so. After twenty minutes of careful questioning, the first 
coolie was given a copper and sent out and the old gate- 
keeper trudged once more through the mud to search for an- 
other bare-armed and bare-legged specimen to answer the 
questions. With each newcomer the little group became more 
interested. They gradually began to see that there was some 
sense in the ideas of the foreigner when he had told them 
that they should apply their scientific research to men and 
society, as well as to birds and stones. There came the real- 
ization that for the first time in the history of that great 
capital the actual facts about the lives of a great laboring 
class were being studied and tabulated. 

And the revelations which these coolies made were by no 
means commonplace. Startling revelations of poverty and 
degradation were matched by hopeful discoveries regarding the 
education and technical knowledge of many of a class here- 
tofore considered to be quite hopeless. The conditions of 
living which were described by these coolies were such as no 
beggar in America could possibly endure. In some cases 
four or five lived in one little mud room, in others the coolie 
had no home at all, but slept in the street, or in his rikisha, 
or with thirty or forty other men in the crowded court where 



he rented his rikisha. On the other hand, the students were 
astonished to find out that almost half of the twenty-seven 
coolies studied could read. Some of them had read the classics 
through, and showed it in their conversation. 

One man, about sixty-five years old, when he came into 
the room, surprised us greatly by his courtesy. He was one 




STREET RESTAURANT 

The coolie eats when he gets a chance, dropping in at 

a street restaurant for a bowl of cabbage soup and a 

piece of bread 



44 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



of the most dilapidated specimens of humanity that I have 
seen. His clothes were literally all rags, but he stood erect 
and refused to take the chair which we offered him. He 
spoke with a perfect Pekinese accent, and with the best choice 
of language. To our astonishment he told us that he had 
read all the classics through. The story of how he came to 
be in his present condition he did not reveal to us. At the 
close of our conversation he refused to take the money which 
we offered him, although his earnings were only one or two 
cents a day, and when we insisted he said : "But, gentlemen, 
how could I take money from you who are spending your 
time in order to help the class of men of which I am one ? We 
should repay you, but you have no obligation to repay us." 

A brief report of this first investigation was made out and 
this was the beginning of the interest in several parts of 
China in the jinrikisha coolie — one of the biggest classes of 
laboring men in that great nation. 

A public-spirited citizen of the foreign settlement in Shang- 
hai happened to see this report and was aroused to the needs 
of the men who pulled him around the street every day. 
Through his efforts and the investigation that resulted, many 
warm booths were built, rude shelters at certain places along 
the main streets where, during the cold winter months, the 
coolie could get hot tea. One mission in Shanghai has a spe- 
cial clubhouse for the assistance and also the evangelization of 
the jinrikisha coolie. 

During the winter of 1914-15, the Peking 'Students' So- 
cial Service Club, a few of whose members had made the first 
investigation of the coolie, determined to make a scientific 
study of the problem. The club had grown from thirty col- 
lege students to six hundred, and several score of these young 
men were eager for the new enterprise. Three hundred and 
two coolies were put to a rigorous questionnaire. These were 
selected from every part of the city. The results were com- 
piled and tabulated with great care by Professor Tao of 
the chair of sociology in the Government University, a dis- 
ciple of the Webbs of London. He found a wealth of in- 
formation in the data faithfully collected by these students. 

After a study of the facts, Dr. Tao ruthlessly condemns 
the entire system of man-pullers as detrimental to both the 
individual and society. The work is characterized as: "(1) 
Over-strenuous and uneconomical because the jinrikisha man 
can carry only one at a time, and that with all his energy; 
(2) the work is unhealthy because it is over-strenuous, hin- 
ders development of the chest, causes tuberculosis, pneu- 
monia and other diseases; (3) the pay is terribly meager in 
comparison with the terrific energy expended; (4) scarcely 
any intelligence is required for the work." 

Dr. Tao has also shown by careful figuring that the use 
of the jinrikisha is very uneconomical. The average amount 
of money for transportation about New York or London is 
shown to be less per month than one would spend on a jin- 
rikisha man in spite of his low pay. 

Over twenty thousand jinrikisha coolies are registered at 
the Metropolitan Police Office of Peking. Of the 302 ex- 
amined by the Peking students most were between 20 and 30 
years of age, with a few boys of 16 or 17 among them. There 
was no legislation to prevent the young or the very old from 
engaging in this business. About half of the 302 were mar- 
ried. Contrary to the usual large size of the Chinese family, 
somewhat less than one-half had only three dependents to look 
after. About one hundred of them had large families to 
support. 

The great majority of the coolies investigated earned from 
51 to 80 coppers a day, and the rent of the jinrikisha is from 



21 to 40 coppers a day. The net wage then would be from 
30 to 40 coppers a day. The copper is less than one-half of 
an American cent. 

The study of the cost of living of these families revealed 
that a single person can live on from 15 to 20 coppers a day, 
and that a family of three can exist on 25 to 40 coppers a day. 
A family of four, Dr. Tao says, "must have an income of 
60 coppers to get adequate food." It is furthermore true 
that the jinrikisha coolie himself, if he is not to drop on the 
roadside from physical exhaustion (a sight, by the way, 
which I have often seen), must have more nourishing and 
expensive food than is necessary for the other members of 
the family. 

Since it is further true that the older men with the larger 
families have often the smaller income, it is obvious that while 
a few of the younger unmarried men may be able to put aside 
some money, a majority not only cannot save but are on the 
verge of starvation. Dr. Tao remarks: "Rough estimate has 
suggested that only one-fifth of the jinrikisha population is 
really earnest in saving money for any length of time." Can 
you wonder? 

The above facts are more striking when it is realized that 
none of the jinrikisha coolies investigated owned their own 
vehicles and that a comparison of average rentals and aver- 
age cost of a jinrikisha reveals the fact that the owners make 
a profit on their investment of from 100 per cent up. Here 
we obviously have industrial slavery in one of the very worst 
forms. 

More than one-half of these men work — that is, run — 
from seven to ten hours a day, and one-fifth of them from 
twelve to fifteen hours a day. This, of course, does not 
mean that they are running continuously, but many of them 
are exercising a good part of the time. 

More than two-thirds of those examined had been in the 
trade from one to four years. "It seems," Dr. Tao remarks, 
"that from the figures may safely be drawn the inference that 
the usual number of years during which a jinrikisha man can 
stand the hard toil is generally from three to four. This 
gives rise to his subsequent career. If deprived of savings, 
and without any trade, the only way open to him is to become 
a parasite on the community or be starved." 

The investigations showed that over half of these coolies 
had been artizans or petty merchants. It is obvious, there- 
fore, that they are not a hopelessly untrained group. 

The amusements, vices, religious beliefs and habits of 
thought and life of the coolies were brought out — in fact, it 
would take a lengthy series of articles adequately to tell of the 
new material discovered bv the students and tabulated by 
Dr. Tao. 

On the basis of the investigations a practical program for 
the betterment of this entire class of jinrikisha men was 
proposed by Dr. Tao. His plans included a clubhouse for 
their social and educational use, laws regulating hours, age, 
rentals and a scheme of insurance to help them save. 

The jinrikisha coolies represent only one isolated problem; 
there are a hundred other trades of which we know nothing. 
Nor are we any better informed of the growing problem of 
immorality, of licensed prostitution becoming more of a 
menace each year, or of the related problems of amusement 
and recreation. The coming of the new industrial age in 
China brings with it a whole set of new questions which 
call for the insight and appreciation of trained social workers. 
Have social thinkers in America no contribution to make to the 
study of social facts in China which must precede any real 
social progress? 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



45 






Book Reviews 



The 
Machinery 
for Making 

Peace 




Mediation, Investigation and Arbitration 
in Industrial Disputes 
By George E. Barnett & David A. Mc- 
Cabe. D. Appleton & Company. 209 pp. 
Price $1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.33. 
Of ever increasing 
importance in the gen- 
eral social and labor 
field, particularly dur- 
ing the present war 
crisis, is the subject 
discussed in this mono- 
graph of Professors 
Barnett and McCabe. 
The book is largely 
the result of the in- 
vestigation conducted 
by the authors for the 
United States Commis- 
sion on Industrial Relations. Briefly it aims 
to portray the workings of the present 
statutes relating to mediation, investigation 
and arbitration in labor disputes in the 
states of Massachusetts, New York and 
Ohio; to propose a model plan for a state 
system, based on the authors' findings in the 
states investigated, and to outline a scheme 
for national legislation. The book also con- 
tains important appendices. 

The conclusions of the authors are of in- 
terest. Of the three forms of state assistance 
in settling disputes, mediation has proved 
most effective. Mediators have frequently 
been instrumental in bringing reluctant par- 
ties to agree to conferences and in getting 
the parties separately to agree to compro- 
mises which they would not even discuss 
with each other. Scant results have been ob- 
tained, however, when the employer had re- 
solved not to deal with the workers as a 
body, either directly or indirectly. 

In New York and Massachusetts, on 
failure of mediation, resort has been made 
to public investigation and recommendation. 
In making recommendations, which generally 
receive considerable publicity, there is little 
attempt to fix blame on either party. It is 
encouraging to learn that in most cases the 
suggestions of the mediators have been ac- 
cepted as a basis for settlement. 

Boards in these two states have also power 
to arbitrate cases voluntarily submitted to 
them by both sides, providing submission 
does not take place during a strike or lock- 
out. In 1913, approximately eighty cases 
were submitted to the Massachusetts board in 
the shoe industry. Following the rendering 
of a decision, an endeavor is made to induce 
parties to the dispute to agree to submit 
mooted points to the court in the future. In 
New York, arbitration has been resorted to 
in but few instances. 

Following their analysis of past achieve- 
ments, the authors make important detailed 
recommendations concerning the composition 
and functions of state and national boards. 
They urge the establishment of boards of 
mediation, investigation and arbitration in 
every state. The nation, as well, they con- 
tend, should provide for such boards, as at 
the present time the Erdman law extends 
only to certain classes of railroad disputes, 
and mediation in controversies in other fields 
is possible only through the officers of the 
Department of Labor. 

In cases of threatened disturbances in con- 
nection with transportation and other public 
utilities, where it is important that services 



should be continuous, the authors believe 
that pressure should be made on both parties 
to refrain from hostilities until the board of 
mediation and investigation has made its re- 
port. Where the public has confidence in the 
board, their recommendations should serve 
as a rallying point for public opinion. Ex- 
perience in Australasia and in Canada has 
not demonstrated that legal prohibitions 
would be more effective in preventing in- 
terruptions. 

Perhaps the most unique of the authors' 
recommendations is the appointment of a na- 
tional industrial council composed of an 
equal number of representatives of employ- 
ers' and labor organizations, which should 
be convened at least once a year and should 
assist in the selection of members of boards 
of arbitration and mediation in certain dis- 
putes. 

The classifications in the book are admir- 
ably arranged, and its conclusions and rec- 
ommendations are clearly set forth. It is 
somewhat unfortunate, however, that a book 
dealing with such an important problem does 
not contain more vitality. The authors coldly 
set forth results. They have injected in it 
little of human interest. They have given 
but a scant idea of the way in which capital 
and labor, organized and unorganized, re- 
gard the activities of the various boards or 
the effect of such activities on the militancy 
or strength of labor organizations and on 
their struggle for an ever greater share of 
the social product. 

Nor is the reader made to realize the in- 
timate connection of the problem discussed 
with the happiness and welfare of the thou- 
sands of working class lives. It is not a 
book calculated to stir the crusader's ardor. 
However, there is doubtless a certain com- 
pensating gain in this very fact and, on the 
whole, the monograph is to be heartily rec- 
ommended to everyone interested in social 
readjustments for its careful analysis and its 
timely suggestions. 

Harry W. Laidler. 

Organizability of Labor 

By William O. Weyforth. Johns Hopkins 

Press. 277 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of 

the Survey $1.61. 

To what extent can labor in America be 
organized? This question, upon which so 
much difference of opinion exists, has been 



THE BOOKS 

BARNETT and McCABE: 

Mediation, Investiaation and Arbitra- 
tion in Industrial Disputes 
BIRD : 

Town Planning for Small Communities 
BRIGCS and others : 

Iowa Applied History Series, Vol. Ill 
FERRI : Criminal Sociology 

FREUND: 

Standards of American Legislation 
JAMES: Municipal Functions 

JUDAEAN ADDRESS: 1900-1917 

LAPP: Our America 

McAFEE : Psalms of the Social Life 

McCORMICK: The Menace of Japan 

RHODES : Workmen's Compensation 

SCHERER: The Japanese Crisis 

STEINER : The Japanese Invasion 

STERN : My Mother and I 

THOMPSON: Municipal Ownership 

WEYFORTH: Organizability of Labor 



most carefully studied and analyzed by Mr. 
Weyforth. The book contains internal evi- 
dence of a studious and successful effort to 
indicate the influence of the more promi- 
nent factors and tp point out the conclusions 
which are justified from the experiences en- 
countered by the wage-earners in our Ameri- 
can industries. The obstacles which these 
workers are forced to contend with in their 
efforts to organize are clearly presented, and 
the methods and agencies adopted by them 
to overcome these forces are described. 

The factors presented by the internal man- 
agement of the trade union, the characteris- 
tics of particular groups of workmen, the 
nature and form of the industrial organiza- 
tion, the degree of skill required by the 
various groups of workers, and the general 
economic life of the country are effectively 
analyzed and summarized. 

Through a liberal use of illustrations 
taken from the history of the trade unions 
and the associations of employers dealing 
with, or influencing them, the author has 
succeeded in supplying a clear and direct 
view of the major forces in operation for 
or against organization. 

Mr. Weyforth's book contains a most val- 
uable summary of the present-day knowl- 
edge upon the problem, and supplies a fund 
of information which constitutes a valuable 
contribution to the literature dealing with 
economic and industrial problems. 

John P. Frey. 

Standards of American Legislation 

By Ernst Freund. The University of Chi- 
cago Press. 327 pp. Price $1.50; by mail 
of the Survey $1.66. 

The thesis of this book by Professor 
Freund is that a system of positive principles 
should be developed to guide the making of 
statutes, quite distinct from the doctrines of 
constitutional law which the courts apply 
when they review legislation. By "positive 
principles of legislation" are meant settled 
policies whose soundness is recognized by 
all reasonable persons, though unfortunately 
they may be disregarded in the heat and par- 
tisanship of legislative contests. 

The doctrines by which the courts test the 
constitutionality of statutes are not principles 
of legislation, in this sense. "Due process 
of law," upon which reliance has chiefly 
been placed when statutes have been in- 
validated, represents a debated policy rather 
than an undisputed principle. Nor can the 
courts unaided be expected to develop satis- 
factory principles of legislation. Their func- 
tion is to guard individual rights; whereas 
legislation must consciously favor social over 
particular interests. The courts move in an 
atmosphere of controversy; while the spirit 
of legislation is that of compromise. 

The task of formulating positive principles 
of legislation Professor Freund regards as 
peculiarly that of the law schools. When 
formulated, some of these principles should 
be enforced by the courts, but many of them 
will represent ideals rather than essentials. 
Such principles must find expression through 
the legislatures; and they will become ef- 
fective only as legislative practices are 
altered to insure more carefully drafted bills 
and more thoroughly considered laws. 

A number of principles of legislation are 
suggested by Professor Freund to illustrate 
the possibility of standards superior to the 
vague generalities found in many court de- 
cisions. The correlation of legislative pro- 
visions, for instance, is such a fundamental 
principle, which when ignored will produce 
failure of policy. But Professor Freund does 
not aim to state comprehensively the princi- 
ples of legislation. He recognizes that this 
is a task demanding the attention of the best 
students of jurisprudence and most pains- 
taking researches in legislative, judicial and 
administrative experiences. 



46 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



This book is intended primarily for schol- 
ars; it is, as stated in the introduction, "an 
essay of constructive criticism." It stimu- 
lates thought and suggests further studies. 
It is a work which jurists and constitutional 
lawyers will read with profit; however, it 
will also interest the layman who appreciates 
the increasing importance of statute law. 
Edwin E. Witte. 

Workmen's Compensation 

By J. E. Rhodes. The Macmillan Com- 
pany. 300 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of 
the Survey $1.60. 

Mr. Rhodes has filled a timely need by 
bringing together in a historical sketch the 
threads of compensation development in this 
country. However, in valuing his discussion 
of state and stock company insurance, the 
author's insurance connections must be borne 
in mind. To assume, as he does, that "the 
opposition to compensation insurance in stock 
companies may be reduced to two general 
specifications": alleged excessive profits and 
alleged practices in adjustment of claims, is 
to side-step an important issue. 

Criticism of stock company insurance has 
been directed not so much against "excessive 
profits" as such, as against excessive expense 
ratios. In a footnote the author admits an 
expense ratio under liability insurance of 55 
per cent, made up of 25 per cent for agents' 
commissions, 15 per cent for home office ex- 
penses and 15 per cent for adjustment and 
legal expense. While it is true that under 
workmen's compensation, stock companies 
have reduced expense ratios to approximately 
40 per cent, nevertheless state insurance 
funds claim to have still further reduced ex- 
pense ratios to 10 or 20 per cent. 

In passing, two additional points may be 
noted. First, the author's statement that com- 
pensation is for the purpose of preventing 
want and "is in no sense the monetary 
equivalent of the loss which has been sus- 
tained" is open to serious question. To hold 
thus would place workmen's compensation 
on a par with poor relief. Second, it is 
doubtful whether anyone unfamiliar with the 
organization of the New York Industrial 
Commission could possibly gain a correct 
picture from the description given. 

Perhaps the most interesting contribution 
is the author's classification of all laws re- 
lating to safety and health of employes as 
"employers' liability" legislation on the 
ground that such legislation supplements and 
defines that general principle of common law 
which requires an employer to furnish a 
"safe and suitable place" in which to work 
if he would escape liability for damages in 
case of injury to an employe. 

Irene Sylvester. 

Municipal Ownership 

By Carl D. Thompson. B. W. Huebsch. 

114 pp. Price $1; by mail of the Survey 

$1.10. 
Municipal Functions 

By Harlean James. D. Appleton & Co. 

369 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey 

$2.20. 

Mr. Thompson gives us a frankly one- 
sided presentation — the case for municipal 
ownership. His book is almost in the nature 
of a brief and will serve well as such for 
those who accept the point of view. It is 
developed around the theory that public serv- 
ice is a necessity, the chief interest of the 
public is served by good service and low 
charges, the chief interest of public-service 
corporations is served by poor service and 
high charges, and that, therefore, the in- 
terests of the public and of the corporations 
are incompatible. Municipal ownership has 
proven efficient and economical, and private 
service has proven the opposite. There is 
only one reason why municipal ownership 
does not prevail and that is that public- 



service corporations have more influence over 
the politicians than have the people who 
put them into office. 



Professor James has done a service to 
municipal government by writing a book 
which is interesting and constructive. Though 
perhaps not directly intended as a text-book, 
it has the special values of being funda- 
mental and clear, so much required and so 
seldom found in text-books. For the beginner 
who would acquire the point of view of the 
municipal statesman there is probably noth- 
ing better. Such controversial questions as 
municipal ownership are discussed with a 
commendable impartiality — but the discussion 
is genuine. 

There is one disappointment in the book. 
The reader is left with the impression that 
the housing problem cannot be solved. 
Housing codes do not provide a solution 
because they put living quarters beyond the 
reach of the poor. Municipal housing seems 
not sound, though it is evidently more eco- 
nomical for a city to house at a loss those 
displaced by codes than to support them out- 
right. "Fundamental change in industrial 
and labor conditions" will come nearer a 
solution. Just what does this mean? If, 
as in the last line on page 214, the unearned 
increment belongs to the public, why not 
apply it to the solution of the housing prob- 
lem? Taking the unearned increment would 
relieve direct taxes on the earnings of the 
people, would make it unnecessary to fine a 
man for building a home, would bring land 
into use, increase wages, lower the cost of 
living — in short, it would solve the housing 
problem. 

With these points brought out in a post- 
script, the volume offers just what the 
average reader and student most needs to 
know. 

Edward T. Hartman. 

Our America 

By John A. Lapp. Bobbs, Merrill Com- 
pany. 399 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of 
the Survey $1.35. 

Among the many text-books on the ele- 
ments of civics, this work by Mr. Lapp stands 
out as one of the clearest, the most logically 
arranged and the most helpful for the aver- 
age student of civics in or out of school. 
The book is entirely free from statistics and 
cites only a few "examples." It is a simple, 
clear descriptive analysis of the needs of 
the people met by their governments, and 
the processes by which government serves 
the people. Instead of taking up, as do 
most texts, the federal, state and local gov- 
ernments separately, Mr. Lapp deals with 
the services and processes as the primary 
factors, describing under each what the fed- 
eral, state and city governments do. That 
method of treatment thus harmonizes all 
activities of government, leaving a clear 
rather than the usual confused picture in 
the mind of the student. 

At the end of each chapter there are sug- 
gestions for further reading and investiga- 
tion. The chapters are divided into subject 
paragraphs. There is a helpful appendix 
with an outline of the powers of federal, 
state and local officials, together with the 
Declaration of Independence and the Con- 
stitution. Valuable suggestions where to 
write for further information are furnished 
throughout the book. A simple, well-edited 
bibliography on the leading topics is in- 
cluded. The book throughout is carefully 
written with every facility for easy use. 

Mr. Lapp brings progressive ideas to the 
front, emphasizing at all points the actual 
services of democratic government 
to the people, rather than forms or 
theories. 

Roger N. Baldwin. 



Town Planning for Small Communities 
By Charles S. Bird, Jr. National Mu- 
nicipal League Series. D. Appleton & Co. 
492 pp. Price $2 ; by mail of the Survey 
$2.20. 

Ten years ago a book of this kind would 
have created a sensation. But the social 
considerations in the planning of a small 
city, first outlined by Prof. Patrick Geddes 
in his memorable report on Dunfermline, 
have almost become commonplace now. The 
questions of interest in reviewing such a 
report no longer are, Does the author re- 
late his plan to the various social needs of 
the community? but, How does he thus re- 
late them? 

The Walpole Town Planning Committee, 
in trying to meet its own problems, has 
made a thorough study of the planning and 
administration of small communities gen- 
erally; and the book under review contains 
the results of that study as well as the report 
proper. While the project contains many 
items which may appear ambitious, including 
a considerable park and town forest area, 
street widenings, park ways and civic cen- 
ter, the optimism of the committee seems 
justified by the excellent improvements which 
have already been accomplished or are under 
way. Among these improvements are not 
only the physical alterations of the town 
plan, based upon the recommendations of 
John Nolen, but also the creation of com- 
munity organizations and permeation of the 
community with progressive and cooperative 
aims which, apparently, have borne fruit 
already in a vitalized social life and height- 
ened sense of responsibility. 

B. L. 

Iowa Applied History Series, Volume III 

By Briggs, Shambaugh, Patton and others. 

State Historical Society of Iowa. 718 pp. 

Price $3; by mail of the Survey, $3.24. 

"Henceforth no candidate for the legis- 
lature in Iowa may have his name printed 
on either primary or regular election ballot 
until he has creditably passed an examina- 
tion on Applied History, Vol. I (1912), Vol. 
II (1914) and Vol. Ill (1916)." No, this 
is not true yet, but if it were so ordered, 
Iowa's legislature would soon be nation- 
famed for intelligence, economy and effi- 
ciency. Volumes I and II of the Iowa Ap- 
plied History Series have been previously 
reviewed in this column, in which "applied 
history" was defined as "the use of the scien- 
tific knowledge of history and experience in 
efforts to solve present problems of human 
betterment," or, in brief, an effort to harness 
history for social service. Its process in- 
cludes impartial investigation, scientific in- 
terpretation, expert definition and applica- 
tion of standards. 

The third volume, Statute Law Making 
in Iowa, adds further laurels to the enter- 
prising editor, Benjamin F. Shambaugh. An 
enormous amount of labor was manifestly 
involved as the mere preliminary tasks 
called for research indexing of 97,000 pages 
of house journals and volumes of statutes, 
consideration of the bills and resolutions in- 
troduced into the General Assembly, of 
which there were 29,500 between 1846 and 
1916, and threading the maze of legislative 
proceedings, rules, usages, precedents and 
orders with judicial interpretations and con- 
structions. 

Necessarily much of the work is descrip- 
tive and technical to a degree that would 
almost defy the possibility of being inter- 
esting, to say nothing of being popular, since 
the general subjects are the history and or- 
ganization of the legislature, its law-making 
powers, methods of statute law-making; 
form and language, codification, interpreta- 
tion and construction and drafting of stat- 
utes and the committee system. However, 
the various writers have succeeded surpris- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



47 



ingly not only in making a complete and 
succinct summary of all vital information 
on these subjects, a legislative vade mecum, 
but also in setting them forth in readable 
articles. The last section, on Some Abuses 
Connected with Statute Law-Making, gives 
opportunity, of course, for a much more 
popular and interesting discussion than the 
historical and technical sections, though the 
latter in many places are skilfully illuminat- 
ed by incidents and interpretations. 

Much less readable and interesting than 
the first two volumes, because of the differ- 
ence in subject matter, Volume III is, never- 
theless, an invaluable contribution to the 
state of Iowa, and worthy of emulation by 
other states. 

C. W. Flint. 

Criminal Sociology (Vol. IX of Modern 
Criminal Science Series) 

By Enrico Ferri. Little, Brown and Com- 
pany. 577 pp. Price $5; by mail of the 
Survey $5.30. 

One of the most valuable volumes in a 
useful series, which has already given to an 
English-speaking public important works of 
de Quiros, Gross, Lombroso, Saleilles, Tarde, 
Aschaffenburg, Garofalo and Bonger, is the 
one which has just appeared, the first com- 
plete translation into English of Ferri's 
Criminal Sociology. 

Among criminological studies, Ferri's 
work has especial significance for its breadth 
of view. As a pupil of Lombroso, he is in no 
danger of forgetting or minimizing the bio- 
logical factor in the causation of crime; as 
a disciple of Marx, he lays emphasis upon 
the social and economic causes which the 
biologist is inclined to overlook, and he 
clears up one persistent tangle by pointing 
out over and over again that to account for 
the emergence of crime we do not have to 
choose among the factors involved for the 
one responsible for the effect, because all 
work together to produce it. As he puts it, 
it is as absurd to ask whether the anthropo- 
logical factors are more effective than the 
physical or social factors, as to ask whether 
"air or heart contributed most to the life of 
a mammal, since if one or the other fails, the 
combined effect disappears." 

Ferri's classification of criminals appears 
to us now- somewhat overlapping and diffi- 
cult to establish in given cases by practicable 
tests. But it was a distinct step in advance 
when presented, and afforded a basis for 
the better working out of types and tests. 

Of particular interest is his full discussion 
of the treatment of crime. Experience is cer- 
tainly justifying his fundamental principle 
of treatment — social defense — as the one 
which works out the most satisfactory re- 
sults in the greatest variety of cases. 

The translation is satisfactory, although 
not so readable as the French translation of 
1905, from which it was made. But why 
use "data" as a singular noun? Reference 
to any English dictionary shows that much- 
misused word docketed as "n.pl." 

Kate Holladay Claghorn. 

Psalms of the Social Life 
By Cleland B. McAfee. Association Press. 
187 pp. Price $.60; by mail of the Sur- 
vey, $.64. 

Most readers of the Psalms will wonder 
why these most personal writings in the 
Bible in which "I," "me," "my" and "mine" 
occur many times more often than anywhere 
else in scripture, should be called Psalms of 
the Social Life. Students of the social teach- 
ings of the Bible have always been puzzled 
to account for the intense individualism of 
the psalmists, in view of the fact that their 
contemporaries in the historical and pro- 
phetic literature were so corporate in their 
consciousness and so collective in their ac- 
tion that they scarcely recognized the indi- 



vidual as having status or rights apart from 
the group with which they identify him. 
Perhaps the missing connection between these 
points of view is suggested in the author's 
assumption that each psalmist had this same 
consciousness of himself as only one of the 
chosen people. 

But whether this social spirit is brought 
out of the Psalms or read into many of them 
may be open to question. In either event, 
however, an interpretation is given to their 
most individual expressions which invests 
them with new interest and significance to 
the socially minded, and which yet leaves 
them as expressive as ever of each soul's 
innermost depths and heights. 

Perhaps only an interpreter who shares the 
present-day religious social consciousness 
could have thought of balancing, as this one 
does, the individual and collective expres- 
sions, the personal and national bearings, 
the particular and general statements of the 
Psalms. In a new and fresh way, with both 
scholarship and vision, Professor McAfee 
relates the self with and against and for the 
social group, and the group with the social 
order, and the social order with praise, 
prayer and the forecast of faith, identifying 
each with the other not only as they appear 
in these "psalms of a thousand years," but 
as they are linked at the present, both in each 
individual experience and in the life of all 
nations. 

G. T. 

The Japanese Crisis 

By James A. B. Scherer. Frederick A. 
Stokes Company. 148 pp. Price $.75 ; by 
mail of the Survey $.83. 
The Japanese Invasion 

By Jesse Frederick Steiner. A. C. Mc- 
Clurg k Company. 231 pp. Price $1.25; 
by mail of the Survey $1.35. 
The Menace of Japan 

By Frederick McCormick. Little, Brown & 
Company. 372 pp. Price $2; by mail of 
the Survey $2.14. 

"Crisis," "invasion," 
"menace" — the very 
titles suggest the 
frame of mind in 
which Americans at 
present view our rela- 
tions with our neigh- 
bor across the Pacific. 
President Scherer's un- 
pretending, but sane, 
informed and schol- 
arly little book repre- 
sents the. viewpoint of 
that large body of in- 
telligent Americans who recognize without 
panic the existence of at least one real ques- 
tion at issue between Japan and the United 
States, a question capable of being mis- 
handled so as to lead us into war, or of 
being handled with intelligence and consid- 
erateness so as to lead to a peaceful and 
mutually satisfactory solution. 

President Scherer finds the essence of the 
problem to be economic, a question of com- 
petition of standards of living on the land. 
Dr. Steiner, on the other hand, is confident 
that the real question is at bottom racial ; 
while Mr. McCormick belongs to that too 
numerous school of western journalists who 
have watched the sinuosities of far-eastern 
diplomacy so long that they cannot see, or 
apparently indeed desire, any way out of the 
perplexities of the Chinese situation but by a 
good healthy war with Japan. 

President Scherer is a trained scientist who 
has lived five years in Japan and seven in 
California, and who has had long familiarity 
with our race problems in the South. His 
judgment, therefore, comes with rare author- 
ity, for it is that of a man who knows what 
he is talking about. He is eminently fair to 
the Japanese — and to the Californians like- 




wise. To the question, Is Japan militant? 
he returns a quiet and sensible qualified neg- 
ative. A high-spirited and sensitive people, 
responding generously to just and kindly 
treatment, the Japanese are subject none the 
less to outbursts of popular wrath when their 
feelings are stirred, and even their cool-headed 
government has more than once been driven 
into war thereby. "The danger of some 
sensitive popular explosion is the only menace 
to our peace with Japan" (page 59). As for 
the vexed question of assimilation; the Jap- 
anese "may be spiritually assimilated to our 
manners of thought and action, so as to make 
good citizens," but in view of the intense feel- 
ing aroused by racial intermixture, both 
governments ought, in the absence of wider 
biological knowledge, to pass laws against 
intermarriage. "It is a question not of rela- 
tive superiority, but of prudential policy" 
(page 86). 

President Scherer, it will be seen, is no 
Japanese alarmist, but he is perfectly clear in 
his own mind that Americans, with their 
standard of living, cannot compete with the 
Japanese on the land, and he therefore holds 
California justified in trying to prevent 
Japanese land ownership, but unjustified in 
refusing, because of pressure from business 
interests, to prohibit all alien ownership of 
land, thus making a discrimination against 
the Japanese. He points out, however, that 
it was not California that by her alien land 
law created the discrimination. The United 
States had already done that by refusing 
naturalization to yellow and brown and red 
men. 

The final plea of the book, then, is for na- 
tional control of our international relations, 
by constitutional amendment, if necessary, 
and for a rational code of naturalization 
laws. Rarely is more real information, sound 
judgment, and friendly reasonableness packed 
within a hundred and fifty small pages. 

Dr. Steiner's book has the distinct merit of 
recognizing that the awakening of Asia has 
a profound significance for the world at 
large, that it creates a distinct problem for 
us and demands that we look the facts square 
in the face. The author calls his book "a 
study in the psychology of inter-racial con- 
tacts," and in his view the essence of the 
difficulty is psychological and therefore ra- 
cial, rather than economic. A race that bears 
a distinct external mark is thereby set off by 
itself; the prejudice that most people feel 
against those who are different from them- 
selves attaches to all members of the group 
almost irrespective of individual character- 
istics. Hence it is not a question of supe- 
riority, but simply one of difference. 

In consequence of such prejudice, the Jap- 
anese in this country, despite their adapta- 
bility and their eagerness to acquire Ameri- 
can ways of living, are still segregated and 
isolated. Under such conditions, a people like 
the Japanese, eagerly seeking full recognition 
as equals among the nations of the world, 
and feeling themselves entitled to it, natu- 
rally enough insist on being allowed to enter, 
so far as they are individually worthy, the 
charmed circle of peoples who are allowed 
full political and social rights here. This 
fact, combined with our race prejudice, cre- 
ates a difficult situation. 

Back of this eager insistence, Dr. Steiner 
points out, is the pressure of economic neces- 
sity, the outward thrust of a densely popu- 
lated and poor land toward a sparselv set- 
tled continent of enormous resources. The 
last-mentioned fact gives the awaking of 
Asia its significance for the western world, 
and the United States, as the frontier where 
the two civilizations meet, must face the 
situation squarelv. But the right of unre- 
stricted immigration into this country would 
not materially improve the state of affairs in 
the East. Relief must come by internal in- 
dustrial development and social progress. 



48 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



When that development comes, but not be- 
fore, we can open our doors to Asiatic as to 
European immigration. 

The working out of any policy, however, 
is complicated by our race prejudice. Un- 
reasoning and unreasonable as it often is, 
it is a fact of vital importance in our pres- 
ent situation. The inconsistency of such 
prejudice with our political principles is irri- 
tating to an intelligent people, and combined 
with our lack of military strength, tends to 
earn for us Japanese contempt, in Dr. Stein- 
er's judgment. Clever and ambitious people, 
the Japanese already among us will not sub- 
mit to segregation in an inferior status, as 
the Negroes have thus far done. 

"Their reaction to segregation will more 
likely be similar to that of the Jews, who, in 
spite of their excellent qualities, have tended 
to make a place for themselves in the Euro- 
pean countries where prejudice against them 
was strongest by taking advantage of the 
moral weakness and disorganization of the 
people among whom they lived. A clever 
people like the Japanese will make a place 
for themselves in America in spite of all ob- 
stacles. Just what will be the nature of the 
place that our race prejudice will compel 
them to occupy is worthy of serious con- 
sideration" (page 192). 

Dr. Steiner, then, holds increasing race 
contacts to be inevitable, and like all serious 
students of the problem, he has no cocksure 
judgments as to the results, recognizing that 
there are two distinct phases of the matter, 
one social, intellectual, emotional, the other 
biological. Our immediate concern is with 
the first. 

On our own side our task is to see that 
American-Japanese contacts take place under 
only the best conditions, in order that preju- 
dice be broken down, while the Japanese 
must see the wisdom of permitting only the 
best representatives of their race to come to 
this country. "The American-Japanese prob- 
lem must be worked out by a gradual process 
which it may take generations in order to 
make complete" (page 193). Whether the 
issue between East and West will be worked 
out along peaceful lines or not "depends 
upon our skill in handling the situation and 
upon the prestige that our country possesses 
because of its fighting strength" (page 209). 
The second half of the prescription may con- 
ceivably be questionable; the first certainly is 
not. 

These two books may well be read together. 
Dr. Steiner is perhaps inclined to under- 
estimate the importance of economic compe- 
tition in America as a coordinate factor with 
race prejudice in creating the situation on 
which mischief-making sensation mongers in 
both the United States and Japan play for 
their own purposes; while it was no part of 
President Scherer's purpose to discuss race 
prejudice, but only to indicate the actual 
problem created for us by Japanese immigra- 
tion — a problem, in his judgment, essentially 
economic. The two books together constitute 
an excellent study of the Japanese immigra- 
tion question. Both are sober, restrained, 
informing, useful. 

Mr. McCormick's volume is their opposite 
in every respect. It deals with the diplomacy 
of the past twenty years in China, and is a 
thoroughly mischievous work. Its author be- 
gins by telling us that he has forgotten who 
told him some of his "facts," that many of 
them had no chronicler but himself, and that 
they "cannot be publicly ascribed to their 
sources, many of which are official and con- 
fidential." Having thus freed himself from 
all hampering restraints, he proceeds to re- 
late the sordid and well-known story of in- 
ternational finance, trade and investment in 
China, as seen in the diplomatic sleight-of- 
hand at Peking, lending to the tale much 
picturesque embroidery of journalistic inci- 
dent. 



Now the main interest of the facts lies in 
the interpretation thereof, and here Mr. Mc- 
Cormick spares not. Japan, of course, is the 
diabolus ex machina that has made all the 
wheels go round, even though the wheels 
were spinning merrily for decades before 
Japan had anything to do with them. But 
what are facts when we want interpreta- 
tions? And the master interpretation is this: 
Komura, on his return from Portsmouth, set 
the Japanese government on a course of ag- 
gressive imperialism that fears not God 
neither regards man, and the Japanese diplo- 
mats have been so much more clever than 
those of other nations and so much less pre- 
occupied with other affairs that men like 
Grey and Sazonoff and all the rest have sim- 
ply moved arms and legs when Japan pulled 
the strings. 

As for our own State Department, appar- 
ently John Hay and Philander C. Knox were 
not lunatics, but aside from them — well, let 
Mr. McCormick speak: "In the drama of 
modern China, Tong [sic] Shao-yi has been 
a political comet whose career in the field 
of Pacific international astronomy is worthy 
of the study of those 'by gosh' astrologers 
who so impressively inhabit the observa- 
tories of the State Department in Washing- 
ton" (page 96) — including, evidently, Elihu 
Root, for the Root-Takahira agreement "was 
a piece of hopeless insanity by the American 
State Department" (page 101). 

Mr. McCormick's judgment and language 
are not marked by diplomatic restraint, nor 
does he sift evidence with care or display 
profound knowledge of the complicated mat- 
ters with which he deals. Thus we learn at 
page 242 that our trade with Japan represents 
"a golden gift to her of an annual balance of 
twenty-five million dollars and over." Of 
course we settle our trade balance by send- 
ing each year a shipful of double eagles. On 
page 246 we find, somewhat to our surprise, 
that Japan "had nationalized all important 
industries by lending them state funds," 
though we know that in fact the government 
turns over everything as fast as it can to 
private enterprise, curiously reversing our 
western method. Again, we discover (pages 3, 
265) that it was the seaman's act that drove 
the Pacific Mail out of our western waters — 
and so it goes. It is truly fortunate that 
there are some facts that have had other 
chroniclers — and interpreters — than Mr. Mc- 
Cormick. 

After reading two pages devoted to the 
deliberate insult that Japan gave us by sign- 
ing her "predatory pact" of 1910 with Rus- 
sia actually on July 4 — let us beware that we 
sign no treaties on May 5, for that is the 
boys' birthday in Japan — after discovering 
again to our sorrow (page 328) that we are 
just like China, this time in having "about 
the same kind of diplomatic establishments 
and plunderable wealth," and after finding 
wherever we open the book how unfailingly 
righteous have always been our aims in the 
Pacific and how wholly unholy those of 
Japan — after these and many similar experi- 
ences, we are not surprised to learn (page 
291) that "the conflict between Japan and the 
United States is centered in moral principles 
of life, character, and national existence that 
find a manifestation in the Pacific and east 
Asia through the existence of China" — what- 
ever that may mean ; at any rate it gives us 
a virtuous feeling — and that the only solution 
is war with a large W. 

As if that were not horrid enough, it looks 
as though we might have to take on Europe, 
too, before we are done with it: "With its 
[the United States'] principles and policies 
in the Pacific a direct challenge to Japan, 
and with Europe behind Japan looming up 
across the Pacific, is it going to back down, 
and hunt its hiding place which never yet 
it has seen?" (page 337). 

Well, we should rather guess not — but big 



Mr. McCormick, what language to use among 
allies! 

Henry R. Mussey. 

My Mother and I 

By E. G. Stern. The Macmillan Com- 
pany. 169 pp. Price $1; by mail of the 
Survey, $1.10. 

My Mother and I is the latest on the rap- 
idly lengthening list of books describing in 
the first person an immigrant's progress 
along the path of Americanization. It is a 
significant circumstance that practically all 
of these later-day pilgrim-writers are Jewish. 
Apparently the pilgrims of other races are 
less tempted to analyze their own situation 
or have less of a gift at doing so. Another 
significant circumstance is that the distance 
traversed is great, and the rate advanced 
astonishingly rapid, indicating a people held 
down by force in the countries from which 
they have come, far below the level where 
by natural endowment they belong. 

Involved in this rapid advance is the 
tragedy of immigrant life, the leaving be- 
hind of settled middle age by ambitious 
youth, to the pain and bewilderment of the 
old, to the demoralization, often, of the 
young. It is the distinctive feature of this 
book, in contrast to the others, to make this 
tragic situation its leading motive ; the parent, 
not the child, the protagonist. Tenderly and 
beautifully the portrait of the mother is 
drawn — her simple kindness, her strength of 
character, her growing loneliness as the child 
passes more and more completely into an 
unknown world, her unselfish acceptance of 
an inevitable situation. 

This is the figure we are inclined to forget, 
in our delight with the quick response of the 
young to our efforts to Americanize our 
newcomer. But this is the figure we must 
keep in mind, and provide for, if the process 
of assimilation is to be wholesome and com- 
plete, and My Mother and I will help to 
remind us. Perhaps an even more useful 
service of the book will be to open some 
blind young eyes to the true worth and value 
of their parents, who, although they do not 
understand America, have been, through 
sacrifice and service and love, among the 
most potent helpers of their children to be- 
come the good Americans they are. 

Kate Holladay Claghorn. 

Judaean Addresses; 1900-1917. 

In Commemoration of the twentieth anni- 
versary of The Judaeans. Bloch Publish- 
ing Co. 192 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the 
Survey $1.10. 

The Judaeans are a distinguished company 
of American Jews who come together two or 
three times a year "for the purpose of pro- 
moting and furthering the intellectual and 
spiritual interests of Jews." This record of 
some of the addresses delivered during the 
last eighteen years was well worth preserv- 
ing and circulating among a wider public. 
For, in the intimacy of gatherings where 
every one present knows every one else, 
truths are revealed and delicate strings 
touched which we do not find in the general 
literature and public speeches on the "Jew- 
ish question." 

There is, for instance, a reproach to the 
American Jew by Emil G. Hirsch on the 
score that he considers his obligation to his 
race discharged by gifts to charitable agen- 
cies without participating in the effort of 
building up a Jewish scholarship and cul- 
ture. Equally important, however, are the 
interpretative contributions, such as Max J. 
Kohler's The Jew in His Relation to the 
Law of the Land ; Henry Moskowitz's A 
Quarter Century of the Jewish Immigrant in 
America, and, especially, a number of ad- 
dresses on the Jew as a citizen in various 
European countries. 

B. L. 



0092320 








TO REGULATE THE DEMAND 
FOR LABOR 

PENNSYLVANIA is the first state 
on this continent to have embodied 
in a legislative act the principle, already 
practiced in several European countries 
and advocated by economists in all, that 
public employment, especially on con- 
struction works, should be utilized to 
compensate for decreased private em- 
ployment at times of industrial depres- 
sion. This is possible on any considera- 
ble scale only if previous provision is 
made for such expenditures at times of 
emergency by the accumulation of funds 
from annual appropriations. 

The Pennsylvania act resulted from 
an instruction of the previous legislature 
to the Industrial Board to report on the 
subject of panics and industrial depres- 
sions. Governor Brumbaugh took a per- 
sonal interest in its passage. It provides 
for the extension of the public works of 
the commonwealth during periods of 
extraordinary unemployment caused by 
temporary industrial depression. An 
emergency fund is created for this pur- 
pose in the custody of an Emergency 
Public Works Commission consisting of 
the governor, the auditor general, the 
state treasurer and the commissioner of 
labor and industry. 

This bill is only a first step, making 
an appropriation of $50,000 to consti- 
tute a part of the fund ; and Otto Mal- 
lery, one of the members of the Indus- 
trial Board, is now working for a sub- 
stantial, regular increment to it, prefer- 
ably a percentage of the direct inher- 
itance tax. It does not in any way pro- 
vide for "relief employment" in the ac- 
cepted meaning of that term, but for an 
extension of public works, including the 
purchase of materials and supplies, under 
the normal conditions and restrictions 
and through the normal channels. 

The Industrial Board, under the act, 
is obliged to keep constantly advised of 
industrial conditions as affecting em- 
ployment and to hold an immediate in- 
quiry into the facts, if reports are re- 
ceived that extraordinary unemploy- 
ment, caused by industrial depression, 
exists in the state. If these reports are 



confirmed, the board has to report to the 
governor who is then empowered to call 
together the emergency commission 
which sanctions the extra expenditure. 

The board is urging the same policy 
on the larger cities of Pennsylvania with 
the hope of gradually making it the ac- 
cepted method of procedure in all towns 
and boroughs. It has been pointed out 
that the magnificent public works in 
many German cities are due to the ac- 
cumulation of such special funds, often 
for long periods of years, to be spent at 
times when the state of employment and 
other considerations combine to make the 
execution of large works of construction 
particularly desirable. 

Similar proposals made in a report of 
the New York Mayor's Committee on 
Unemployment, about to be published, 
will be discussed in a forthcoming article 
in the Survey. 

COMPENSATION FOR THE 
LONGSHOREMEN 

THE longshoremen, left by a de- 
cision of the United States Supreme 
Court without the protection of a work- 
men's compensation law, have had their 
privileges restored by a bill which passed 
the Senate on October 2, and the House 
on October 5, the day before Congress 
adjourned. The bill thus rushed 
through in record time was drawn by 
the American Association for Labor 
Legislation at the request of the New 
York State Industrial Commission, after 
the decision in the Jensen case had held 
that longshoremen do not come under 
the jurisdiction of the state workmen's 
compensation laws. The desired effect 
was accomplished by an amendment to 
the federal judicial code. 



A CORRECTION 

r J^ HE last word in the middle col- 
J- umn of the page facing this 
should be "fie" — not "big." 

The form in which this typograph- 
ical error occurs was entirely printed 
before it was discovered. Apologies 
are due and arc hereby rendered Pro- 
fessor Mussey — Editor. 



Representatives of the United States 
Bureau of Labor, the Industrial Com- 
mission of New York, the American 
Federation of Labor and the Amer- 
ican Association for Labor Legislation 
worked for the passage of the bill. In 
commenting on it after its passage, John 
B. Andrews, secretary of the American 
Association for Labor Legislation, said : 

The men who load and unload vessels are 
at this time peculiarly indispensable to the 
country and to the allies in the successful 
conduct of shipping. In preparing the bill 
upon official request it was aimed to open the 
way for a comprehensive application of state 
compensation laws to industrial accidents in 
marine employment. 

WORKING THE SCHOOLS 
DOUBLE SHIFT 

IF the author of the famous sentence 
in the ordinance of 1787, "religion, 
morality and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness 
of mankind, schools and the means of 
education shall forever be encouraged," 
could view a typical American public 
school system today he would probably 
refuse to believe his eyes. He would find 
children singing, dancing, listening to 
lectures and concerts, attending clubs 
and mass meetings for public discussion, 
and taking part in athletic exercises and 
games at times when in his day school 
buildings were locked and dark. And 
he would find adults doing these same 
things in as great or greater numbers 
than children. 

Interesting light on the current trans- 
formation of the public school in this 
country is shed by a bulletin written by 
Clarence A. Perry, of the Russell Sage 
Foundation, and just published by the 
United States Bureau of Education. 
This contains the first data upon after- 
class activities gathered under the bu- 
reau's new school-extension record sys- 
tem. During the year ended June, 1^16, 
463 cities conducted 59,218 group activi- 
ties in public schools after 6 P.M., en- 
tirely exclusive of night classes. Since 
cities were relied upon to do their re- 
porting, these figures are probably too 
low, a number not taking the trouble 
to fill out the questionnaire sent to them. 

49 



50 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



PiOW READY 



FINANCIAL FEDERATIONS 

Report Prepared by a Special Committee consisting of 

W. Frank Persons, Chairman, 

till recently Director of General Work, Charity Organization So- 
ciety, New York City. 

William H. Baldwin, 

Member of the Board of Managers, Associated Charities, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Fred R. Johnson, 

till recently General Secretary, Associated Charities, Boston, Mass. 

Eugene T. Lies, 

Superintendent, United Charities, Chicago, III. 

Presenting Detailed Data regarding the Financial, Educational and 
Social Aspects of the Work of Federations of Philanthropic Agencies 
engaged in Collective Raising of Funds, with Certain Recommenda- 
tions and Conclusions. 

PAPER, LARGE OCTAVO, 285 PAGES, PRICE POSTPAID $1.00 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION for ORGANIZING CHARITY 

22nd Street and Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



Physical activities, such as gymnastics, 
games and folk-dancing, received the 
most attention, 17,000 of the occasions 
being devoted to them. Clubs, both 
social and athletic, come next, with quiet 
games, concerts and adult society meet- 
ings being about equal in the attention 
they received. The cities that report 
paid extension workers number 150. 

School buildings are being used more 
and more also for election purposes, 
both as polling places and for holding 
primaries. One hundred forty-three 
cities report such use during 1916. 

TEXTBOOKS OF THE NEW 
TIMES 

IN order to bring "the lessons of pa- 
triotism and of national and interna- 
tional relations within the comprehen- 
sion of children" the federal government 
is resorting officially to the use of lesson 
leaflets in public schools. These will 
consist of reading matter to be put di- 
rectly into the hands of pupils. Leaflets 
of thirty-two pages each will be issued 
every month from October to May. 
Each issue will be divided into three 
lessons, one for the fourth, fifth and 
sixth grades, one for the seventh and 
eighth grades and first high school class, 
and one for the three upper high school 
classes. The leaflets will be issued by 
the Food Administration and the Bu- 
reau of Education. 



The object of the instruction to be 
given is declared to be "to educate a 
rising generation that will know better 
than its predecessors how to conduct the 
business of living." Conservation is to 
be one of the keynotes. To begin with, 
home and local problems will be em- 
phasized. Prof. Charles H. Judd, di- 
rector of the School of Education at the 
University of Chicago, who is editor of 
the leaflets, hopes thus to work outward 
from a center familiar to all pupils into 
wider fields that they know little of. 

The October leaflets contain lessons 
on The Western Pioneer, The Varied 
Occupations of a Colonial Farm, and 
Spinning and Dyeing Linen in Colonial 
Times. These aim to show pupils how 
simple were the wants of our early colo- 
nial days, when the home was the school, 
the hospital, the factory, the recreation 
center and, many times, the church. 

As society became more complex, work 
left the home to seek water-power, fac- 
tories grew up and public schools, hos- 
pitals, and transportation, city water sys- 
tems and all the complex structure of 
civilization developed. Study of this 
growth, it is expected, will give a vivid 
picture of production, transportation, 
distribution and conservation of natural 
resources. School children will learn the 
interdependence and solidarity of the 
peoples of the world. The first lesson 
in the October leaflets, for example, 



points out how war involves cooperation . 
and economy. France, withdrawing her 
artisans, chemists and engineers from 
the firing line, is held up as an example 
of intelligent cooperation. 

The adoption of the plan followed a 
letter addressed by President Wilson to 
school officers throughout the country, 
urging them to "increase materially the 
time and attention devoted to instruction 
bearing directly on the problems of com- 
munity and national life." At an ag- 
gregate cost of eight cents, it is said, each 
pupil can be supplied with 256 pages of 
reading matter during the year. Re- 
prints will be obtainable from the super- 
intendent of public documents at Wash- 
ington. 

THE NEW WAY OF HEALING 
WAR WOUNDS 

IF an}'one doubts that the "public" is 
interested in even such technical mat- 
ters as the prevention of suppuration in 
war wounds, he must have changed his 
mind could he have seen the crowd that 
packed itself into the New York Acad- 
emy of Medicine on the evening of Oc- 
tober 5 to hear Dr. Alexis Carrel tell 
of his treatment of wounds by drainage. 
Khaki sat side by side with civilian dress, 
but the audience held also many who 
could not claim either an M. R. C. or 
an M. D. degree. 

Briefly, the achievement which Dr. 
Carrel worked out at the American 
Ambulance at Neuilly is this: A way 
was found by which an antiseptic solu- 
tion, which should be potent without 
being irritating or destroying good tis- 
sue, could be kept for prolonged periods 
in close contact with infected portions 
of wounds. 

This is made possible by inserting in 
a wound several tubes from a single 
fountain, each having lateral punctures 
in addition to the opening at the end. 
Around these tubes a light wrapping of 
sterile gauze is placed. Then at inter- 
vals of about two hours, a special solu- 
tion known as the Dakin-Carrel solution 
pours slowly into the tubes and reaches 
all parts of the wound and is held there 
by the apparatus until absorbed. The 
first step, even before this drainage tech- 
nique begins, is the thorough cleansing 
of the wound. Clotted and infected tis- 
sue is cut away; careful search is made 
for bits of clothing, splinters of wood or 
even soil and gravel, which may have 
been forced into the body at the time of 
the injury, especially if the wound has 
been caused by a high-power explosive. 
If the man has had to lie for some time 
on the field or in the trench, infection 
from his environment is inevitable. An- 
other source of danger is gas gangrene, 
or the growth deep below the surface 
of organisms which spread through the 
body, rapidly causing a formation of 
gas. 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



51 



Dr. Carrel finds that often twenty- 
four hours suffices for this treatment, 
and that by that time the wound is free 
from infection and may be closed. The 
determination is made, however, not 
upon external appearance of patient or 
wound, nor upon feelings general or 
local. Constant bacteriological tests 
are made, and not until a smear is three 
times found free from bacteria is it 
deemed safe to go on to the final task, 
that of closing the wound. In all, four 
steps or stages represent Dr. Carrel's 
method : Mechanical sterilization, chemi- 
cal sterilization, bacteriological control, 
and the closing. 

The important point in the discovery 
was the finding of a solution which 
would not irritate. Several earlier ex- 
periments on record were abandoned be- 
cause of failure at this point. The re- 
sults are to be credited to the splendid 
teamwork of different scientists — physi- 
cists, chemists, bacteriologists and a 
mathematician — who together worked 
out this problem and made suppuration 
in hospital surgery forever unnecessary. 
The illustrations in color which Dr. 
Carrel showed were from his own hos- 
pital cases in France. 

PLOTTING THE SOLDIER'S 
MENTAL CURVES 

IN four of the army training camps 
psychologists have begun the task of 
measuring the mental ability of every 
soldier there enrolled. The object of 
this work is not merely to eliminate 
mental defectives ; rather, to find ex- 
actly what kind of work each man can 
best do in order to avoid misfits and 
their costly consequences. Emphasis is 
placed upon the positive aspect of the 
work. As Major Yerkes writes in the 
current issue of Mental Hygiene: 

In military as in industrial organizations 
reasonably suitable places can be found for 
those of little intellectual capacity quite as 
readily as for those of great ability. 

So the psychologist is studying the 
soldier with the view of classifying him 
according to his mental characteristics 
and placing him at the task for which 
he is best fitted. 

The tests upon which this classifica- 
tion is to depend have been prepared by 
a committee of the most representative 
psychologists of the country. Out of 
their experience they drafted a plan of 
examination and measurement. Then 
they tried out this original plan upon 
groups in all parts of the country, and 
according to results modified or ex- 
tended it. 

Members of this committee were Dr. 
R. M. Yerkes, of the University of Min- 
nesota, chairman, who is now in charge 
of the section of psychology at the army 
headquarters, Washington; Prof. W. V. 
Bingham, Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology, Pittsburgh; H. H. Goddard, 



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1 I 

J Replenish Your Linen Chest | 



For The Winter 





Reg. Trade Mark 



Reg. Trade Mar'; 



The orderly and systematic way to keep track 
of the wear and tear on your Household 
Linen is to count it over and check it up at 
the beginning of the winter season. Then put 
in a complete order for the necessary new 
supplies to bring your outfit up to standard. 

Such an annual inventory may save the excessive 
use of the expensive "best" Linen; it may disclose 
| undue laundry damage. 

We carry the largest range of exclusive patterns to 
choose from and the widest choice of qualities. We 
guarantee that the Linen is Pure Linen. This sixty- 
year-old principle of dealing in Pure Linens only has 
not been deviated from one iota even in these diffi- 
cult times. These facts combine to make "The 
Linen Store" the natural place to come to with your 
buying list. 

Incidentally, we are very slow to discontinue a de- 
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probability can be matched five or ten years hence. 

Table Cloths and Napkins Bed Linens and Spreads 

Fancy Table Linens Towels and Bath Mats 

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Vineland, N. J.; Dr. T. H\ Haines, 
Ohio State University; Prof. L. M. 
Terman, Stanford University ; Dr. F. L. 
Wells, Waverley, Mass., and Prof. G. 
M. Whipple, University of Illinois. 

The tests are proceeding at Camp 
Devens, Massachusetts; Camp Dix, 
New Jersey; Camp Lee, Virginia; 
Camp Taylor, Kentucky. Findings of 
the examining staff will be referred to 
the psychiatrist in charge, and made 
available to the company commander, 
who is, however, not obliged at present 
to be guided by them. It is believed 



that the demonstration of the worth of 
such study will be so successful as to 
justify making expert service of this 
type the basis for all future selection of 
officers and training of men. This was 
the recommendation of the National Re- 
search Council, organized months ago 
at the call of President Wilson and now 
serving as a department of the Council 
of National Defense. 

That such work has possibilities far 
beyond the duration of the war, is the 
belief of the National Committee for 
Mental Hygiene through whose com- 



52 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



Classified Advertisements 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

WANTED — A position as head of some 
child's or young girl's institution by a 
young married woman with kindergarten 
training and probation work of Juvenile 
Court. References required and given. Ad- 
dress 2613 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE, Initiative, Efficiency, Or- 
ganizer. School of Philanthropy and uni- 
versity graduate. Thorough training and 
experience in Research, Charities, Recrea- 
tion, Industrial Welfare. Address 2614 
Survey. 

DIRECTOR of boys' and men's work 
in settlements, several years' experience, 
wishes similar position. Address 2610 
Survey. 

SECRETARY and Assistant to head of 
large New York social settlement desires 
position with an organization whose di- 
rector is a very busy person and would be 
glad to have the assistance of a trained 
young man, 26 years of age, with seven 
years' experience in club, neighborhood and 
civic activities. Address 2622 Survey. 

STENOGRAPHER wishes work even- 
ings and Saturday afternoons. Address 
2615 Survey. 

MATRON — -progressive, efficient and ex- 
perienced — desires position in institution 
either with children or aged people. Ad- 
dress 2616 Survey. 

MAN — Settlement, C. O. S., Americani- 
zation and research experience. Address 
2617 Survey. 

PROFESSIONAL gentleman desires ex- 
ecutive position — child welfare or public 
health. Exceptional experience in placing 
children. Address 2618 Survey. 

COLLEGE graduate, experienced in care 
of children would like position as matron 
of child-caring institution or convalescent 
home. Address 2619 Survey. 

INSTITUTION or family desiring com- 
petent managing housekeeper communicate 
with 2621 Survey. 



HELP WANTED 

WANTED — Young Jewish woman of 
executive ability and case work experience 
to take charge of work with delinquent 
girls. Address 2611 Survey. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

WANTED— Private institution for two 
young men 21 and 30 years respectively, who 
are deaf, dumb and blind. Nice clean men 
in need of home, not helpless. Address 
communications to L. Edward Lashman, 
1228 Tribune Building, Chicago, Ills. 

INDEX to Volume 38 of the Survey 
(April-September, 1917) will be ready soon 
and will be mailed to libraries and to all 
others who have asked for earlier indexes. 
Sent free to others on request to the 
Survey, 112 East 19 street, New York city. 



mittee on war work these significant be- 
ginnings are being made. The chair- 
man of this committee, Major Pearce 
Bailey, has been placed in charge of the 
entire field of psychiatry. He has under 
his direction, in addition to the psycho- 
logists, a corps of over two hundred 
psychiatrists and neurologists. These 
are now on duty in all the camps exam- 
ining all recruits in order to eliminate 
those unfit for duty because of neuro- 
pathic conditions. The findings will be 
important for future efforts in vocational 
guidance and all educational develop- 
ment. 

THE LAKES WELFARE PLAN 
IN OPERATION 

WHEN the United States Shipping 
Board through a compromise 
agreement succeeded in preventing the 
strike of 10,000 seamen on the Great 
Lakes, they were instrumental in secur- 
ing for the sailors a substantial increase 
in wages. This, however, was only one 
out of six demands made by the Lake 
Seamen's Union. Perhaps the most im- 
portant of the other demands involved 
the abolition of the discharge book and 
the so-called welfare plan. This is a 
matter that has caused controversy for a 
number of years between the union and 
the Lake Carriers' Association. 

The welfare plan has much in com- 
mon with welfare plans of other em- 
ploying corporations. But it has one im- 
portant difference: sailors can be hired 
only through the assembly rooms which 
have been established in various ports on 
the Great Lakes, where the sailors are 
supposed to gather and where certain 
comforts are offered them for which 
they pay one dollar a year. When a 
man pays his dollar he becomes a "wel- 
fare man," and is given what is known 
as a discharge book. Captains are not 
allowed to hire a man who does not 
possess one of these books. When a man 
is hired he must deposit his book with 
the captain or chief engineer, and when 
he leaves an entry is made indicating 
the character of his services. To quote 
the printed rules of the association: 

If this entry be "good" or "fair" the book 
shall be returned to the man, but when in the 
best judgment of the officer such entry cannot 
justly be made, and in every case of desertion 
or failure to serve after engaging, the book 
shall be returned by the master to the secre- 
tary of the association, together with a state- 
ment in explanation from the officer with 
whom the book was deposited. The associa- 
tion will thereupon take such action, in such 
manner as it may deem wise and just as to 
canceling its outstanding certificate of mem- 
bership. 

The union claims that this constitutes 
a black-list of unusual efficiency, and 
consequently they are bitterly opposed 
to the welfare plan. A study has re- 
cently been made of the plan by the 
United States Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, which is to be published in a forth- 



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coming bulletin of the bureau. A sum- 
mary of the study is published in the 
Monthly Review of the bureau for 
September. 

As an indication of dissatisfaction, the 
report cites the fact that the rate of turn- 
over on the association's boats, in 1916, 
was more than 600 per cent. "The in- 
terpretation and practical application of 
this open shop principle, and the actual 
operation of this welfare plan have," the 
report states, "undeniably had a dam- 
aging effect upon the lake unions." The 
writer states that the officers of the 
Lake Carriers' Association are making 
an earnest attempt to enforce a policy of 
neutrality toward the union, but he 
continues: 

The general effect of the welfare plan in 
the actual administration of its provisions 
by the general officers of the association, its 
commissioners, and those in authority on its 
boats, is discriminatory toward the unions. 
No matter how disinterestedly neutral the 
association had endeavored to be, the obvious 
result has been the elimination of union 
men, the use of strike-breakers, and the vir- 
tual exercise of the power of the black-list. 
The membership of the association has in- 
creased; that of the union has diminished. 

HOW AND WHEN TO GO TO 
FRANCE 

HOMER FOLKS, secretary of the 
State Charities Aid Association of 
New York, sends the association the fol- 
lowing cable from Paris: 

After two months in charge of the Depart- 
ment of Civil Affairs of the American Red 
Cross in France, I have gained the following 
definite impressions: 

First. A large number of new and useful 
social activities have been started by the 
French in all parts of France since the war 
began. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 13, 1917 



53 



Second. The plans of work of some of 
these institutions are extremely good, but 
as a whole they are without coordination. 

Third. There is great interest everywhere 
in tuberculosis and child-welfare work, and 
American agencies operating here in these 
lines have wonderful opportunities. 

Fourth. There is complete accord and 
sympathetic coordination among all Ameri- 
can organizations in France. 

Fifth. If the present rate of progress can 
be maintained it is possible that France will 
have in four years, notwithstanding adverse 
conditions, an equipment of agencies for the 
prevention of tuberculosis and infant mor- 
tality second to no state in America. 

Sixth. There is great need for additional 
workers who bring special technical experi- 
ence, such as physicians with special experi- 
ence in tuberculosis or child-welfare; trained 
nurses with health experience; social workers 
with general experience. Some knowledge 
of French is very desirable. All such who 
are willing to consider coming should apply 
through the American Red Cross in Wash- 
ington, and start only when and as sent for 
from here. 

Seventh. There is no need for additional 
Americans without special experience and 
special qualifications. 

Eighth. All American social workers here 
are delighted with the favorable opportunity 
for constructive work. 

Ninth. Everything which the State Char- 
ities Aid Association workers can do at home 
to increase the effectiveness and improve the 
quality of social work has an important and 
directly useful effect here. 

Tenth. I am thoroughly convinced that 
American relief work here is being pushed 
with exceptional devotion under expert di- 
rection and promises exceptional results. 

COLUMBIA'S FACULTY AND 
TRUSTEES 

PROTEST against the dismissal of 
Profs. J. McKeen Cattell and H. 
W. L. Dana, two members of the Co- 
lumbia University faculty whose posi- 
tions were declared vacant by the Board 
of Trustees Inst week because "they had 
done grave injury to the university by 
their public agitation against the con- 
duct of the war," has already become 
tangible. Charles A. Beard, professor 
of politics, resigned on Monday partly 
as a result of this action, and both John 
Dewey and James Harvey Robinson 
have expressed their resentment. 

Professor Beard is one of the most 
widely known teachers in American uni- 
versities. In his letter of resignation to 
President Butler he said : 

I have been driven to the conclusion that 
the university is really under the control of 
a small and active group of trustees who 
have no standing in the world of education, 
who are reactionary and visionless in politics, 
narrow and medieval in religion. 

Declaring that he was among the first 
to urge a declaration of war by the 
United States rnd that he believed we 
should now press forward to a "just 
conclusion," he said: 

I am convinced that while I remain in the 
pay of the trustees of Columbia University I 
cannot do effecivelv my humble part in sus- 
taining public opinion in support of the just 



war on the German empire or take a posi- 
tion of independence in the days of recon- 
struction that are to follow. 

Professor Robinson declared that "we 
fear that a condition of repression may 
arise in this country similar to that 
which we laughed at in Germany," and 
Professor Dewey issued a statement in 
which he said : 

I regard the action of Professor Beard as 
the natural consequence of the degrad- 
ing action of the trustees last week. 

Professor Cattell, the trustees charged, 
had written letters to members of Con- 
gress endeavoring to influence them to 
vote against sending soldiers of the new 
national army to Europe. Professor 
Dana is a trustee of the People's Coun- 
cil and has been active in pacifist circles ; 
he attended the recent meeting of the 
council in Chicago, which was inter- 
fered with by the police. He was as- 
sistant professor of comparative litera- 
ture and Professor Cattell was profes- 
sor of psychology. 

Professor Cattell, who is editor of 
the Scientific Monthly and the School 
and Society and has been on the Co- 
lumbia faculty for twenty-six years, 
is denied his pension from the university 
and also from the Carnegie Foundation 
by the action of the board. 

In dismissing the two professors, the 
trustees said that "the members of the 
committee on instruction of the faculty 
of applied science, representing the en- 
tire teaching staff of the Schools of 
Mines, Engineering and Chemistry, 
united in a written request to the presi- 
dent that they and their work be pro- 
tected from the ill results of the activi- 
ties of Professors Cattell and Dana." 



COMING MEETINGS 

[Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month.] 

American Public Health Association, War 
Meeting, Washington, D. C, Oct. 17-20. Head- 
quarters, Hotel Willard. Acting secretary, A. 
W. Hedrick, 126 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, 
Mass. 

PERIODICALS 

Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

A. L. A. Book List; monthly; $1; annotated mag- 
azine on book selection; valuable guide to best 
books; American Library Association, 78 East 
Washington St., Chicago. 

American Red Cross Magazine; monthly; $2 a 
year; Doubleday, Page & Co., publishers, New 
York. 

American Journal of Public Health; monthly; $3 
a year; 3 months' trial (4 months to Survey 
readers), 50 cents; American Public Health As- 
sociation, 126 Massachusetts Ave., Boston. 

A Voice in the Wilderness; $1 a year. A magazine 
of sane radicalism. At present deals particu- 
larly with our autocratic suppression of free 
speech, free press and peaceable assembly. An 
indispensable magazine to the lover of liberty. 
12 Mount Morris Park. New York City. 

Better Films Moi ement: Bulletin of Affiliated 
Committees; monthly; $1; ten cents an issue. 
Information about successful methods. Ad- 
dress National Committee for Better Films, or 
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, 
70 Fifth Ave.. New York. 

The Child Labor Bulletin, quarterly; $2 a year; 
National Child Labor Committee. 105 East 22 
street, New York 



The Club Worker; monthly; 30 cents a year; Na- 
tional League of Women Workers, 35 East 30 
St., New York. 

The Co-operative Consumer; monthly; 25 cts. per 
year. Co-operative League of America, 2 West 
13 St.. New York. 

The Crisis; monthly, f $1; National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People, publisher, 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. 

The Critic and Guide; monthly; $1 a year. De- 
voted to medical sociology, rational sexology, 
birth control, etc. Wm. J. Robinson, M.D., 
Editor. 12 Mount Morris Park, New York City. 

The Dial; fortnightly; $3 a year; five months' 
trial to Survey readers $1. Constructive articles 
on social aspects, war and peace, by H. M. 
Kallen, of Committee on Labor, Advisory Com- 
mission, Council National Defense, starts Oc- 
tober 11. The Dial, 608 So. Dearborn St., 
Chicago. 

The Journal of Home Economics; monthly; $2 
a year; foreign postage, 35c. extra; Canadian. 
20c; American Home Economics Association. 
1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

The Journal of Negro History; quarterly; $1 a 
year; foreign subscriptions 25 cents extra; con- 
cerned with facts not with opinions; Association 
for Study of Negro Life and History, 1216 You 
St.. N. W.. Washington. D. C. 

Life and Labor; $1 a year; a spirited record of 
the organized struggle of women, by women, for 
women in the economic world. Published by 
The National Women's Trade Union League, 
Room 703, 139 North Clark street, Chicago. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; National 
Committee for Mental Hygiene, 50 Union 
Square, New York. 

National Municipal Review; monthly; $5 a year; 
authoritative, public spirited, constructive; Na- 
tional Municipal League; North American Bldg., 
Philadelphia 

The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. postpaid; permanent record of cur- 
rent events. An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

The Playground Magazine; monthly; $2; Recrea 
tion in Industries and Vocational Recreation 
are discussed in the August Playground. Prob 
lems involved in laying out playgrounds are 
taken up in detail by A. E. Metzdorf, of Spring- 
field, Mass. Price of this issue $.50. Play 
ground and Recreation Association of America. 
1 Madison Ave., New York. 

Proportional Representation Review; quarterly; 
40 cents a year. American Proportional Repre- 
sentation League, 802 Franklin Bank Bldg., 
Philadelphia. 

Public Health Nurse Quarterly, $1 a year; na- 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Social Hygiene; a quarterly magazine; $2 per 
year; The Social Hygiene Bulletin; monthly; 
$.25 per year; both free to members; pub- 
lished by the American Social Hygiene Asso- 
ciation, 105 W. 40 St., New York. 

Southern Workman; monthly; illustrated; folk 
song, and corn club, and the great tidal move- 
ments of racial progress; all in a very human 
vein; $1 a year; Hampton Institute, Hampton, 
Va. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 

Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

[Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser 
tions, copy unchanged throughout the month.] 
Order pamphlets from publishers. 

American Plan for Keeping the Bible in Pub- 
lic Schools: 32 pp., 6 cents postpaid, and A 
Primer of the Science of Internationalism; 
96 pp., 15 cents postpaid. Published by Inter- 
national Reform Bureau. 206 Pennsylvania Ave., 
S. E., Washington, D. C. 

Buying Clubs. Published by the Co-operative 
League of America, 70 Fifth avenue. New 
York. 5 cents. 

Co-operation in the United States. C. W. 
Perky, Co-operative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

The Gary Plan in New York City Schools. 
Peter J. Brady, 823-4 World Building. New York. 

Law Concerning Children Born Out of Wed- 
lock (so-called Castberg law). Adopted by the 
Norwegian Storthing. April 10, 1915. 10 cents 
From chairman of committee on Castberg Law, 
679 Lincoln Parkway. Chicago. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates. Inc., 11-' East 19 St., New York. 

The Reconstruction of Religion for Humanity. 
Baccalaureate sermon preached by Rabbi Eman- 
uel Sternheim, Sioux City, Iowa, at Nebraska 
State Normal School. 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 




KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you ivant to know the agencies 
at •work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed ; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



Fatigue, Ncl. 
Feeblemindedness, 



Cpfm, Ncmh. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Americanization, Nlil. 

Better Films Movement, Ncbf. 

Birth Registration, Aaspim. 

Blindness, Ncpb. 

•Cancer, Ascc. 

■Central Councils, Aaoc. 

Charities, Ncsw. 

CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Amer Assn. for Org. Charity. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Nml, Sbo. 
CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Exhibit Assn. 

Natl. Com. for Better Films. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Nspie, Praa. 
CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

(Episcopal) Jt. Com. on Soc. Ser., Pec. 

(Federal) Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

(Unitarian) Dept. of Soc. and Pub. Ser., Aua. 
CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Natl. Municipal League. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Civilian Relief, Arc. 
Clinics, Industrial, Ncl. 
Commission Government, Nml, Sbo. 
Community Organization, Aiss. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 

Coordination Social Agencies, Aaoc, Aiss. 
Correction. Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 
COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca, Arc 

County Ywca. 
Crime, Sa. 

Disfranchisement. Naacp. 
EDUCATION 

Amer. Library Assn. 

Cooperative League of America. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Natl. Soc. for Prom, of Ind. Ed. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi ; 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Efficiency Work. Bmr. 
Electoral Reform, Nml, Ti, Apkl. 
Eugenics, Er. 
Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb, Nyshs. 



FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation 
Franchises, Nml. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Pub. Health Assn. 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Com. of One Hund. on Natl. Health. 

Com. on Prov. for Feebleminded. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Natl. Soc. Hygiene Assn. 

New York Social Hygiene Society, 

Ncsw, Ncwea, 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
History, Asnlh. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work, Ncl, Nclc. 
Hospitals, Naspt. 

Hygiene and Physical Educatioa, Ywca. 
Idiocy, Cpfm. 
Imbecility, Cpfm. 

IMMIGRATION 

Council of Jewish Worn., Dept. Im. Aid. 

International Institute for Foreign-born Women 
of the Ywca. 

Natl. Lib. Im. League, Nfs, Ntas, Tas, 
Industrial hygiene, Apha. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Consumers League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Nspie. 
Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 
Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Natl. Woman's Peace Party. 

Labor Laws, Aall, Ncl, Nclc. 

Legislative Reform, Aprl. 

Liquor, Nml. 

LIBRARIES 

American Library Assn. 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 
Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 
Military Relief, Arc. 
Minimum Wage, Ncl. 
Mountain Whites, Rsp. 
Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs, Nml. 
National Service, Aiss. 
Negro Training, Asnlh, Hi, Ti. 
Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha, Arc, Nophs. 
Open Air Schools. Naspt. 

PEACE 

National Woman's Peace Party. 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 
Physical Training, Praa. 
Police, Nml. 

Protection Women Workers, Ncl, Ntas. 
Prostitution. Asha. 
Public Health, Apha, Cohnh, Nophs. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Assn. for Study Negro Life and Hist. 

Hampton Institute. 

Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 

Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 

Tuskegee Institute. 

Alil, Er. 
Reconstruction. Ncsw. 
Regulation of Motion Pictures, Ncbf. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 

Ncbf. Ywca. 
REMEDIAL IOANS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans. 
Sanatoria. Naspt. 
Self-Govemment, Nlww. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Natl. Fed. of Settlements. 
Sex Education, Asha, Nyshs. 
Schools, Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Short Working Hours, Net. 
Social Agencies, Surveys of, Aaoc. 
Social Hygiene, Asha, Nyshs. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Amer. Inst, of Soc. Serviee. 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 



Dept. of Soc. and Public Service, Aua. 
Joint Com. on Soc. Service, Pec. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 

Ncmh, Praa, Ncwea, Nspie. 
Taxation, Nml. 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers' Aid Society. 

Travelers Aid Society. 

Cjw. 
Tuberculosis, Naspt. 
Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 
Unemployment, Aall. 
WAR RELIEF 

Am. Red Cross. 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Ywca, 
WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 

Natl. Consumers' League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Working Girls, Cjw, Ntas, Tass, Nlww, Tas. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOB LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. Workmen's compensation; health in- 
surance; industrial hygiene; unemployment; one- 
day-rest-in-seven; administration of labor laws. 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ORGANIZING 
CHARITY— Mrs. W. H. Lothrop, ch'n; Francis 
H. McLean, gen. sec'y; 130 E. 22 St., New York. 
Correspondence and active field work in the or- 
ganization, and solution of problems confronting, 
charity organization societies and councils of 
social agencies; surveys of social agencies; plans 
for proper coordination of effort between different 
social agencies. 

AMERICAN ASSOC. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature on request. Traveling exhibit. 
Urges prenatal instruction; adequate obstetrical 
care; birth registration; maternal nursing; infant 
welfare consultations 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA- 
TION— Mrs. Alice P. Norton, sec'y; 1326 E. 
58 St., Chicago. Information supplied on any- 
thing that pertains to food, shelter, clothing or 
management in school, institution or home. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SERV- 
ICE — Founded by Dr. Josiah Strong. Nathaniel 
M. Pratt, gen. sec'y. Edward W. Bemis, Robert 

A. Woods, dept. directors, Bible House, Astor 
Place, New York. Welcomes inquiries as to all 
matters of community organization and progress. 
Members of its staff glad to enter into consulta- 
tion by correspondence about given conditions 
or particular projects. Assists in bringing to in- 
dividual new undertakings the combined results 
and lessons of the best productive achievement. 
Ready to aid in securing publications, speakers, 
temporary or permanent leadership. Particular 
attention given to requests from communities in 
which all such effort is at an early stage. Seeks 
to bring about better cooperation among special- 
ized national organizations, toward securing the 
more comprehensive local application of their 
types of service. Promotes the fullest extension 
of principles and methods which on a limited 
scale have conclusively shown their power for the 
upbuilding of the nation. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION— George 

B. Utley, exec, sec'y; 78 E. Washington St., Chi 
cago. Furnishes information about organizing 
libraries, planning library buildings, training 
librarians, cataloging libraries, etc. List of publi- 
cations on request. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE— C. G. Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives 
Literature free. Membership $1. 

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION 
—Dr. W. A. Evans, pres., Chicago; A. W. Hed- 
rich, acting sec'y; 1039 Boylston St., Boston. Ob- 
ject: to promote public and personal health. Health 
Employment Bureau lists health officers, public 
health nurses, industrial hygienists, etc. 

AMERICAN RED CROSS — National officers: 
Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, 
president; Robert W. DeForest, vice-president; 
John Skelton Williams, treasurer; John W. Davis, 
counselor; Charles L. Magee, secretary; Hon. 
William Howard Taft, chairman central commit- 
tee; Eliot Wadsworth, vice-chairman; Harvey D. 
Gibson, general manager. 

Central Committee, appointed by the President 
of the United States: William Howard Taft, chair- 
man; Eliot Wadsworth, vice-chairman; Robert 
Lansing, Secretary of State; John Skelton Wil- 
liams, Controller of the Currency; Major-General 
William C. Gorgas, Surgeon-General, U. S. A.; 






THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



Rear-Admiral William C. Braisted, Surgeon-Gen- 
eral, U. S. N.; John W. Davis, Solicitor-General. 

War Council, appointed by the President of the 1 
United States: Henry P. Davison, chairman; 
Charles D. Norton, Grayson M.-P. Murphy, John 
D. Ryan, Cornelius N. Bliss, Jr.; William Howard 
Taft, ex-officio; Eliot Wadsworth, ex-officio. 

Major Grayson M.-P. Murphy, U. S. A., Com- 
missioner to Europe. 

Department of Military Relief: John D. Ryan, 
director-general; Gen. Winfred Smith, assistant di- 
rector-general. 

Department of Chilian Relief: W. Frank Per- 
sons, director-general. 

Bureau of Medical Service: Lieutenant-Colonel 
H. C. Connor. 

Nursing Service: National Committee, Miss 
Jane Delano, chairman; Bureau of Nursing Serv- 
ice, Miss Clara Noyes, director; Bureau of Town 
and County Nursing Service, Miss Fanny F. 
Clement, director. 

Woman's Bureau: Miss Florence Marshall, di- 
rector. 

Supply Service: Frank B. Gifford, director. 
THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO 
CIATION— William F. Snow, M. D., gen. sec'y; 
105 W. 40 St., New York. For the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education; pam- 
phlets upon request; membership $5; sustaining 
$10. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Curtis E. Lakeman, exec, sec'y; 
25 W. 45 St., New York. To disseminate knowl- 
edge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment 
and prevention. Publications free on request. 
Annual membership dues $5. 

ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF NEGRO 
LIFE AND HISTORY— Carter G. Woodson, di- 
rector of research; 1216 You St., N. W., Wash 
ington, D. C. To popularize the Negro and his 
contributions to civilization that he may not 
become a negligible factor in the thought of the 
world. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH— 261 
Broadway, New York. Specialists in surveys of 
all kinds; also installs efficiency systems. Twelve 
years successful work throughout United States 
and Canada; estimates furnished. 

COMMITTEE OF ONE HUNDRED ON NA- 
TIONAL HEALTH— E. F. Robbins, exec, sec'y; 
203 E. 27 St., New York. To unite all govern- 
ment health agencies into a National Department 
of Health to inform the people how to prevent 
disease. 

COMMITTEE ON PROVISION FOR THE 
FEEBLEMINDED— Joseph P. Byers, ex. sec'y; 
Empire Bldg., Phila. Object to spread knowledge 
concerning extent and menace of feebleminded- 
ness; initiate methods for control and eradication. 

CO-OPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York City. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice on all phases of consumers' 
co-operation, foreign and American. Annual mem- 
bership, $1, includes monthly, Co-Operative Con- 
sumer. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN (NATIONAL) 
— Department of Immigrant Aid, with headquar- 
ters, 242 E. Broadway, New York. Miss Helen 
Winkler, ch'n; gives friendly aid to immigrant 
igirls; meets, visits, advises, guides; has interna- 
tional system of safeguarding. Invites member- 
ship. 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY SERVICE, 
AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION— El- 
mer S. Forbes, sec'y; 25 Beacon St., Boston.' 
Makes community studies; suggests social work; 
publishes bulletins. 

EUGENICS' REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Board of Registration: Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres. ; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. 
Irving Fisher, Dr. Chas. B. Davenport, Luther 
Burbank, Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. A pub- 
lic service conducted by the Race Betterment 
Foundation and Eugenics' Record Office for 
knowledge about human inheritance and eugenics. 
Literature free. Registration blanks for those 
who desire an inventory, and wherever possible, 
an estimate of their hereditary possibilities. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
*enl. sec'y; 105 E. 22 St.. New York. 

Commission on tne Church and Social Service; 

Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Rev. 

Clyde F. Armitage, asso. sec'y; Herbert M. 

Shenton, special sec'y; Miss Grace M. Sims, 

office sec'y. 
Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 
Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 

Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 
Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev. 

Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 

Columbus, Ohio. 
Campaign for the Conservation of Human Life; 

Charles Stelzle, sec'y. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— G. P. Phenix, vice- 
pnn.; F. K. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y; 
Hampton, Va. "Hampton is a war measure" (H. B. 
Frissell). Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither 



a State nor a Government school. Supported by 
voluntary contributions. Free literature on race 
adjustment, Hampton aims and methods. 
JOINT COMMISSION ON SOCIAL SERVICE OF 
THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH— 
Address Rev. F. M. Crouch, exec, sec'y; Church 
Missions House, 281 Fourth Ave., New York. 
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Pree.. 
Moorefield Storey; chairman, Board of Directors, 
Dr. J. E. Sptngarn; treas., Oswald Garrison Vil- 
lard; dir. of pub. and research. Dr. W. E. B. 
Du Bois; act'g sec'y, James Welden Johnson; 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. Membership 8,500 
with 90 branches. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY 
AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS— 
Charles J. Hatfield, M. D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph.D., ass't sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational metkods. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York. 35 state branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration; education; mothers' pensions; juvenile 
delinquency; health; recreation; children's codes. 
Publishes quarterly Child Labor Bulletin. Photo- 
graph, slides, and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION. 

— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Cooperates with hundreds of social 
agencies. Headquarters for child welfare material 
and information, exhibits, posters, charts, lantern 
slides, pamphlets, bulletins, lecturers. Inquiries, 
invited. Publications free to members. Dues: ac- 
tive, $10; associate, $5. Will you help us build 
a better generation? 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR BETTER FILMS 
— Department of National Board of Review of 
Motion Pictures. O. G. Cocks, sec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. Promotion of better fam- 
ily and young people's films. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Write for pamphlets on mental hy- 
giene, prevention of insanity and mental deficiency, 
care of insane and feebleminded, surveys, social 
service in mental hygiene, state societies for men 
tal hygiene. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
man. dir.; Gordon L. Berry, fid. sec'y; Mrs. Wini- 
fred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E. 22 St., New York. 
Objects: To furnish information for associations, 
commissions and persons working to conserve 
vision; to publish literature of movement; to fur- 
nish exhibits, lantern slides, lectures. Printed 
matter: samples free; quantities at cost. Invites 
membership. Field, United States. Includes 
N. Y. State Com. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 
Robert A. Woods, pres., Boston; William T. Cross, 
gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. Gen- 
eral organization to discuss principles of humani- 
tarian effort and increase efficiency of agencies. 
Publishes proceedings annual meetings, monthly 
bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information bureau. 
Membership. $3. 45th annual meeting Kansas 
City, May 22-29, 1918. Main divisinos and chair- 
men : 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Mrs. Jessie D. 

Hndder 

Health, Haven Emerson, M.D. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 
Johnstone. 

The Family, Gertrude Vaile. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 
Florence Kelley. 

The Local Community, Charles C. Cooper. 

Mental Hygiene, Frankwood E. Williams. 

Organization of Social Forces, Allen T. Burns. 

Social Problems of the War and Reconstruction. 
V. Everit Macy. 
NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE— Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley, gen. sec'y; 289 Fourth Ave., New 
York. 87 branch leagues. 15,000 members. War 
program: To help our industrial army by pro- 
moting clinics for treatment of new diseases (in 
cident to munitions work and to fatigue and 
strain); reasonable working hours; safe and sani- 
tary working conditions; decent standards of liv- 
ing; safeguards for women taking men's places in 
industry; protection for children. Minimum mem- 
bership, $2. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
— Robert A. Woods, sec'y, 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state, and na- 
tion, for meeting the fundamental problems dis- 
closed by settlement work; seeks the higher and 
more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 
NATIONAL KINDERGARTEN ASSOCIATION 
—250 Madison Ave., New_ York. Object: To 
have the kindergarten established in every public 
school. Four million children in the United States 
are now without this training. Furnishes bul- 



letins, exhibits, lecturers, advice and information. 
In cooperation with United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation, works for adequate legislation and for a 
wider interest in this method of increasing intelli- 
gence and reducing crime. Supported by volun 
tary contributions. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS 
—Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New 
York. Evening clubs for girls; recreation and 
instruction in self-governing and supporting groups 
for girls over working age. 

NATIONAL LIBERAL IMMIGRATION LEAGUE 
— Address Educational Dept., Sun Bldg., N. Y. 
Advocates selection, distribution and Americani- 
zation and opposes indiscriminate restriction. Sum- 
marized arguments and catalog of publications on 
request. Minimum membership ($1) includes all 
available pamphlets and current publications. 

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE — Lawsom 
Purdy, pres.; Clinton Rogers Woodruff, sec'y; 
North American Bldg., Phila.; charters; commis- 
sion government; taxation; police; liquor; elec- 
toral reform; finances; accounting; efficiency; 
civic education; franchises; school extension. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 600 Lexington Ave., New 
York. Object: To stimulate the extension of 
public health nursing; to develop standards of 
technique; to maintain a central bureau of in 
formation. Bulletins sent to members 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION 

OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION— May Allinson, 
asst. sec'y; 140 W. 42 St., New York. Promotion 
of legislation for federal and state-aided voca- 
tional education; organization of industrial schools 
and classes", surveys, publications, conferences. 
NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21 465 Lexington Ave. 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of 
travelers, especially women and girls. Non-sec- 
tarian. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S PEACE PARTY. Section 
for the United States of the International Com- 
mittee of Women for Permanent Peace — Mrs. 
Eleanor Daggett Karsten, office sec'y; Jane Addams, 
ch'n; 116 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago. The purpose 
of this organization is to enlist all American wom- 
en in arousing the nations to respect the sacred- 
ness of human life and to abolish war. 
NATIONAL WOMAN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. [room 703], Chicago. Stands for self 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labor. 
NEW YORK SOCIAL HYGIENE SOCIETY 
(Formerly Society of Sanitary and Moral 
Prophylaxis) — Dr. James Pederson, sec'y; 105 W. 
40 St., New York. Seven educational pamphlets. 
10c. each. Four reprints, 5c. each. Dues — Ac- 
tive, $2; Contributing, $5; sustaining, $10. Mem- 
bership includes current and subsequent literature; 
selected bibliographies. Maintains lecture bureau 
and health exhibit. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASS'N OF 
AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Av., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 
RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
Dir., 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, South- 
ern Highland Division. 

SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION — Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs. sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. National clearing 
house for information on short ballot and com 
mission government, city manager plan, county 
government. Pamphlets free. 

TRAVELERS' AID SOCIETY— Orin C. Baker 
gen'l sec'y; 465 Lexington Ave., New York. Pro 
vides advice, guidance and protection to travelers, 
especially women and girls, who need assistance 
It is non-sectarian and its services are free ir 
respective of race, creed, class or sex. 
TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the 
training of Negro youth; an experiment in raci 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South: fur 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 
— Miss Mabel Cratty, general sec'y; 600 Lexington 
Ave., New York. To advance the physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county Associa- 
tions; hygiene and physical education; gymna- 
siums, swimming-pools and summer camps; rest- 
rooms, lunch-rooms and cafeterias; educational 
and business classes; employment bureaus; Bible 
study and vesper services; holiday homes; na- 
tional training school for secretaries; foreign 
work; war emergency work. 



CZiUIt FKANCIS FUSS, HEW YOIK 




ACHIEVEMENT 



Twenty-five years ago theGeneral 
Electric Company was founded. 

Since then, electricity has sent its 
thrill through the whole structure 
of life. 

Eager to turn wheels, to lift and 
carry, to banish dark, to gather 
heat, to hurl voices and thoughts 
across space, to give the world 
new tools for its work — electricity 
has bent to man's will. 

Throughout this period the Gen- 
eral Electric Company has held 
the great responsibilities and high 
ideals of leadership. 



It has set free the spirit of research. 

It has given tangible form to in' 
vention, in apparatus of infinite 
precision and gigant.~ p^wer. 

And it has gone forth, ccoperat' 
ing with every industry, to com' 
mand this unseen force and fetch 
; it far to serve all people. 
By the achievements which this 
company has already recorded 
may best be judged the greater 
ends its future shall attain, the 
deeper mysteries it yet shall solve 
in electrifying more and more ot 
the world's work. 






^Kii^^ss^liiBi^iP^i' 




Notice to reader: Whe« y.u finish read- 
ing tins magazine place a .ne-cent stamp 
on this notice, hand same to any postal 
cmpoye and it will be placed in the 
hands of our soldiers and sailors at thr 
front. No wrapping— no address. 

A. 5>. Burleson, Postmaster (Jcneral 




Our Daily 
Bread 



Articles, News and Book 
Reviews to Aid the Na- 
tional Food Conservation 
Campaign 




October 20, 1917 
\ice, 10 Cents 



Paul S'ta.Kt- 



THE BEST FALL BOOKS 

Fiction, Travel and other Books from Dutton's List 



UNDER FIRE (LE FEU) The Story of a Squad 

By HENRI BARBUSSE. Over 126,000 of the French Edition already sold. Net, $1.50 

James Douglas in the London Observer says : "Some unknown man of genius who calls himself ' Fitzwater Wray ' 
has translated the supreme novel of the War and here it is in its divine simplicity of truth, undraped and unbedizened. 
There are some translations which are themselves originals and this is one of them. I do not hesitate to put it on the 
shelf beside Urquhart's Rabelais or Fitzgerald's Omar, for it is in my mind already a classic. Vainly I grope for a 
clue to the identity of this creative translator who is at once a man of letters, a master of prose, a specialist in 
French and English slang, a poet and a prophet more terrible than Tolstoy. Truth of course is the summit of satire, the 
apex of irony and this journal of a platoon is the nude truth of war as it is seen by a common soldier who is also 
an artist and philosopher. But it is a story which is steeped in the beauty of comradeship and it is told with the most 
flawlessly delicate art. But to read this book is to underst and. If any book could kill war, this is the book." 



A STUDENT IN ARMS 

By DONALD HANKEY 

First Series ; Second Series. Each Net $1.50 

Two books written from the trenches, about soldier 
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GRAPES OF WRATH 

By BOYD CABLE 

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Based on the fighting of the great Somme Battle, it 
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THE COMING DEMOCRACY 

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An examination, searching and merciless of Ger- 
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author of " Because I am a German " and a demand 
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ON THE THRESHOLD 
OF THE UNSEEN 

By SIR WILLIAM F. BARRETT Net $2.50 

One of the greatest of English scientists examines 
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MEMORIES DISCREET 
AND INDISCREET 

By a Woman of No Importance Net $5.00 

The author has met most of the distinguished men 
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THE DEVONSHIRE HOUSE CIRCLE 

By HUGH STOKES Net $5.00 

Devonshire House is the most historic palace in 
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" The Devonshire House Circle " deals with the 
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footmen, grandees and link-boys. In press. 



HELEN OF FOUR GATES 

Net $1.50 
The Dial Says : " The qualities I like best in the 
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THE JOYFUL YEARS 

By F. T. WAWN Net $1.50 

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THE ROYAL OUTLAW 

By CHARLES B. HUDSON Net $1.50 

David the Outlaw, soon to be King of Israel, leads 
his men through desperate adventures, breathless 
perils, valiant deeds. A stirring tale of action and 
adventure, it follows the Biblical outline and vividly 
pictures the scenes and customs of the time. 

THE HILL-TOWNS OF FRANCE 

By EUGENIE M. FRYER Net $2.50 

The first complete account ever written of the hill 
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present day importance invest them with great in- 
terest. Many beautiful illustrations. In press. 

THE BOOK OF THE WEST INDIES 

By A. HYATT VERRILL Net $2.50 

A full, detailed and accurate account in very read- 
able and charming narrative of the manifold attrac- 
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body, tourist, stay-at-home, investor, student wants 
to know about the islands. Copiously illustrated. 

In press. 

ARMY AND NAVY INFORMATION 

By MAJOR DEWITT CLINTON FALLS, N. G.. N. Y. 

Net $1.00 
Illustrated by six color plates and thirty line cuts. 
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THE HAPPIFATS AND 
THE GROUCH 

Stories and Pictures by KATE JORDON Net $2.00 

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POSTAGE EXTRA. AT ALL BOOKSTORES 

E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY, 681 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY 




Our Daily Bread 

A Test of National Character 



By Bruno Lasker 

OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



THE most primitive of human problems again has 
become the paramount issue for social endeavor and 
constructive statesmanship. For the first time in 
her history, the United States has to face the possi- 
bility of a real famine — not merely the inability of the very 
poor to buy enough of the food which others have in plenty, 
but inability of the commonwealth as a whole to satisfy the 
food needs of the people. 

"The food situation is one of the utmost gravity," says the 
man appointed to lead in the combat of this common danger. 
"Unless it be solved, it may possibly result in the collapse 
of everything we hold dear in civilization. The only hope 
is by the elimination of waste and actual and rigorous self- 
sacrifice on the part of the American people." 

It may be said that the poor need not fear. "Always 
underfed and on the verge of starvation, they cannot fare 
much worse than they do now." But there are degrees even 
in starvation. The human organism is so constructed that it 
can function for some time with nourishment insufficient to 
maintain it in full health and efficiency; but eventually the 
point is reached where impaired health becomes disease and 
hunger, only partly satisfied with food lacking in volume, in 
nutrition and in digestibility, leads to emaciation and to death. 

Nor is the danger a remote 
contingency. The unusual activ- 
ity of trade during the last two 
years, giving fuller employment 
to almost every class of workers 
than the country has seen for a 
long time, has made possible a 
prodigious rise in the cost of liv- 
ing without immediate calam- 
itous results. But there are signs 
that the growing discrepancy be- 
tween income and needful expen- 
diture is claiming its victims. In 
New York city, for instance, an 
increased infantile mortality is 
directly traceable to the high cost 



letter to the mayor, Health Commissioner 




HOW THE EAST SIDE OF 
VIEWS THE RISING COST 



of milk. In a 
Emerson says: 

Inquiries already made and still under way among families of the 
poor visited by nurses and doctors of the Department of Health indi- 
cate that the use of milk has been decidedly restricted because of the 
increased price. In some districts the sales of milk for family use 
have decreased 20 per cent, and this among precisely the families 
where the health and development of children depend largely upon 
the generous use of milk. Furthermore, there has been not only a 
reduction in the actual amount of milk bought for general family use 
but the mothers, for economy's sake, have bought for their children 
milk of a lower grade than is considered safe infant food. To this 
practice, which has been increasing throughout the summer, the De- 
partment of Health attributes the notable increase in the number 
of deaths from diarrhoeal diseases in children under one year. 

Dr. Dorothy Reed Mendenhall, lecturer on health and 
hygiene in the extension division of the University of Wis- 
consin, writes: 

In our Infant Welfare Clinic, which I have been running in Madi- 
son for three years, we have seen during the last winter a distinct 
increase in malnutrition and such diseases as rickets. High cost of 
food naturally tends to give the children of the poor not only an 
insufficient diet, but also a diet deficient in substances necessary for 
growth. . . . This winter, of course, vegetables were prohibitive in 
price, so that our families practically cut them out of their diet. . . . 
During the last six months we have doubled the amount of milk 
and eggs given to our families, and in spite of this our children are 

not in as good condition as in the 
previous year. Cases of rickets have 
developed in babies where the older 
children in the family have given 
no signs of this disease. 

It has suggested itself to me that 
our very considerable increase in the 
contagious diseases of childhood in 
Wisconsin during the last two years 
has been due in part to the lowered 
resistance of our children brought 
on by insufficient food. This fact 
would be hard to prove. 

Similar reports come from 
other states and cities. Not only 
young children suffer, but the 
fear is widely expressed that 
owing to insufficient nutrition 
anemia and other conditions pre- 



From Jewish Daily News 




NEW YORK 
OF MILK 



The Survey, October 20, 1917, Volume 39, No. 3, 112 East 19 street. New York city 



59 



60 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 1917 



Copyright, International News Service 




disposing to tuberculosis have increased and will make 
themselves felt in higher death-rates in the years to come. 
Hundreds of thousands work late into the night to make 
both ends meet ; married women have been forced in large 
numbers to eke out the insufficient earnings of their husbands ; 
and we may be sure that the toll in ill-health and injured 
vitality, however much obscured by other factors in the public 
health, is real and considerable. 

Soon a great campaign of education is to be con- 
ducted throughout the land for thrift and food conservation ; 
and a number of contributions in this issue of the Survey 
are devoted to the support of that splendid endeavor. It will 
be a campaign of incalculable usefulness. Yet, before we can 
make it "tell," before we can enter it in the right spirit, 
it is necessary that we should clearly realize both its special 
opportunities and its limitations. For millions, no further 
economy by abstinence is possible. It would be mockery to 
preach to them lessons on the "clean plate," the use of left- 
overs, reduction of the meat consumption, or the purchase 
of food in bulk. To have any influence, those lessons which 
should properly be addressed to all households, rich and poor, 
must not be spoiled on the one hand by demands for the 
impossible or, on the other, by the creation of an impression 
that the danger of famine can be averted entirely by the 
practice of economy. 

The divergence between present real wages and those of 
three years ago is much greater than that between the present 
purchasing power of the dollar and that of three years ago, 
since wages have not risen at the same rate. Taking twenty- 



five food commodities, selected and weighted to represent 
a theoretical average family's food budget, the New York 
Annalist finds that, compared with a yearly average of 100 
for the ten years, 1890-1899, prices stood at 146 in 1914, 
148 in 1915, 176 in 1916, and 258 in 1917 (up to October 
13). In the second week of October, prices were 281 as com- 
pared with an index number of 187 for the same time last 
year and 143 in 1915; in other words, prices are now twice 
as high as they were two years ago. With the exception of 
a small decline during the summer months, the curve of price 
advances rises at an ever steeper angle and has now almost 
reached again the peak of 290 attained in the last week of 
May. 

The general rise of prices cannot be explained by a chance 
coincidence of a number of unrelated causes. Nor can we 
subscribe to any general indictment of wholesalers, middle- 
men or other specific classes of citizens as the responsible 
authors of this national situation. Insofar as they exert 
a nefarious influence, dealers always take advantage of our 
lack of organization. There is no reason to believe that it 
takes a world calamity to make possible a corner in wheat, 
sugar, rice, onions or poultry. These things have been done 
for a long time; it is only as the nation suffers from a pro- 
nounced rise in the cost of living and from genuine want 
that it becomes painfully aware of its parasites. 

What, then, are the principal events which have led up 
to the present general and serious advance in prices? Insofar 
as they affect the United States in particular, they are the 
maritime war which has interfered with normal trade rela- 
tions, and the high cost of labor due to the labor demands 
of war. But far more important than either is the decreased 
value of money due to the gold shipments and payments in 
securities made by foreign customers for American products. 
It is this and not shortage of supplies which is the primary 
cause of our quandary. The principal remedy, therefore, 
must be a wider distribution of the increment in currency and 
securities which has not left the country; and that, for the 
masses of the people, can only be brought about by the adjust- 
ment of wages. In so far as they affect the outside world, 
high prices are chiefly the result of a genuine shortage 
due to war conditions and, incidentally, to a subnormal 
wheat crop in the principal farming areas of the world last 
year. 

The shortage of wheat is, of course, by far the most seri- 
ous, not only because this is the staple food of most western 
peoples but also because by its quantitative importance it reacts 
upon the price of every other commodity. This year's crop 
in the United States, fortunately, is satisfactory as compared 
with those of previous years. In the present connection it is 
not necessary to discuss the wheat situation in detail. 1 Suffice 
it to say that changes in diet and restrictions, voluntary or 
compulsory, in the belligerent countries, have not succeeded 
in compensating for the reduction in the supply. The dis- 
tances of Australia and India from the chief markets and the 
disturbed condition of the Russian and Siberian railroads 
make unavailable crops from these countries which they would 
gladly contribute to the feeding of the western nations. The 
Argentine grain crop is below normal. Hence, the depend- 
ence of our European allies on supplies from the United 
States is real and urgent. 

Charles J. Brand, chief of the Bureau of Markets in the 
federal Department of Agriculture, estimates that "put in 
common terms, the United States must furnish more than 






I 



1 In a subsequent article, the writer will deal more fully with problems of 
production and of international food distribution after the war. 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 1917 



61 



4,000,000,000 loaves of bread, which is the equivalent of 
about 32 loaves for each man, woman and child in the United 
States," or an amount "sufficient to feed every soul in this 
country the normal requirement of bread for two months." 
In some quarters, there seems to be opposition to the exporta- 
tion of any grain crops except the surplus which remains 
after liberal provision on the normal scale has been made 
for all the people at home. But if we are in this war to 
win it, we must be prepared for such sacrifices as are possible 
without impairing the health of our civil population. The 
economic problem here merges into a great political and moral 



From Machinists' Monthly Jonrnml 



issue. 



A great nation at war with all her efforts strained to beat 
off an enemy firmly entrenched on her own soil, such as 
France, a great army in the field, such as the British, cannot 
suddenly change their dietary habits without serious loss of 
efficiency. During times of peace and plenty, under normal 
industrial conditions, the staple diet of a people may be 
varied by new experiments ; the more strenuous the times, the 
more conservative and exclusive it tends to be. As the cost 
of living increases, the people return to bread as their main- 
stay; and bread, more especially in France and to a lesser 
extent in Great Britain, Italy and the friendly neutral na- 
tions, means wheaten bread. 

There is thus presented to this composite American nation, 
with its many dietary antecedents and proved ability to adapt 
itself to new food conditions, the obvious task of substitution. 
It is this rather than lower consumption which will win the 
war and which should be the leading motive of the coming 
educational campaign. 

The two other chief staple commodities which enter most 
prominently into our program of food economy are sugar 
and animal fats. Here again lack of ships is one of the prin- 
cipal troubles; another is exhaustion of certain normal sources 
of supply and, in the case of meat, the difficulty of securing 
feeds for the maintenance and increase of herds. Larger 
production, substitution and reduced consumption must go 
together, in America, to secure an adequate supply at home 
and as large as possible a margin for exportation. In the 
case of sugar, substitution is difficult but not altogether im- 
possible. We must attempt to consume more of it in the 
cheaper and non-exportable forms ; that is, primarily in syrups, 
fruits and roots. In the consumption of fats, we should try to 
follow a similar principle. It will require cooperation of 
national and state authorities with producers and dealers to 
aid popular education in the substitution of the cheaper for 
the more expensive fats, more particularly the substitution 
of oleomargarine for butter, a greatly increased use of nut- 
fats and the offer, in marketable forms, of the fat contents 
of skimmed milk and meat by-products which now are largely 
wasted. 

One of the curious anomalies, second in importance only 
to the extravagant use of butter, often by those least able 
to afford it, is the comparatively large consumption by our 
immigrant population of imported articles of diet which, at 
present high prices, render an all round adequate nutrition 
almost impossible. In these respects, an intensive process of 
re-education is likely to produce notable results. Re-educa- 
tion also is necessary to break the excessive conservatism with 
which a large proportion of our cosmopolitan population ad- 
here to dietary habits and methods of food preparation which 
may be economical in their native countries but are un- 
doubtedly extravagant here. On the other hand, it is not 
impossible that a sympathetic study of foreign food economy 
practiced in our midst may result in the discovery of 



.„ — it 




recipes which, if used more widely, might be distinct 
aids to the necessary process of substitution in the national 
diet. 

This is not the place to enter in great detail into the opera- 
tions of the federal Food Administration with its widespread 
organization and manifold activities. It is only supplementary 
to the functioning of permanent branches of government, 
especially the Department of Agriculture, whose splendid 
efforts in the adjustment of our national food economy to 
war conditions (in spite of ludicrously small appropriations 
for some of the more important bureaus) can hardly be 
praised too highly. And yet, this great new machinery of 
control and popular education, with the large powers en- 
trusted to it by Congress, presents a factor of the utmost 
significance. It opens up a vista of concentrated patriotic 
energies directed towards the solution of our most pressing 
social problem, that of mal-distribution— of labor, of invest- 
ment, of product and of profit. It also is a beginning of 
international cooperation in the satisfaction of elementary 
human needs on a scale hitherto unknown and hardly hoped 
for. The seemingly impossible task of creating order out of 
chaos, universal thrift out of traditional lavishness, careful 
coordination of the diverse interests of producers, consumers, 
carriers and the indispensable agents of distribution is being 
approached with an earnestness and good faith which prom- 
ises signal success on the whole, whatever the initial failures 
and errors may be in individual fields of action. 

An essential preliminary before a really comprehensive na- 
tional policy of production, control and conservation can be 
worked out is accurate knowledge of the situation. Until 
that knowledge is secured, it is probable that contradictory 
advice will be given to the public from time to time, as has 
already happened in several instances. Fortunately, Congress 
has authorized and made appropriation for a survey by the 
Department of Agriculture which will supply detailed data 
concerning every phase of the situation. If more interfer- 
ence with normal economic processes are necessary, we shall 
know exactly why, where and how. The campaign for the 
prevention of waste, as yet too general and sometimes waged 
in the wrong place, will be made specific and directed towards 
avoidance of really important losses instead of minor econ- 
omies which may not be worth the effort of bringing them 
about. 

On the other hand, through the extensive inquiry into 
the normal dietary of the average family in every part of the 
country, already under way, we shall recognize the national 
importance of waste items which in the individual household 



62 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 1917 



too easily escape notice. It will be remembered that Miss 
Rankin, representative from Montana, succeeded in secur- 
ing the enactment of a clause which provides for the ap- 
pointment, so far as practicable, of women in this service of 
investigation. It is to be expected, therefore, that the returns 
will have the benefit of practical and sympathetic understand- 
ing of a problem essentially woman's. 

Incidentally, this inquiry undoubtedly will reveal what 
some of our food educators often forget, that conditions, 
both as regards needs and resources, vary so much between 
Maine and Arizona and between Florida and Washington 
that a uniform conservation propaganda issued from a central 
office is as likely to do harm as to achieve the desired end. 
In the same way, such a study cannot but reveal very clearly 
that even within the same territory or under similar climatic 
conditions, anything in the nature of hard and fast dietary 
rules cannot be followed without the risk of serious conse- 
quences. Recent investigations tend to confirm the teaching 
of our more modern physiologists that a quantitative basis 
for minimum standards of nutrition, whether measured in 
calories or protein, does not sufficiently represent the food 
needs of persons of different ages and engaged in different 
occupations. Their natural selection of foods, their taste, 
if unspoiled by stimulants, provides them with the ingredients 
they need. In other words, a system of inflexible food allow- 
ances, whether imposed by government or voluntarily adopted, 
is charged with danger to national health and vitality. The 
legitimate objects of a wise educational propaganda are the 
adoption of good methods and habits of food purchase, prep- 
aration and conservation rather than quantitative restrictions, 
and the principles of selection rather than actual menus. 

We must not deceive ourselves that the adaptation of our 
individualistic domestic economy to national and human needs 
will be a simple matter which can be aided materially by a 
"whirlwind campaign." Education at best is a slow process. 
When aimed to produce change of habits in adults, its prog- 
ress can be measured only in decades. Fortunately, so far 
as permanent results are concerned, the present economic 
situation imposes upon the great majority of Americans a pre- 
disposition favorable to the acquisition of such habits; and 
imagination, even among the most conservative, has been 
stimulated by war sentiment. 

It is worth remembering that the permanent results are 
just as important as the immediate. It is true, the nation is 
primarily concerned with winning the war and, to do this 
effectively, must at once concentrate its energies upon every 
thing that makes for efficiency. But there is a consensus 
of opinion among economists that the discrepancy between 
high prices and low wages will not disappear with the con- 
clusion of peace, but that, on the contrary, things may even 
get worse. We must be prepared to face a very difficult 
period in which good food habits now acquired and a knowl- 
edge of the principles of substitution and conservation will 
tell. Not "a smack at the boches" is the true motive of the 
present educational campaign, but the saving of the Ameri- 
can people from a very real danger of deprivation bordering 
upon famine. 

What can the individual community, the individual house- 
hold and the individual leader of public opinion do to aid 
the work so admirably advanced by our Department of Agri- 
culture and recently begun with so much energy by our Food 



Administration? The answer is not so simple as some people 
imagine. Mere good intention and willing sacrifice is not 
enough ; it is only the beginning. The intelligent citizen, and 
more particularly the social worker, can aid best by refusing 
to be merely the mouthpiece for information and advice dis- 
tributed from a central office and by bringing to bear upon 
his share in administrative organization and popular instruc- 
tion the same spirit of sympathetic inquiry, of attention to 
detail, of adaptation of general principles to particular cir- 
cumstances and groups of people which characterizes the 
established branches of social service. Such a sense of per- 
sonal responsibility will not only be valuable for the success 
of the work immediately in hand, but will also help to shape 
the policies at the center and make them impervious to the 
hateful incubus of red tape. 

Though far from wishing to be petulant in criticism, we 
may illustrate the need for this intelligent partnership of the 
local agents with the central administration by an instance 
which shows the danger of remoteness and lacking psycho- 
logical insight on the part of the national leaders in this cam- 
paign. In the near future thousands of agents up and down the 
country will ask us to "sign the pledge;" hundreds of thousands 
will pledge themselves — tens of thousands have already done 
so — without a clear understanding of their undertaking. That 
is due to the vague nature of the pledge asked for. A pledge 
is not synonymous with a promise. It implies a serious moral 
pact concerning the fulfillment of some definite arduous sac- 
rifice or task. It is a form of undertaking hitherto reserved 
for the most vital engagements; it is utterly useless unless 
it is definite. I can pledge myself not to smoke or drink; but 
I cannot pledge myself not to smoke or drink "more than 
is good for me." I cannot pledge myself to a comparatively 
trivial undertaking, such as to eat a slice of bread less each 
day, because I am too apt to forget it. There is hardly any- 
thing more demoralizing than a broken pledge; but how can 
I be sure not to break a pledge which does not bind me to 
anything except "insofar as my circumstances permit?" 

This forthcoming campaign and the long work of popular 
education which is to follow it must be based on sound common 
sense before any material change in habits of thought and 
of action can be achieved. It must rest on an understanding 
of the ways in which public opinion is formed. Mechanical 
repetition of lessons before the poor which are intended for 
people in comfortable circumstances, any sign of lacking 
imagination and sympathy on the part of the instructors, 
will produce misunderstanding and distrust. It is not as- 
serted here that such errors in judgment have been com- 
mitted to any very great extent or past redemption. We 
merely point here to the likelihood of their occurrence in 
order to emphasize the important part which the social worker 
and the community leader with long-standing connections has 
to play in this campaign of enlightenment. As in other 
spheres of service, he has to be an interpreter — not only to 
one side but to both, imbuing those who look up to him for 
guidance with that fine spirit which animates this great co- 
operative effort and teaching them ways and means of be- 
coming active participants in this democratic enterprise; and, 
on the other hand, keeping those who direct this effort in 
the closest possible touch with the real needs of the people. 

Our Daily Bread! The prayer of the millions will be an- 
swered if we enter our task with courage and confidence. 



The Welding Plot 

By Charles Lathrop Pack 

PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY FOOD GARDEN COMMISSION 



ONE day last summer ten million men stepped out 
for the flag at the call of the President. There 
was no fuss or confusion about it. Men between 
certain ages were asked to sign a registration blank. 
That blank signed the death warrant of autocracy. Back of 
that selected ten million stand other millions — the men, 
women and children who make up the country's food army. 
Without the one the other cannot win the fight for democ- 
racy, and the war garden is as essential a unit of the whole 
as the "seventy-fives" that clear the way slowly but surely 
across "No-Man's Land." 

The war garden is the great welding plot of the nations. 
The National Emergency Food Garden Commission is award- 
ing $5,000 in prizes and national certificates of merit for the 
best canned vegetables grown in war gardens. In making 
out the checks for the awards, here are the names of some 
of the prize winners, names as important to democracy's sal- 
vation as those on the registration blanks filled out last sum- 
mer; Mrs. J. H. Fuller, Cinciano Mojado, Sophia Dupris, 
Etta Vanderhoeff, Julia Barnosky, Olga Wedeymeyer, Isa- 
belle St. Jermain, Rebecca Farrell. Think what it means 



when people of these nationalities work side by side in a com- 
mon cause. In no other country is it possible. 

The National Emergency Food Garden Commission esti- 
mates that three million war gardens were planted this year 
and that 460 million jars of foodstuffs were placed on the 
pantry shelves. Think what it will mean when the army 
responsible for this production goes forth next spring again as 
city farmers to till the soil. 

Boys' and girls' clubs of the extension departments of the 
agricultural colleges were among the first to apply for the 
commission's prizes. Cato Sells, commissioner of Indian 
affairs, entered seventy-six Indian schools where fairs are 
held every year, and state and county fairs as well as war 
garden exhibitions all over the country also applied. 

The work done by individuals and communities was most 
interesting. Take the case of Inspiration, Ariz., as an ex- 
ample. There ten nationalities labored side by side in a 
war garden above the clouds — 3,300 feet high. This work 
was supervised by J. R. Sandige, a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Missouri. Some time ago a rush telegram for can- 
ning and drying manuals came to the National Emergency 




A BATTLEFIELD IN THE WAR AGAINST WASTE 

"We are the women of Cincinnati. Armed with jars, saucepans and other homely armor of kitchen 
and pantry, we stand in the household trenches from which we wage our war against waste. Here 
we answer the call of higher ideals in housekeeping and train in efficiency. From our serious, prac- 
tical efforts in the community kitchen there will spring, we hope, better managed homes in Cincinnati 
and better fed children." — Alice E. Richard, assistant secretary, Cincinnati Associated Charities. 



63 



64 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 191 7 



Food Garden Commission for "the biggest war garden in 
the West." The work of the commission halted for a few 
minutes. 

The telegram was dated Inspiration, Ariz., and was signed 
by Sandige. Nobody in the commission's offices could find 
Inspiration on any map or in the postal guide. Inquiry at 
the post office showed the mail station for Inspiration is 
Miami, Ariz., two miles away. The claim that a place that 
was not on the map and did not have a post office had the 
biggest war garden made everybody sit up and take notice, 
but later the following data from Mr. Sandige showed how 
the work was done: 

Location: The gardens are two miles east of Miami, Gila county, 
Arizona, at an elevation of 3,300 feet. The climate is semi-tropical, 
making it possible to grow some vegetables throughout the year. 

Gardeners: Majority of the gardeners are employes of the Inspira- 
tion Consolidated Copper Company, but quite a number of residents 
of Miami and a large number of children have been given space. 
The gardeners are made up of many nationalities, such as Italians, 
Mexicans, Indians, Chileans, Germans, Finns and Swedes. Over 70 
per cent have never had experience in this work, or at least where it 
is necessary to irrigate, and they had to be taught. 

Methods: The gardens were planned by C. E. Mills, general man- 
ager of the company. An expert makes three trips a day over the 
gardens to instruct the gardeners. Bulletins and posters are placed 
at convenient spots in the gardens, which are 217 acres in area. 

System: The double crop system was used. For example, squash 
were planted among corn, so that when corn came off squash cov- 
ered the ground. We grow most anything, but need was considered 
first and 85 per cent of the ground was planted to Mexican pink 
beans and sweet corn. Nothing goes to waste and drying and can- 
ning are encouraged, especially drying, for our climate permits sun- 
d rying. 

War garden market: We have opened a war garden market 
where the excess vegetables are sold for the gardeners without cost 
to them. Nothing is sold at this market except that which is grown 
in the war garden. This market, I believe, is the first of its kind 
in the United States. This is the largest single tract of land devoted 
to war gardens in the West. With 217 acres under cultivation, I 
believe it is the largest in the country. 

Laurel, Miss., had a different problem, but it was food 
conservation just the same. This town sold the horses and 
bought auto trucks for the fire department so the farmers 
could have the animals. The town, which is under commis- 
sion form of government, then balked at an attempted hold- 
up on coal prices, and the citizens turned out and sawed 
enough wood to heat the city buildings and school through 
the winter. This demonstrates what the people can do when 
they set their mind to it. Here is a letter to me from T. G. 
McCallum, one of the commissioners, which was written 
to thank the commission for 250 food conservation manuals 
that were sent to Laurel: 

Immediately upon the entrance of the United States into the war 
and the government's appeal to the people to conserve and produce 
all products, we proceeded at once to motorize all departments where 
motor trucks could be substituted for horses and disposed of the 
horses to farmers to produce more food as well as to save food by 
the introduction of the automobile. 

The next step taken by us was to secure and plant sufficient lands 
to corn and peas in order to produce enough corn and hay to take 
care of all the remaining city teams, and while we scarcely had time 
to do this, war having been declared late in the spring, we are glad 
to say that the city will make all the corn and pea-vine hay neces- 
sary to care for the teams owned by the city in the public work. 

As soon as this matter was out of the way we took up the question 
of fuel for the city schools, city hall, jail and other public buildings, 
and upon inquiry of the mines or coal dealers, many of them refused 
to quote us prices on account of the scarcity of cars, and those that 
did quoted prices from 50 per cent to 75 per cent higher than we had 
formerly paid for similar coal. So we proceeded to cut our own 
wood, and while we are not quite through with the wood-cutting 
proposition, we are far enough along with it to know that we will, 
without great inconvenience, be able to secure all the wood needed 
for city schools and the city generally and at the same time effect 
a great saving in the revenue of the city. 

As an example of what organization will do, the case of 
Kentucky shows how the women have worked. There the 



National League for Woman's Service took over the state 
campaign for the commission. Helen Fitz-Randolph took 
charge of the work and enlisted every newspaper in Kentucky. 
The league took a booth at fairs and showed wonderful ex- 
hibits in food conservation. The commission sent thousands 
of its canning and drying manuals to the state and the league 
distributed them. 

But the individual work also counted. There is Mrs. Wil- 
liam F. Cody, the widow of the famous Indian scout, who 
sent from Cody, Wyo., for manuals to distribute in that 
town. There is Mrs. Thomas Edwards, 94 years old, of 
Oberlin, Ohio, who planted and cared for a war garden 
without any help. The newspapers printed so much about 
the work of this wonderful woman that the movie men photo- 
graphed her in her garden. She was one of the first to get 
our garden primer, and she followed the instructions in it 
throughout the summer. Thousands of such instances could 
be cited from our files. It all shows the new spirit of the 
people of the country, welded by a common work, united in a 
common cause. 

The alarming rush of the population from the farms te 
the cities must be checked, and it is up to the women to help 
in this as a war-time measure, and the men must be led back 
to the farms by the women, for they will not go without them. 
Only 24 per cent of the population is now engaged in farming, 
whereas 88 per cent were farming in 1800. In other words, 
every farmer must now feed himself and 75 others. This 
trend to the cities has forced prices up, and the call of war 
has pushed them up further. 

I take issue with anyone who says there is great waste in 
the American home. You cannot make me believe the Ameri- 
can housewife who supervises her buying and kitchen work 
is a waster. With bacon at 55 cents and butter at 54 cents 
a pound, the American woman, who is the greatest factor in 
winning this world war, is saving as never before. There 
are big plans afoot for a campaign of education this winter. 
Women have a great work before them as they have always 
had since the world began. They have arisen to every emer- 
gency, and they will meet this one. The war gardens they 
have planted this year have astonished the experts; and they 
have canned and dried in record-breaking amounts. 

More and more women are realizing the joys of farm life 
and the returns it brings. Women managers of big farms 
are making them pay. Women all over the country are in 
the garden-produce business on a big scale. More must be 
turned toward the farm where out-of-door living means 
wholesome living. There is a great future there and als« 
the salvation of the country. 

Secretary Baker points to two million men under arms. 
The estimated cost of feeding a soldier has been placed at forty 
cents. That means Uncle Sam's board bill for soldiers alone 
is the staggering figure of $800,000 a day. This does 
not include the thousands who have gone into war work. In 
Washington alone there are 25,000 new government clerks, 
and many departments are being moved to New York to find 
office room. 

These people must be fed. Ambassador Gerard tells us 
that every inch of ground in German control is under in- 
tensive cultivation, and that Germany has every prisoner, who 
is able to, tilling the ground. The people of this country 
must awaken to the fact that we are at war and that this is 
not the annual maneuvers. We have gladly given our sons 
that the world may be made safe for democracy, to rescue 
and save civilization. Now that we have given them we are 
not going to let them go hungry. 




"the metal sloyd teacher also remained and had an opportunity to carry out a practical application of his work" 



A County Bureau of Information for 

Housewives 



By Katherine Glover 

OF THE NEW YORK STATE FOOD SUPPLY COMMISSION 



THIS world war has turned the powerful lens of its 
searchlight as nothing has before on the scattered, 
individual efforts of women working away in their 
little separate kitchen laboratories; has made us see 
with sudden vividness the deplorable lack of standardization 
among them, the undervaluation of their labor, of their time 
and of the products of their energies. The daily waste of 
our individual kitchens has become a matter of world sig- 
nificance, the labor of women an economic factor of national 
concern. In consequence, a broad educational campaign among 
housewives has been set in motion which is even more wide- 
spread than the effort to stir the men to their military duty, 
and will perhaps leave in its wake a more lasting effect on 
our national life. Women who never before have left their 
thresholds to answer any public summons have come forth, 
like soldiers to the call of the bugle, to learn how to do their 
part in the cause of saving the food supply against world 
hunger. They are, in a word, learning cooperation on a big 
scale for the first time. 

Everywhere community efforts have sprung up, welding the 
housewives together in emergency conservation work. Some 
of these efforts are born of flashing impulses of patriotism 
and are more or less flimsy in results, but some are built on 
sure foundations and are gathering the best forces of co- 
operation in their community. In Solvay, N. Y., a village 
near Syracuse, a community experiment in food conservation 
has developed, which has brought into play all the local forces, 
has piled up real results in conservation and has laid a foun- 
dation for a permanent plan of direction of the household 
efforts of women in the county, a bureau of information corre- 
sponding to the Farm Bureau. 

Solvay is an industrial village with a background of onlv 



thirty years, a growth around the big chemical plant of the 
Solvay Process Company. It is in the heart of one of the 
most fertile and progressive farming sections of the state. 
Fed by natural and industrial conditions unusually propitious, 
it has always been in the lead in community affairs. Its 
schools have been of the best, and the temper of the people is, 
generally, progressive. When war came and the call of con- 
servation sounded, the sloping fields about the village, rich 
and promising, were a challenge to the people to plant plen- 
teously in order to swell the world's bin. 

Among the progressive factors in the village has always 
been the Solvay Guild, an organization of leisured women 
who have led the way in many philanthropic and community 
matters. They rallied early in the day to the work of stimu- 
lating planting and conservation. Eliminating pink teas and 
personalities, the guild members appointed as chairman of 
the conservation work a woman who had already been re- 
sponsible for a model rural school near Solvay and who had 
been a leading factor in introducing domestic science into 
Onondaga county before any other county in the state had 
waked up to its importance, Mrs. Florence Knapp, formerly 
district superintendent of schools. While she was alive to every 
phase of the immediate war emergency, she and her fellow- 
workers saw the way open for a permanent agency to guide 
and standardize the domestic work of women. 

What Solvay has accomplished is important as a plan for 
other communities. The conservation committee started from 
the first to work through the channels already established, thus 
doing away with duplication of effort. Through the State 
Food Supply Commission it secured a trained conservation 
agent to direct two community canning kitchens according 
to the most scientific methods. Through the local school 

65 



66 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 1917 



board, it got the use of two of the school buildings with their 
excellently equipped domestic science kitchens, and in addi- 
tion it won the cooperation of the board to the extent of hav- 
ing the playground fund devoted to the payment of the home 
economic teachers' salaries so that they could stay on through 
the summer and carry on the work of canning. The metal 
sloyd teacher also remained and, in the sealing of the tin 
cans, had an opportunity to carry out a practical application 
of his work. The Farm Bureau is the third important agency 
through which the committee has worked. Early in the ex- 
periment they got a survey from the farm agent of the avail- 
able crops in the county so as to know where to go to buy 
direct from the farmers. The farmers of the township were 
then circularized and asked to cooperate when they had sur- 
plus products which they could not market. 

Squads of school girls were formed to help with the prep- 
aration of the materials for canning, thereby putting into 
immediate practice their domestic science school work. Groups 
of boys likewise helped with the harvesting of crops which 
farmers were unable to secure labor to gather. The women 
of the village have been free to make use of the equipment 
in the central kitchens and to do their individual canning 
under careful direction of the home economics workers, there- 
by reducing the possibility of loss through spoilage. The ex- 
periment, which has been put to the test of six months' opera- 
tion, has been a success from every viewpoint. Cans have been 
piled up with perfectly preserved foods which might otherwise 
have gone to waste, each pint-can representing exactly eleven 
cents in expenditure, including labor. The first of October 
there was a total of 7,000 cans. There could have been more 
if the workers had not had to reckon with the congested 
market condition, which has been a stumbling block in the 
conservation plan everywhere. 



Solvay's example has set other community kitchens going 
through the county so that there are now a number in active 
operation. It has been necessary to call in a second conserva- 
tion agent to supplement the work of the first. Stimulated 
by the demonstrations inaugurated in the community centers, 
one factory owner has opened his factory on Saturday after- 
noons and Sundays to his workers, giving the use of a steam 
retort for canning and a workman to operate it. As to the 
disposal of the products, the guild is working out a careful 
plan to arrive at a standard price, so as not to unsettle the 
local market. Until this has been agreed upon, not a can 
will be sold. From the first, the local grocers and canners 
have been called into counsel and their cooperation has been 
a decided factor in the success of the experiment. 

A big educational impulse has been the outcome of the 
Solvay community work and the results are varied. Lectures 
have been given to stimulate the use of the perishable foods, 
and demonstrations in scientific canning and in kitchen econ- 
omy. The effects are not likely to pass away with the imme- 
diate emergency. Many of the community kitchens will be 
permanent projects, and women who have met together day 
after day in a central kitchen under expert direction will not 
don their aprons and go back to the old ways of drudgery 
and haphazard cooking. 

But the big final tangible result is that Onondaga county 
will have its permanent bureau of home economics just as it 
has its county Farm Bureau. The Solvay organization has 
worked to that end and has all the machinery in readiness. 
Here and there through the country we shall doubtless hear 
that many other countries are doing the same. Who knows but 
the day is at hand when a spoiled loaf of bread will call for 
as careful a diagnosis from an expert as a blighted potato 
patch ? 







SQUADS OF SCHOOL GIRLS WERE FORMED TO HELP WITH THE PREPARATION OF THE MATERIALS FOR CANNING, THEREBY PUTTING INTO 

IMMEDIATE PRACTICE THEIR DOMESTIC SCIENCE SCHOOL WORK" 



The New Malthusianism 

By Frank T. Carlton 

PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY, ALBION COLLEGE 



THE world is today facing the unexpected, the immi- 
nent danger of a food scarcity. For decades the 
western world has been living in fancied security 
from famine. It was confidently believed by almost 
everybody that the steam engine and modern science had 
forever banished from our midst the old specter of starvation 
which has frightened the men of the preceding ages from 
the time of the primitive savage to that of James Watt. 
Malthusianism was out of date except for a few calamity- 
howlers. 

We do not live by bread alone, but bread we must have. 
In recent years the city population has grown much more 
rapidly than has the farming population. Middlemen, sales- 
men, personal servants and producers of luxuries have multi- 
plied, and the distance from the producer to the ultimate 
consumer has been stretched enormously, while the number 
of farmers has increased slowly. The result has been an 
inverted pyramid — a condition of unstable equilibrium. And, 
finally, after the cost of foodstuffs has been rising for some 
years, the world suddenly engages in that most costly of 
all luxuries — war. 

This nation and other nations have been rudely awakened 
to the simple fact that waste and luxury are costly and must 
be paid for by necessities. The United States may still pos- 
sess an enormous heritage of unused natural resources and 
acres of virgin land. But many of the men who should be 
in touch with these fundamental resources of the nation are 
now in cities and in occupations which do not produce the 
basic necessities of life — food and clothing. Our boasted 
civilization is like a top-heavy tree whose roots do not sink 
deep into the earth. 

The faint cry of "back to the land" has been voiced 
by a faithful few from time to time; now it swells in loud 
and frantic chorus, demanding more land under cultivation, 
the mobilization of an army of agricultural workers and 
the production of more and more foodstuffs. A new era is 
upon us; and readjustments are inevitably painful. 

Little is said or written in this emergency about increase 
of population and the Malthusian checks; much is urged in 
regard to luxury and the need of more and better farm 
work. It is the distribution of population and the choice 
of occupations — mobilization — rather than the increase in 
numbers which attracts the attention. Malthusianism is re- 
turning in a new garb. 

Unless the nation and, indeed, the world reduces waste 
and unnecessary forms of work and of make-work, unless it 
ceases to multiply middlemen and producers of luxuries faster 
than workers in the basic and fundamental industries, unless 
it quits forging additional links in the chain connecting the 
primary producer and the ultimate consumer, famine and 
deprivation await only an extraordinary emergency or a war. 

The great war of today is forcing drastic measures upon 
us. The avoidance of world scarcity depends upon our ability 
to meet the situation w r ith an extraordinary socialization of 
effort. The expert is due to come into the limelight. Eco- 
nomic internationalism is just ahead. What percentage of 
workers must be in basic occupations, such as farming, mining, 



fishing, lumbering? How many can be spared for manu- 
facture, transportation and professional service? How can 
unnecessary workers be transferred to other employments? 
To what extent can advertising, soliciting, speculating and 
personal service be cut down ? How may the number of 
middlemen be reduced to a minimum? Do we have too 
many professional amusers and too little of recreation by and 
for each man and women ? These and other similar problems 
crowd for solution. 

Economists have been loath to take the social point of 
view. Gradually they have been edging closer and closer to 
the idea that a producer is one who gets an income — by per- 
sonal exertion, ownership of property or special privileges, 
begging, borrowing or stealing. And wealth, according to 
the economists, is anything which satisfies human wants — 
whether those wants make for efficiency and good health or 
for inefficiency and degeneracy. But the economics of the 
new regime, of the new internationalism, must reject this 
naive conclusion. The economist should draw a definition of 
a producer which will put outside the ranks unnecessary 
workers. Clearness of vision is needed. It is not only impor- 
tant that a man get a living, but it is essential that he get 
it in a way that does not burden the community and the 
nation. The war has made it clear that no nation, as well 
as no individual, lives unto itself. This neglected truth must 
be presented so plainly that the man in the street can read 
as he rides. A new Malthusian doctrine is being formulated 
because of the necessities of war. The economics of the 
immediate future must revolve around the problems of direct- 
ing human effort into channels which make for international 
or world efficiency. 















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M FOOD AID COMMITTEE H ■"(lraran* ■raN 




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OPEN-AIR DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEW YORK FOOD AID COM- 




MITTEE FROM A TRUCK OF THEIR OWN DESIGN 



67 




JpVftv \ 

llli§4j|\ / 



cog?a?o 







THE STANDARD OF LIVING 
AT WASHINGTON 

« A SHOCKING state of economic 
il indecency," according to the offi- 
cial report of the United States Bureau 
of Labor Statistics, is revealed by its 
study of the cost of living for wage- 
working families in the District of 
Columbia. This study, authorized by 
Congress last December, was begun in 
January, and the field work was com- 
pleted in June. It covered 2,110 fam- 
ilies, chosen proportionately from all dis- 
tricts of the city. 

Just how much is needed for the support 
of a normal family in moderate comfort is 
difficult to estimate, says the report, which 
will appear serially in the Monthly Review 
of the bureau. Previous studies indicate 
that, in a large city, the barest minimum up- 
on which existence for a normal family can 
be maintained upon a level of economic 
decency cannot be less than $900 or $1,000. 
Such a sum, moreover, is estimated to per- 
mit of nothing more than the mere creature 
necessities. To maintain a real family life 
upon the much-eulogized "American stand- 
ard of living" would certainly demand a 
considerably larger sum. 

It is startling, therefore, to learn that in 
the capital of the nation, in a year of un- 
precedented high prices, 807, or 38 per cent, 
of the 2,109 families investigated had yearly 
incomes of less than $900; and 1,295 fam- 
ilies, or 61 per cent, had incomes of less than 
$1,200 a year. 

The tables submitted with the report 
show that the average size of the fam- 
ilies receiving less than $900 a year per 
family household was 4.4 members, and 
the average net family — i. e., excluding 
boarders and lodgers — was 3.4 members. 
That is to say, the size of the average 
family in this low-income group was not 
abnormally small. For families receiv- 
ing less than $1,200 a year the corre- 
sponding averages were 4.6 and 3.5 
members. 

Out of 629 Negro families 180, or 
nearly 29 per cent, were found to have 
family incomes of less than $600 a year 
and 75 per cent were below $900 a year. 
Of the white families, 65 had early in- 
comes below $600 ; 335, or nearly 23 
per cent, less than $900; and 710, al- 
most one-half of the total of white fam- 
ilies investigated, had less than $1,200. 
68 



These returns are of especial interest 
in view of the fact that this study was 
made as the direct result of a two years' 
effort by the National Consumers' 
League to secure data upon which to 
base a plea for the establishment in the 
District of Columbia of a minimum 
wage board for women. The passage 
of the eight-hour law for the district, 
some four years ago, was followed by 
numerous attempts by employers to dis- 
credit that legislation through reduc- 
tions in the daily wage of women em- 
ployes. Suggestions of the creation of 
a minimum wage board were met by 
declarations that a large proportion of 
women employed locally were merely 
working for pin-money, and that they 
were in part supported by the govern- 
ment salaries of the male heads of their 
respective families. Hence the attempt 
to learn the need for better wages in 
the district, through government inquiry. 
Results of the study of the cost of living 
of wage-earning women will be pub- 
lished separately. 

Says the report: 

Not in all cases did the lamily incomes 
referred to represent merely the earnings of 
the male head of a household in which the 
wife was at home and the children in school. 
In 268 families (145 white and 123 Negro) 
there was no male head. In 597 families 
(166 white and 431 Negro) the wife was at 
work. In 297 families (204 white and 93 
Negro) one or more children were at work. 
In 1,112 families (756 white and 356 Ne- 
gro) boarders and lodgers lived with the 
family and receipts from this source helped 
to pay the family bills. 

Further, it is of interest to note that in 
211 cases (83 white and 128 Negro) the 
family was aided by gifts of second-hand 



October 20, 1917 Vol. 39, No. 3 

THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 

U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 

secretary; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 

10 cents a copy; $3 a year; foreign 

postage $1.50, Canadian 75 cents. 

Copyright, 1917, by Survey Associates, 

Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 

25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 

N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



clothing. This is a form of charity which 
is usually accepted only under the pressure 
of severe need. 

Almost one-third of the families, both 
white and Negro, finished the year with 
deficits. The bureau makes no attempt 
to determine whether these deficits were 
due in part to the great advance in 
prices of the necessaries of life during 
1916, or whether they represent a 
chronic condition. It finds that only 
24.6 per cent were able to show a sur- 
plus, and only 45.7 per cent managed 
to come out even. Most of the families 
in the low-income group were found to 
be living "literally from hand to mouth ; 
about the best they could hope for was 
to come out even." Only 81 out of 
the 807 families having incomes under 
$900 showed a balance of income over 
expenditure when the year was done. 
Of the remaining 726 families getting 
less than $900, 457 (170 white and 287 
Negro) at the best could merely meet 
their expenditures, and 269 families 
(116 white and 153 Negro) could not 
even do this, finishing the year either 
with less savings than at its start, or 
else going into debt. 

The data on the cost of living of fam- 
ilies was secured by special agents of the 
bureau who interviewed housewives. 
Not only was the study distributed over 
the city in geographical proportion, but 
the different income groups up to $2,000 
were believed to be fairly proportioned 
also. Encouraged by the press and by 
civic organizations to cooperate in the 
survey, the housewives generally gave the 
agents all information which they pos- 
sessed. 

Much of the information was, of 
necessity, given from memory, as it re- 
lated to the calendar year 1916. Some 
families produced account books, ac- 
curately kept, from which their reports 
were made. Others had partial records 
of expenditures and income, while a 
large number had store books. In all 
cases, the agent checked up this mate- 
rial by careful questioning of the house- 
wife, and by comparing the figures given 
with known market prices, with income 
received and with surplus or deficit. 



THE SURVEY I OR OCTOBER 20, 1917 



69 



Each agent carried a list of prevailing 
prices of staple articles of food for the 
year 1916 for use in this checking-up 
process. Some families undertook to 
keep accurate itemized accounts of in- 
come and outgo for a month or more on 
sheets furnished by the bureau. 

Only those families were scheduled 
whose principal breadwinner worked for 
wages, or, if paid a salary, earned not 
more than $1,800 a year. Families with 
incomes from sources other than the 
earnings of the head of the house were 
included, however, even though the total 
exceeded $1,800. 

A COOPERATIVE NEIGHBOR- 
HOOD STORE 
ABOUT the middle of last January, 
the Hudson Guild in New York 
city decided to open a cooperative store 
to distribute groceries and produce. It 
had a twofold purpose, to forward the 
cooperative movement by educating the 
neighborhood in cooperation and to meet 
a need in the neighborhood for a place 
where food could be obtained at cheaper 
prices than in the stores. 

As a nucleus there were already or- 
ganizations of neighborhood women in 
the guild who were interested in fur- 
thering any plans that the guild might 
work out to improve the neighborhood 
conditions. They were working women 
for the most part, many of them day 
workers, and all of them with incomes 
so small that it was a real problem to 
them to make both ends meet. About 
sixteen of those who did not have to 
work declared themselves willing to give 
up part of their time to working in the 
cooperative store. 

The store was started on the ground 
floor of a model tenement. It was de- 
cided that the hours of distribution 
should be from three to five every day 
except Sunday, and in addition from 
nine to eleven on Wednesday and Sat- 



urday mornings. The women volun- 
teers were to act as clerks, and as the 
buying was to be done by one of the 
regular workers of Hudson Guild, the 
saving of distribution costs was suffi- 
cient to enable the store to sell groceries 
at prices substantially lower than those 
of the regular stores in the neighbor- 
hood. 

The store has been a marked success. 
In the nine months that it has been in 
operation it has distributed about four- 
teen thousand dollars' worth of groceries 
and fresh vegetables, at an estimated sav- 
ing of about 10 per cent over the prices 
of the large chain stores, and about 20 
per cent over those of the small neigh- 
borhood stores. At first, groceries were 
sold only to those who were members 
of some of the clubs of the guild, but as 
soon as it was well under way it was 
thrown open to the general public. 
Gradually stock and equipment were en- 
larged and improved, until at the pres- 
ent time the store is complete and oper- 
ates in exactly the same way as any 
other stores, with the exception of the 
short hours of distribution and the fact 
that the distributing work is voluntary 
instead of hired. 

John L. Elliott, head worker of Hud- 
son Guild, writes: 

From the first the outstanding feature of 
the store's work has been the faithfulness 
and efficiency of the neighborhood women. 
Not one day since it started has the store 
been without help, and invariably, when for 
any reason one of the clerks was not able 
to come in at the appointed time, she has 
procured a substitute. The interest of these 
women, keen from the first, has steadily 
grown in intensity and intelligence, and it 
is no exaggeration to say that most of those 
who have regularly given their services are 
better and more conscientious grocery clerks 
than the average paid employe in the aver- 
age store. A real neighborhood and com- 
munity spirit has grown up, and the store is 
beginning to be a center for the discussion 
of neighborhood welfare as well as neigh- 
borhood gossip. 



A great deal has been written upon the 
subject of cooperation. Some writers have 
thought that a cooperative store in this coun- 
try could really succeed; some have denied 
it; but even among the strongest advocates 
of cooperation it has been unanimously 
agreed that it is impossible to get people to 
give up their time and work for the benefit 
of the community at large. It has always 
been said that they would soon lose inter- 
est unless their share of the reward was 
larger in proportion to the greater amount 
of work that they did. 

And yet that is exactly what the women 
of the Hudson Guild store are doing. They 
are working faithfully and are buying their 
groceries at the guild store for the same 
price which all the other people of the neigh- 
borhood pay — a price which is calculated 
to cover the working expenses of the store 
so that there shall be no deficit and no profit. 
Their interest instead of waning has steadily 
increased, and there is every reason to ex- 
pect that during the coming winter the work 
will grow in volume and efficiency. 

WHOLESALE COOPERATION 
IN SIGHT 

REPORTS from England, France 
and Germany testify to the effect 
in these countries of consumers' coopera- 
tion in helping to keep down retail 
prices. This success is largely attributed 
to the existence of centralized purchase, 
manufacture and distribution by these 
societies through wholesale organization. 
At a convention recently held at Staun- 
ton, 111., attended by the managers and 
officers of perhaps one hundred coopera- 
tive store societies in this country, the 
creation of a wholesale establishment was 
made the foremost subject of discussion. 
The convention was held under the 
auspices of the Central States Coopera- 
tive Society and met in a cooperatively- 
owned labor temple. Among the stores 
represented were those of farmers in the 
Northwest, Finnish societies in Michi- 
gan, the miners' organizations of West 
Virginia and Iowa, and the Cooperative 
League of America, with headquarters 
in New York city. Their delibera- 
tions are said to have insured beyond 




THEY ARE BETTER AND MORE CONSCIENTIOUS GROCERY CLERKS THAN THE AVERAGE PAID EMPLOYE IN THE AVERAGE STORE*" 



'0 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 1.917 



doubt the early realization of an Ameri- 
can wholesale society, without whicli 
the scattered cooperative stores in dif- 
ferent parts of the country can hardly 
be said to constitute a "movement." 

An even more representative conven- 
tion of United States and Canadian co- 
operative societies, to be held under the 
auspices of the league, was recommended 
by resolution. This organization, so 
far, has remained mainly educational in 
scope; by working together with the 
central states society, which is mainly 
economic, and by holding the next con- 
vention jointly with fraternal delegates, 
it is hoped, from the producers' coopera- 
tive societies, the league expects to bring 
about a consolidation of effort which 
will begin a new era in cooperation in 
this country. 

THE LICENSING OF FOOD 
IMPORTATION 

PRESIDENT WILSON, on Octo- 
ber 10, issued a proclamation requir- 
ing all persons engaged in handling cer- 
tain essential foodstuffs to take out a li- 
cense from the Food Administrator. All 
wholesale distributors and retailers doing 
a business of more than $100,000 per 
year are affected, also meat packers, cold 
storage warehousemen, millers, canners, 
elevators, grain dealers. It is not be- 
lieved that the operations of the smaller 
retail dealers will materially affect prices 
in the general trade. 

The license system adopted is the out- 
come of some two hundred conferences 
held by the Food Administration, not 
only with representatives of the trades 
affected, but also with producers and 
consumers. The list of articles subjected 
to control includes, in addition to the 
principal cereals and their derivatives, 
dried peas and beans, cottonseed and its 
derivatives, soya beans, oleomargarine, 
lard and lard substitutes, milk, butter, 
cheese, poultry, eggs, beef, pork, mutton, 
fish, fresh fruits and vegetables, most 
dried and canned articles, sugar, syrups 
and molasses — in all, some twenty basic 
commodities and their products. 

In line with the powers given it by 
Congress, the Food Administration is 
endeavoring by this system of licenses to 
prevent hoarding, manipulation or spec- 
ulation to the public injury, unfair or 
unreasonable profits on foods between 
leaving the farm and reaching the table, 
and discriminatory and wasteful prac- 
tices which in any way restrict supply 
or distribution. 

The licenses are issued without cost 
and enable those who hold them to trade 
in the commodities enumerated in them. 
They will be required to report from 
time to time in a prescribed form and 
to comply with other regulations issued. 
Those who have attended the confer- 
ences where these regulations were dis- 
cussed, believe on the whole that few 
prosecutions will be necessary, but that, 



d CAMP FARM FOR 
CITY BOYS 

THE Henry Street Settlement, 
New York, this summer uti- 
lized its permanent summer camp 
to give some of the boys a les- 
son in elementary agricultural 
science. 




ONE candidate for the garden 
group wanted to begin work 
in May by picking apples. After 
he had picked the stones from 
his plot and prepared it for plant- 
ing, he learned the first fruit of a 
garden plot is backache. 




rHE gardeners experienced 
the thrill that comes once 
in a lifetime — when their first 
bean broke through the soil. To 
each boy was assigned an eighth 
of an acre. The National Food 
Garden Commission furnished 
seeds, the settlement all the rest. 




r ~r< HEY learned how vegetables 
J- grow and what makes them 
grow. Before the summer was 
over, rain storms, which in pre- 
vious seasons had filled them 
with disgust, gave them positive 
pleasure. They had become farm- 
ers in their attitude towards the 
weather. 



on the contrary, the majority of honest 
producers and distributors will be pro- 
tected against the unscrupulous in their 
midst who hitherto have been able to 
exploit the necessaries of life without 
fear of consequences. 

THE "FOOD LADY" AND HER 
DIFFICULTIES 

SALLY LUCAS JEAN, whose serv- 
ices as an organizer were lent to 
the New York city Food Aid Commit- 
tee for the summer by the People's In- 
stitute, made two discoveries which will 
be of interest to those engaged in similar 
work elsewhere: She found that inter- 
est in health is the most natural approach 
to interest in diet, and that with the 
average woman the direct, personal ap- 
peal is necessary to compel attention. 

The seat of Miss Jean's operations 
lay in one of the thickly populated sec- 
tions of the East Side of New York, in- 
habited chiefly by Italian, Jewish and 
Polish families of the first generation 
with a sprinkling of many other na- 
tionalities. In spite of the aid of va- 
rious national organizations and foreign- 
language newspapers which widely ad- 
vertised the food demonstrations and lec- 
tures held at a central public school, 
attendance of the women most in need 
of instruction at first was disappointing. 
Miss Jean thereupon devised the ex- 
pedient of singling out the mothers of 
children absent from school for various 
ailments and sending them personal let- 
ters inviting them to come to some dem- 
onstration at which the proper diet for 
the child (mentioned by name) in his 
ailment (likewise named) would, among 
other things, be discussed. The re- 
sponse was immediate and beyond ex- 
pectation. The personal invitation acted 
like magic and in most cases resulted 
not only in repeated attendance, but the 
closest attention. 

One poor Syrian mother, it is true, 
fell into sound sleep in one of a number 
of perhaps too comfortable wicker 
chairs provided for the occasion. But 
her little boy watched the proceedings 
carefully on her behalf and was heard 
to transmit the main teachings to her 
at the close of the evening: "Me not 
drink coffee — plenty cocoa . . . and 
milk." 

Miss Jean: "But, Francis, you have 
forgotten one very important thing." 

Francis: "Me know — mother cook 
lots of green stuff; good for little boy." 
One Italian woman attended with 
five of her offspring, four of them 
grouped around her on low stools, the 
smallest tugging at her breast while she 
sat upright with strained attention 
throughout the evening, nodding ap- 
proval to words extolling the merits of 
some foodstuffs and denouncing the de- 
merits of others. 

An unusual group, one evening, con- 
sisted of a pretty girl of eighteen with 



THE SU RV EY FOR OCTOBER 20, 1 917 



71 



her beau and her little sister. She ex- 
plained afterwards that her mother had 
regarded the invitation, which men- 
tioned Johnny's bad cough, as a sum- 
mons and, being too busy to appear in 
person, had obliged her to come in her 
place. As it happened, both the girl 
and her young man got keenly inter- 
ested and took leading parts in the dis- 
cussion. 

In the food talks, calories were never 
mentioned. Good use was made of an 
•exhibit of food portions of one hundred 
calories each, so arranged as to show at 
a glance, for instance, the small amount 
of chocolate or cheese necessary to bal- 
ance in nutritive value a piece of meat 
or a dish of potatoes. The foods were 
arranged in three sections; and, without 
too scientific an explanation of the need 
for a varied diet, it was made clear that 
a satisfactory meal should contain 
some article out of each of the three 
sections. 

The women were assembled so far as 
possible in national groups, some of the 
newspaper men and agents of national 
societies acting as interpreters. The na- 
tionality of the audience was taken into 
consideration so far as possible in every 
cooking demonstration, both in the se- 
lection of foods and in their preparation. 
Thus Polish women were shown how to 
cook unfamiliar but wholesome and 
cheap vegetables in a manner familiar 
to them. Oil took the place of mar- 
garine or butter in the preparation of 
dishes for the delectation of Italian au- 
diences. And samples were always 
handed around on little crackers to con- 
vince the audience that some of these 
strange messes, after all, did not taste as 
bad as they might have thought. 

Informal conversation and answers to 
questions were quite as important as the 
prepared lectures, and the demonstrators 
themselves learned a good deal. In fact, 
they went to some of the little foreign 
•eating houses to see how they prepared 
favorite dishes. Between three and five 
hundred foreign recipes were gathered 
by the organizers which enabled them 
to adapt the demonstrations before the 
various national groups to their tastes 
and experience. 

The Food Aid Committee, an adjunct 
to the Mayor's Food Supply Commit- 
tee, between July and the beginning of 
September, reached over 100,000 per- 
sons altogether. Its staff consisted of 46 
district organizers, 15 expert demonstra- 
tors and 15 cookery teachers from the 
public schools." Street demonstrations 
and lessons in department stores formed 
part of their educational activities. By 
means of demonstrations to the teachers 
themselves at headquarters the demon- 
stration work was standardized and the 
lessons given brought into line so far 
as possible with the varying appeals from 
the Food Administration for economy 
in increased use of different articles of 
diet. 



( uuittHU Tin; Womcn't MiiiJ>izin> 




SALVAGE 

Ji/TEMBERS of the Wom- 
Irl en's University Club in 
New York discovered that 
much eatable food was de- 
stroyed together with what had 
gone bad owing to congested 
traffic conditions around the 
docks. With other women, 
they organized a careful sort- 
ing out of these fruit and vege- 
table consignments on the pier 
and established a canning and 
drying kitchen. On one day, 
800 pounds of cabbage, 1,500 
of cucumbers, 400 of apricots 
and 200 of other vegetables 
were thus rescued from the 
dump. 




INTER-CHURCH ACTION IN 
WAR TIMES 

FIVE years ago, at the close of the 
Men and Religion Forward Move- 
ment, Fred B. Smith, the organizer and 
campaign leader, announced that in 
1917 he would call together the leaders 
in the church to find out how the mes- 
sages of the campaign had "got across." 
The leaders have been in conference this 
month in Pittsburgh, under the aus- 
pices of the Commission on Inter- 
Church Federations, which is itself an 
outgrowth of the men and religion 
movement, and Mr. Smith was the pre- 
siding genius. 

The spirit of cooperation was manifest 
throughout and the necessity for "social 
salvation" was constantly voiced, wheth- 
er the subject happened to be community 
evangelism, world evangelism, religious 
education, church comity, international 
justice and good-will, religious publicity, 
social service or principles and methods 
of organization, which were the chief 
topics considered at the Pittsburgh con- 
ference. That the day has forever gone 
by when social service needs any apology 
within the church was brought out re- 
peatedly, although this phrase was not 
always employed when the spirit of serv- 
ice was mentioned. 



War-time local inter-church work 
was one of the chief topics in which rep- 
resentatives from over thirty cities near 
which cantonments and camps are lo- 
cated sought to find out how they might 
best minister to the soldiers suddenly 
drafted into their midst. A report on 
the subject was made by E. L. Shuey, of 
Dayton, Ohio. The reports of eight 
different commissions, together with the 
reports on war-time work, will be 
printed by the Commission of Inter- 
Church Federations of the Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ in 
America as a volume for early publica- 
tion. 

The days of the congress were de- 
voted exclusively to conferences in which 
the 500 delegates hammered away at 
formulating practical policies, platforms 
and programs to carry home with them. 
But at night platform addresses were 
made by distinguished visitors. Among 
these were James A. Macdonald, of the 
Toronto Globe, who spoke on Making 
the World Safe for Democracy. Here 
is a paragraph from his speech: 

In our devotion to the battle songs of past 
generations and in our loyalty to the tradi- 
tions of our fathers, we in America, in the 
United States and in Canada, often mis- 
took outward forms for inward reality. We 



72 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20 , 1917 



shouted the battle cries of freedom even 
while in our own nation we allowed the 
oppression of the many by the few and the 
plunder of the weak by the strong. In our 
zeal for a great ideal of democratic self- 
government we stood by idle or helpless 
while the natural wealth and resources 
which the God of nature meant for the en- 
richment of all the people were exploited 
by organized selfishness to make harder the 
poverty of the poor and to make more damn- 
ing the prosperity of the rich. 

Frank Mason North, president of the 
Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America, said: 

The high ideals of democracy are often 
the gilded playthings of the bosses and the 
mobs. Organized intelligence and civic mor- 
ality are high-sounding terms but they sel- 
dom get the office or control the government 
of great cities. A part of the power of the 
kingdom, when it comes, will be the un- 
bought or the uncoerced personality of the 
common man. The whole world of men is 
dealing with the questions of daily toil and 
daily bread, of mutual obligation and serv- 
ice, of personality and environment. But 
these world problems will be forever unde- 
termined unless they are settled in terms of 
the city. Here these factors are tested and 
here the equation must be solved. The city 
will test the church and decide its com- 
petence. 

GOVERNMENT CONTROL OF 
WOMEN'S WORK 

AFTER six months of steadily in- 
creasing responsibilities, the Bu- 
reau of Registration and Information of 
the National League for Women's Serv- 
ice has transferred the greater part of 
its work to the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor. The chief reason for 
this transfer was that the bureau and 
the department were agreed that no 
private agency should long continue to 
direct the placement of large numbers 
of women in employment in the war in- 
dustries; the choice between one war- 
contracting employer and another, as to 
which had shown the greatest interest 
in maintaining adequate industrial stand- 
ards, was one to be made only by the 
government. 

Secretary of Labor Wilson has taken 
into the United States Employment 
Service temporarily the staff of the Bu- 
reau of Registration and Information, 
headed by Marie L. Obenauer, former 
chief of the Women's Division in the 
Department of Labor. The specific 
phases of the bureau's work transferred 
on October 1, as set forth in the letter 
sent the heads of the league and its 
bureau by the secretary of labor, are : 

The continued assortment and collation of 
war contracts involving both man and 
woman labor. 

The sending out of contracts exclusively 
to agents of the Federal Employment Serv- 
ice throughout the country. 

The collection of information as to labor 
in the war industries. 

The determination of the legitimacy of 
such calls. 

The exclusive initiative in recruiting la- 
bor in response to such calls as the depart- 
ment shall decide to be legitimate. 



Secretary Wilson states that he may 
invite cooperation from state, municipal 
and private agencies in recruiting this 
labor for the plants whose needs his de- 
partment shall have approved, but he 
will bear the sole responsibility for such 
recruiting. On the other hand, he urges 
that the league's Bureau of Registration 
and Information stand ready to assist 
the department when help is needed, as 



may be the case in inducing women to 
take courses in industrial occupations. 

As reviewed in the letter of Secre- 
tary Wilson, the achievement of this pri- 
vate organization during the six months 
since it was inaugurated under his sanc- 
tion, has been of notable value to the 
government. The league had expected 
to be relieved by the department in three 
months ; twice that period has elapsed. 



Books on Food and Thrift 




The Modern Milk Problem 

By J. Scott MacNutt. The Macmillan 
Company. 258 pp. Price $2; by mail of 
the Survey $2.15. 

City Milk Supply 

By Horatio Newton Parker. McGraw 
Hill Book Company. 493 pp. Price $5; 
by mail of the Survey $5.20. 

Diseases in Milk (The Remedy: Pasteuriza- 
tion) 
By Lina Gutherz Straus. E. P. Dutton & 
Company. 383 pp. Price $2.50; by mail 
of the Survey $2.70. 

That our milk prob- 
lem has been growing 
acute has been evident 
for some time. Health 
officers have been de- 
manding cleaner milk. 
The public has been 
wondering at the in- 
crease in the price of 
milk. Farmers have 
been complaining that 
their profits on milk 
are nil. At the same 
time we have all seen 
spectacular epidemics of infectious disease 
due to milk. Whole districts given over to 
milk production have been depopulated of 
cows and the supplies of our great cities 
have been coming from greater and greater 
distances. There is even fear at the present 
time that farmers, influenced by the high cost 
of feed and farm labor, and the high prices 
which beef may command, will slaughter off 
their dairy cattle and so destroy or seriously 
cripple the supply of this universally used 
and in many respects ideal food. 

Evidently the time is ripe for a reliable 
book dealing with the various aspects of the 
milk problem. Fortunately Mr. MacNutt 
and Mr. Parker have furnished us with two 
such books. 

After outlining the reasons why a milk 
problem exists and describing its growth, 
Mr. MacNutt discusses the case as it is 
today. Here he shows the complex inter- 
play of the many factors involved — the 
health official, the consumer, the farmer, the 
dealer, the physician, the legislator and the 
reformer. He shows how the interests of 
all these individuals are complicated by the 
farmer's agricultural problems, by transpor- 
tation and by distribution. Following chap- 
ters give a rigid analysis of the sanitary and 
economic factors involved. 

In the last chapter the author sets himself 
the question, How Solve the Problem? His 
answer is grading; that is, the buying and 
selling of milk on the basis of its quality. 
In determining quality the author deprecates 



the value of dairy farm inspection, at least 
of the old-fashioned kind, and would put his 
trust in the bacteriological count. Pasteuri- 
zation under adequate official supervision is 
emphasized as indispensable to safety. 

This book can be recommended as a re- 
liable, up-to-date and readable exposition of 
the milk situation. Enough material in the 
way of facts and figures is inserted to sup- 
port the argument fully throughout the book, 
while the style is concise and lively. The 
book is illustrated with twenty-two figures 
and sixteen plates. It should be welcomed 
by social workers and others interested in 
but unfamiliar with the details of the milk 
problem, because it gives the right point of 
view in a short space and in an interesting 
manner. 

No one making a careful study of the milk 
situation can afford to do without Mr. Park- 
er's book. No other book in English, at 
least, gives an equal amount of information 
regarding city milk supply. The composition 
of milk, the diseases carried by it, dairy 
cattle and the dairy farm are all discussed 
in detail. Then follow chapters on sanitary 
milk production, the transportation of milk, 
the milk contractor and control of the public 
milk supply. A great wealth of material 
describing different methods of production, 
transportation, distribution and inspection of 
milk is presented, which should make the 
book particularly useful to those engaged in 
the milk business and those attempting to 
work out detailed systems of control. The 
book is liberally illustrated with cuts, forms 
and tabular material. 

These two books complement each other 
remarkably well. The first gives a quick 
view of the entire situation and builds up a 
convincing argument for a logical solution 
of the problem. The second explains meth- 
ods by which the details of the problem may 
be met. 

A third book, and one which touches on 
perhaps the most important sanitary factor 
in the situation is that of Mrs. Straus. As 
its subtitle indicates, the book tells the story 
of Nathan Straus' life work for pasteuriza- 
tion. It includes letters of appreciation 
written to Mr. Straus by prominent authori- 
ties, letters in behalf of pasteurization 
written by Mr. Straus to individuals and 
organizations, descriptions of pasteurization 
methods and much other interesting material. 
Altogether the book is an inspiring record of 
the courageous, persistent and successful fight 
waged by Mr. Straus for the recognition and 
adoption of this valuable safeguard of hu- 
man health and life. Bitterly opposed for 
years, Mr. Straus has lived to see his con- 
tentions vindicated and to see the milk of 
nearly all our large cities pasteurized. 

Franz Schneider, Jr. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 19 17 



7$ 




Food Preparedness for the United States 
By Charles O'Brien. Little, Brown and 
Co. 118 pp. Price $.60; by mail of the 
Survey $.66. 

The author, in Sep- 
tember, 1916, studied 
economic conditions in 
Germany and Eng- 
land, and brought 
back a telling if not 
exhaustive account of 
the methods adopted 
in these countries to 
solve the greatest of 
the war tasks in ap- 
plied economics, the 
control of food sup- 
plies. Though his ac- 
count is sometimes a little confused, so much 
is clear — that neither Germany nor England 
has succeeded in carrying her respective food 
policies to their logical conclusions. 

In England, for instance, certain restric- 
tions have been put upon meals served in 
restaurants, but private housekeepers have 
been left on the voluntary system and, as a 
matter of fact, are not following such a rigid 
regime as the situation would seem to call 
for. In Germany, middlemen, hoarders and 
speculators are still able to take selfish ad- 
vantage of the common want. 

In discussing the possibility of Great 
Britain to feed herself, the author falls into 
the common error of assuming that as near 
as possible an approach to this goal is neces- 
sarily desirable and forgets to point out the 
vast advantage which that country enjoyed 
in the past from her free-trade policy which 
enabled her to buy food in the cheapest 
markets of the world and at the same time 
to find markets for her industrial products. 
He is right, however, in pointing to the 
splendid development of home gardening by 
industrial workers in war time — about six 
hundred thousand allotments have been let 
to persons throughout the British Isles — as 
an additional resource which is altogether 
to the good since it is devoted to the produc- 
tion of perishable foodstuffs which cannot 
as cheaply be imported and which add to 
the variety of diet. 

Concerning conditions in this country, Mr. 
O'Brien gives some rather remarkable origi- 
nal calculations, as for instance: 

"If each of America's twenty million fami- 
lies waste only one ounce of meat daily, this 
means one million two hundred and fifty 
thousand pounds of valuable animal food, 
or the gross dressed weights of over eight 
hundred and seventy-five thousand heads of 
cattle, or three million hogs. If every one 
of the country's twenty million homes wastes 
on an average only one slice of bread a 
day, the country is throwing away daily over 
fourteen million ounces of flour, eight hun- 
dred and seventy-five thousand pounds, or 
enough flour for over one million one-pound 
loaves a day." » 

He is weakest in his comment on applied 
scientific nutrition, thrown broadcast over al- 
most every chapter. In one place he as- 
sumes that the consumption of fats is the 
only means of replacing body-fat, forget- 
ting the part played by carbohydrates, £. e., 
sugar and starches. He also assumes that 
"most of us obtain our protein supply from 
meat instead of other foodstuffs," forgetting 
that for the bulk of American wage-earners 
and their families meat, if not a luxury, is 
at any rate a minor article of protein supply. 
Mr. O'Brien makes a strong plea for a na- 
ional organization of "food preparedness." 
State participation in this task seems to him 
»s silly as would be state interference with 
he navy. In this he undoubtedly goes too 
ar. While it would be a calamity if jeal- 
>usy between states or an excessive regard 
or state sovereignty were to spoil the na- 
ional teamwork in this matter, even the most 



rigid and far-reaching national control will 
leave a wide field of administrative and 
educational activity to the separate states. 
Bruno Lasker. 

The Household Budget 

By John B. Leeds. John B. Leeds, pub- 
lisher. 246 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of 
the Survey $1.60. 

Professor Leeds's analysis of the house- 
hold budget may be called a plea for recog- 
nition of the fact that the activities of a 
housewife are essentially and not vicarious- 
ly productive. To students of social condi- 
tions such a plea may perhaps seem super- 
flous. The fact remains, however, that every 
convincing presentation of these facts is of 
value in our present national crisis. Woman 
at large does need to be convinced that she 
is the greatest economic factor in the present 
world situation. 

The book is first historical, and then 
analytical. It will be of value to the home 
economics worker and to the housekeeper 
who has leisure to study the theoretical as- 
pects of her profession of home-making. 

The study does not, however, confine itself 
to the theoretical. There is a summary of 
the author's analysis of a group of house- 
hold budgets from families of the adequate 
income group. This study makes a valuable 
contribution to the literature of budget-mak- 
ing, since many of our budget studies have 
been confined to the problems of the family 
dependent on a bare living wage. Profes- 
sor Leeds's summary gives us some interest- 
ing figures. He finds that even with an in- 
come of $2,400 a family of five can manage 
only 2 per cent in the savings item of its 
budget. 

The section on Woman's Services as a 
Factor in National Income is brief, but states 
certain telling facts. The author proceeds 
to say that the greatest unpaid service is 
that of women in the household and suggests 
that the United States census gather ac- 
curate information on this subject. 

Winifred Stuart Gibbs. 

How to Cut Food Costs 

By Lenna Frances Cooper, B. S. Good 

Health Publishing Co. 129 pp. Price $.75; 

by mail of the Survey $.80. 

In this little book, the director of the Bat- 
tle Creek Sanitarium School of Home Eco- 
nomics gives a popular explanation of a bal- 
anced diet and provides a guide to the se- 
lection of low cost foods. It contains a large 
number of recipes and a list of economical 
menus for ten days. The seasonal factor in 
food economy is brought out, and the part 
played in cost by transportation and sell- 
ing charges illustrated by telling examples. 
The emphasis is laid on wise buying rather 
than waste in the kitchen which, so far as 
working class households are concerned, is 
apt to be exaggerated by the critics. Though 
this book cannot take the place of verbal 
instruction and practical demonstration in 
the education of the less educated house- 
wives, it may be recommended as a trust- 
worthy manual for those already interested 
in the subject. 

B. L. 

Food Poisoning 

By Edwin Oakes Jordan. The University 
of Chicago Press. 115 pp. Price $1 ; by 
mail of the Survey, $1.10. 

Housekeepers, nurses, physicians, as well 
as the victims of occasional "attacks of in- 
digestion," will find in the pages of this 
small volume much of illumination. The 
title is regrettably uncommunicative and sug- 
gests a more technical scientific work than 
the book really is — not that it is unscien- 
tific; rather, the author skilfully takes his 



audience into the truth of his subject, despite 
its intricacies, and does so with a remark- 
able degree of conciseness. 

The book is of value at any time, and of 
importance; but the "coming food campaign 
should focus attention upon it as one of the 
books which, above the primer grade, lead 
thoughtful readers into the desired realiza- 
tion of certain physiological aspects of the 
three-meals-a-day routine. The reader needs 
to know his dietary vocabulary and the more 
common bacteria ; but this is not too much 
to presuppose nowadays. 

Professor Jordan outlines his material as 
the "extent of food poisoning," "various 
kinds of food poisoning," and the "articles 
of food most commonly connected with food 
poisoning." He describes the common poison- 
ous plants and animals; mineral poisons 
added to foods; food-borne bacteria that 
cause disease; animal parasites; poisons 
formed in foods. He closes with a frank 
reference to certain poisons of obscure na- 
ture concerning which science has not yet 
said the final word. 

G. S. 

Mouth Hygiene 

By Alfred C. Fones. Lea & Febiger. 533 
pp. Price $5 ; by mail of the Survey, $5.20. 

Dr. Fones's book is 



Another 

New 
Profession 



the result of a con- 
viction that "dentists 
alone cannot cope with 
the enormous work" 
of mouth hygiene. 
Physicians and den- 
tists alike realize that 
uncared-for mouths 
and diseased teeth 
are an important fac- 
tor for ill health and 
systemic infection. 
Examination of the 
mouths of school children alone leads to the 
conviction, says Dr. Fones, that fully 90 per 
cent of the people of this country have im- 
perfect teeth. "If all the dentists of the 
United States devoted all their time to rep- 
arative work, they could not take care of 
one-eighth of the people." 

The conclusion accepted more and more 
widely, in some states leading to legisla- 
tion on the subject, is that there is need for 
women trained as dental hygienists. Where 
they are to be secured and trained, what 
should constitute the training, are questions 
which Dr. Fones aims to answer in the pres- 
ent book. 

Recently he invited the contributors to this 
volume to give a series of lectures in Bridge- 
port to a class of thirty-two women, who 
were preparing for work as dental hygien- 
ists. The results of these lectures are given 
in this volume. 

Dr. Fones discriminates sharply between 
the terms dental hygienists and dental 
nurses. The hygienist is not to perform any 
service resembling that of the medical nurse. 
Her service is limited by law to prophylac- 
tic work. Subjects upon which these hy- 
gienists should be informed are, according 
to Dr. Fones's course, the special anatomy 
of the teeth, the functions of various teeth, 
physiology in general, an outline of bac- 
teriology, the chemistry of foods, and several 
general discussions of factors in personal hy- 
giene. Institutional dentistry and the teach- 
ing of mouth hygiene to school children are 
also included. 

In view of the recent researches of Rose- 
now, Billings and many others, it would 
seem as though the chapter on pyorrhea 
alveolaris and systemic infections should be 
more fully explanatory. Many of these in- 
fections have their initial lesion in the mouth, 
and a neglected oral cavity may result in a 
general katabolism. Also, some mention of 
the possibilities of X-ray analysis should 



74 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20 , 1 91 7 



have been made. The book, in spite of these 
omissions, is interesting and instructive and 
should prove to be of wide practical service. 
H. A. Goldberg, D.D.S. 

One Hundred Years of Savings Banking 
By Edward L. Robinson ; with Bibliog- 
raphy on Thrift, by Marion R. Glenn and 
Ina Clement. American Bankers' Associa- 
tion. 86 pp. Price, $.50; by mail of the 
Survey $.56. 

This is a timely little book. With the 
present high cost of living there is, of course, 
in hundreds of thousands of homes less op- 
portunity than at ordinary times for cash 
savings. But, on the other hand, the thrift 
now enforced by dire necessity and by pa- 
triotic sentiment will become habitual if, and 
insofar as it is encouraged and made perma- 
nent when normal times return by the right 
kind of economic and educational appeal. 

In this endeavor much is to be learned from 
the history of the savings banks. They were, 
it seems, at first more definitely philanthropic 
in character than they are now. They did 
not pride themselves on being mere business 
institutions, soulless and mechanical, but on 
the contrary they recognized that an undif- 
ferentiated general appeal was insufficient, 
and that right saving like right spending 
must be related to the individual circum- 
stances. Thus the trustees of the first sav- 
ings bank in this country, the Bank for Sav- 
ings in the City of New York, established in 
November, 1916, attended the bank person- 
ally in monthly rotation to advise individual 
depositors after hearing something of their 
position and affairs. We are told that they 
did not merely expound the benefits of cash 
saving but very seriously went into such 
questions as frugality, cleanliness and other 
domestic virtues. 

Mr. Robinson is not much enamored of 
school savings banks because their "work is 
purely philanthropic and perhaps can never 
be made to pay its own way." The Postal 
Savings Bank system is hampered by the 
absence of personal contact with the saver; 
nevertheless it offers enormous advantages 
and, if its machinery were elaborated so as 
to permit a greater variety of transactions 
and make these more attractive to small in- 
vestors, could be used with even greater suc- 
cess by other social agencies in the promo- 
tion of thrift. 

The bibliography, covering the whole sub- 
ject of thrift and a number of allied topics, 
is not altogether successful. 

B. L. 

The Value of Money 

By B. M. Anderson, Jr. The Macmillan 
Company. 610 pp. Price, $2.25; by mail 
of the Survey, $2.45. 

Value is the focal point about which all 
economic theorizing has taken place. A 
theory of value is a theory of distribution. 
Labor gets its worth in the market. What 
that worth is is determined by the factors 
which make value. Until recently the im- 
portance of money as a distinct factor in 
value determination has been neglected by 
economists. Classical analysis assumed a 
static society with market processes in equi- 
librium. Such analysis was not adequate to a 
simpler organization of business enterprise. 
For the highly complex credit system of 
today it fails completely. 

Those economists who are thinking vitally 
are using money as their approach to econo- 
mic theorizing. Professor Anderson is among 
these. This book aims to show money as a 
function rather than an instrument of 
modern business life. Because it is func- 
tional, it is dynamic, changing under the 
influence of complex social forces and in turn 
being a factor in the change of these social 



forces. In a word, the author applies the 
concept of social value which he has out- 
lined in a former treatise to the problem of 
money value. This necessitates the refuta- 
tion of the quantity theory of money, mar- 
ginal utility and other fundamental princi- 
ples of orthodox analysis. 

The book shows patient study and very 
thorough acquaintance with the literature of 
the subject. It will surely stimulate interest 
and discussion. It is a contribution to a 
slowly forming body of opinion which would 
rewrite economic theory in terms of a 
sounder social psychology. 



Harry F. Grady. 



Experiment 

on a 
Big Scale 



Financial Federations 

Report prepared by W. Frank Persons, 
William H. Baldwin, Fred R. Johnson, 
and Eugene T. Lies. American Associa- 
tion for Organizing Charity. 270 pp. 
Price $1, postpaid. 

Federation has 
caught the imagination 
of the organizers and 
financiers of social 
work. Fourteen cities 
have financial federa- 
tions; at least forty 
others are considering 
the step or have con- 
sidered it; six have 
made varying kinds of 
trials of the move- 
ment only to suspend 
or give up their plans 
after from six to eighteen months of ex- 
perimenting. 

Federation is not a fixed thing, however, 
with a clear cut course of procedure ready 
to be lifted from one city and set down un- 
altered in any other. Even though the first 
enthusiastic wave took seventeen cities along 
with it from 1913 to 1916, two general types 
among these early ones are already to be dis- 
cerned: "those that were socially organized," 
in which "educational and social motives 
were strong," and those that had their start 
from "the desire on the part of business men 
for efficiency," and for "protection from re- 
peated solicitation" and the desire of certain 
organizations for "relief from the burden of 
money raising." 

It is from the Report on Financial Fed- 
erations just published by the American As- 
sociation for Organizing Charity that this 
classification is taken. The report is a most 
careful and exhaustive study of all those fed- 
erations, except the five formed in 1916, 
which have undertaken the central collection 
of funds for all or some of the organizations 
for social work in their cities. It is a 
thoughtful collection of facts and statistics 
and opinions plus a statement of conclusions 
made by the association's Committee on Fi- 
nancial Federations, appointed in 1915 to 
make this study. The members are W. 
Frank Persons, at the time director of gen- 
eral work of the New York Charity Organi- 
zation Society; William H. Baldwin, mem- 
ber of the board of managers of the Wash- 
ington Associated Charities; Fred R. John- 
son, secretary of the Boston Associated Char- 
ities, and Eugene T. Lies, general superin- 
tendent of the Chicago United Charities. By 
an arrangement with the Russell Sage Foun- 
dation, the task of collecting and collating 
the material was given to Fred S. Hall. 

A vast deal of invaluable information re- 
sulting from considerable visiting and very 
considerable corresponding, from the collect- 
ing, testing, and checking up of facts, sta- 
tistics and opinions makes up the bulk of the 
report. This mass of evidence is presented 
in the two appendices and is preceded by the 
final report of the committee in five short and 
interesting chapters. 
A reading of the committee's report, as 



well as of Mr. Hall's data, leaves one with 
the very definite impression that with fed- 
erations in their present shifting and de- 
veloping stage much "more is meant than 
meets the eye" in any brief definition or out- 
line of the federation plan. Charles W. Wil- 
liams, secretary of the Cleveland federation 
during its first four years, says: "The biggest 
obstacle to the success of the federation plan 
is that its logic is too good — it looks too 
easy." This should not be taken to imply 
that the federation plan is unsuccessful. The 
general conclusion of the committee has this 
to say about it: 

"We who are in non-federation cities are 
indebted to those who have been brave 
enough to be pioneers in this important mat- 
ter, for it is only through experiments that 
the plan can be tested. Our recommenda- 
tion, however, to those for whose sake pri- 
marily this study has been made, the social 
workers and others in cities in which the 
formation of federations is being considered, 
is very positively against any adoption of 
the plan at present. Fourteen cities are now 
experimenting with it under varying condi- 
tions and with several different types of or- 
ganization. We feel strongly that this is 
experimentation enough. 

"Whether the federation plan in any city 
means a social advance or the reverse is yet 
to be demonstrated. Those who are wise 
will allow that demonstration to be worked 
out by the cities that have already adopted 
the plan. No demonstration, moreover, can 
be made in the next two or three years. The 
more far-reaching effects can hardly show 
themselves in that time." 

But there is that about the whole study, 
from introduction through appendices that 
makes one hesitate to suggest, by making one 
quotation, that the result of the study can be 
reached by any such short cut. It is a 
thoroughly rounded out report and hence is 
to be taken in the whole, except as one finds 
— as doubtless many will — constant need to 
use it for reference purposes. For instance, 
the committee's conclusions include a con- 
sideration of the educational and social, as 
well as the financial side of the question. 
Their balancing of testimony, in itself re- 
plete with significant statistics and opinions, 
need not be taken as final by those who wish 
to draw their own conclusions, for Mr. Hall's 
work, in the appendices, is fully reported. 
Appendix I shows in twelve chapters the 
origin, objects and organization of all the 
federations, their financial procedure and 
their social work, together with general 
testimony about them coming from repre- 
sentative people including members of the 
federations themselves. 

In Appendix II which follows, are the 
tables of statistics referred to in the other 
sections of the book. These tables include 
a most exhaustive analysis, wherever figures 
were available, of contributions in federa- 
tion and pre-federation years, undesignated 
contributions, deficits, cost of maintaining 
federations, cost of raising money, tabula- 
tions giving the number of contributors and 
the amounts they have given before and after 
federation, comparison of associated chari- 
ties in federation and non-federation cities, 
and many additional tables of value because 
of their presentation of the histories of con- 
tributions and contributors in several cities. 
These tables ought to furnish a basis for 
similar comparisons in future years. 

At the close of the report are a bibliog- 
raphy and a directory of financial federa- 
tions. Preceding these is a brief study of I 
non-financial federations as represented in J 
the council of social agencies movement, of] 
which one hopes to see later as keen and) 
thorough a history and analysis as of the] 
financial federations. 

E. E. B. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 191 7 



75 





COMMUNICATIONS 





I. w. w. 

To the Editor: Elsie Newton Baker says in 
her recent article in your columns: "Let him 
(the average Westerner) read in the papers 
the I. W. W. parody on Onward Christian 
Soldiers, and there is but one thing, accord- 
ing to his code, that is to be done ; he takes 
his gun, collects his neighbors, finds a whip 
or a rope — nor talks about it afterwards." 

The I. W. W. parody on Onward, Chris- 
tian Soldiers, is a pacifist song and nothing 
more — a bit of satirical verse, aiming to 
show that war is unchristian and wicked. 
One stanza reads: 

"Onward, Christian soldiers, rip and tear and 
smite ! 

Let the gentle Jesus bless your dynamite. 

Splinter skulls with shrapnel, fertilize the 
sod: 

Folks who do not speak your tongue de- 
serve the curse of God. 

Smash the doors of every home, pretty 
maidens seize, 

Use your might and sacred right to treat 
them as you please." 

Enemies of the I. W. W. have taken the 
first two and the last two lines of this stanza, 
and are circulating the garbled extract as an 
exhortation issued by the I. W. W. to its 
members to explode dynamite and outrage 
women. Senator Ashurst of Arizona had the 
mangled quotation read into the Congres- 
sional Record the other day as an example 
of the "diabolical sentiments" of the I. W. 
W., and the New York Times and scores of 
other papers have reprinted it in the same 
sense. A more unjust misrepresentation 
could not be conceived, though your contrib- 
utor probably mentions it in good faith. 

John F. Kendrick, the author of the I. W. 
W. parody, is one of Uncle Sam's soldiers, a 
veteran of the Spanish war and now a clerk 
in an Illinois regiment. 

Olive Tilford Dargan. 

Dorchester, Mass. 



To the Editor: On November 25, 1916, 
the Everett Tribune, of Everett, Washing- 
ton, published an article on the I. W. W., in 
which was incorporated what purported to 
be a song taken from the official song-book. 
It is as follows: 

Christians at War 

Onward, Christian soldiers! Duty's way is 

plain; 
Slay your Christian neighbors, or by them be 

slain. 
Pulpiteers are spouting effervescent swill, 
God above is calling you to rob and rape 

and kill, 
All your acts are sanctified by the Lamb on 

high; 
If you love the Holy Ghost, go murder, pray 

and die. 

Onward, Christian soldiers, rip and tear and 
smite ! 

Let the gentle Jesus, bless your dynamite. 

Splinter skulls with shrapnel, fertilize the 
sod; 

Folks who do not speak your tongue, deserve 
the curse of God. 

Smash the doors of every home, pretty maid- 
ens seize; 

Use your might and sacred right to treat 
them as you please. 



Onward, Christian soldiers! Eat and drink 

your fill ; 
Rob with bloody fingers, Christ O. K.'s the 

bill. 
Steal the farmers' savings, take their grain 

and meat; 
Even though the children starve, the Savior's 

bums must eat. 
Burn the peasants' cottages, orphans leave 

bereft; 
In Jehovah's holy name, wreak ruin right 

and left. 

Onward, Christian soldiers! Drench the 

land with gore; 
Mercy is a weakness all the gods abhor. 
Bayonet the babies, jab the mothers, too; 
Hoist the cross of Calvary to hallow all 

you do. 
File your bullets' noses flat, poison every 

well. 
God decrees your enemies must all go plumb 

to hell. 

Onward, Christian soldiers! Blighting all 

you meet, 
Trampling human freedom under pious feet. 
Praise the Lord whose dollar sign dupes his 

favored race ! 
Make the foreign trash respect your bullion 

brand of grace. 
Trust in mock salvation, serve as pirates' 

tools ; 
History will say of you: "That pack of 

G d fools." 

I have seen neither the entire parody of 
John F. Kendrick's to which Olive Tilford 
Dargan alludes, nor the original song of 
the I. W. W., so I am unable to affirm the 
identity of either with the above. 

The point is, What is the psychological 
effect upon the average westerner of such 
a thing attributed to the I. W. W.? There 
are certain states of mind as well as certain 
types of mind to which satire makes no ap- 
peal, and to be recognized must be labelled. 

I might add, that if the I. W. W. really 
does use this song with official sanction, there 
must be some sort of reaction upon certain 
types of mind within the organization itself. 
No movement with a serious purpose can 
safely resort to satire as for inspirational 
song. The very fact that it has been taken 
seriously by anyone brands it as a dangerous 
vehicle of expression. 

Elsie E. Newton. 

Muskogee, Oklahoma. 



To the Editor: Many of us who have 
been subscribers to the Survey have been 
grieved, shocked and discouraged to find that 
a paper which purported to be loyal to the 
government and interested in every good 
cause for the social betterment of men, could 
so far forget itself as to open its pages to 
apologetic articles in the interest of Amer- 
ica's most damnable enemy, the I. W. W. 
The Survey of January 27 and of May 19 
contained articles trying to defend the I. 
W. W.'s in their outrage on the citizens of 
Everett and the city of Everett. We have 
waited with patience hoping the Survey 
would make some effort to repair the wrong 
it did by publishing said articles. 

No doubt the Survey is convinced that the 
I. W. W.'s, their friends, advocates and de- 
fenders have all been antagonistic to the 
government's efforts to prepare for the 
world's greatest crisis. The I. W. W.'s are 
the premeditated enemies of all government. 
They boldly assert in their propaganda the 
following: 

First. "No man, nor set of men, is com- 
petent, worthy or able to govern any other 
man, or set of men." 

Second. "We are opposed to all govern- 
ment and do not recognize its authority." 



Third. "The employing class shall be de- 
stoyed and thereby destroy the wage system 
of the world." 

Fourth. "There shall be no property su- 
premacy or rights. .Property shall be held by 
the mass and for the mass." 

Fifth. "Six strikes in six months are more 
successful than one strike in six months." 

Sixth. "All labor unions are urged to join 
the I. W. W. regardless of other affiliations." 

Seventh. Those who are striking, should 
in disguise, of course, join the strike breakers, 
seek employment as strike breakers, and 
when employed destroy the machinery on 
which they are working." 

Eighth. "Sabotage is a successful weapon. 
Use it; destroy property, disregard govern- 
ment, abolish the wage system, destroy the 
employing class." 

These and other statements show the pur- 
pose and infamy of the I. W. W. Of course, 
it was an easy matter for such people to 
bring on the Everett riot, or to drive nails 
in the logs to destroy the saws in the mills 
of Washington. Of course, such people were 
perfectly willing to put copper tacks in fruit 
trees to destroy them. Of course, people who 
believe such things could easily be induced 
to poison water, blow up bridges and prac- 
tice sabotage wherever they had an oppor- 
tunity. 

The revelation of their acts throughout this 
country ought to make the Survey hang its 
head in shame that it ever opened its pages 
in defense of such damnable enemies of this 
government. 

The Survey was not without information 
on the subject, for one of Seattle's noblest, 
best and most patriotic citizens, namely, 
Frank W. Baker, furnished the Survey with 
information and urged it to retract its steps. 
No more patriotic, self-sacrificing or better 
citizen can be found than Mr. Baker. 
Grieved and shocked, he urged the Survey 
to change its attitude. 

The time has come in this country for 
loyal, patriotic citizens to spurn and con- 
temn the efforts of the government's enemies. 
There are but two sides to this great con- 
test: one of loyalty and the other of dis- 
loyalty. Every page of every paper and 
every magazine in America should ring with 
messages of patriotism, and in opposition to 
the enemies of true democracy and American 
principles. 

No doubt these common enemies of ours 
have been aided by the world's great enemy, 
namely, Prussian militarism. By the power 
of Almighty God, universal democracy shall 
be established; autocracy shall be crushed, 
and the damnable enemies, like the I. W. W., 
at home and abroad shall be forever chained. 

M. A. Matthews. 
[Pastor First Presbyterian Church] 

Seattle. 



JOTTINGS 



MAYOR MITCHEL of New York has ap- 
pointed to the new post of commissioner of 
markets Henry Moskowitz, hitherto president 
of the Municipal Service Commission which 
has brought about remarkable improvement 
in the status of civil servants in New York 
and, through its influence, throughout the 
country. The act permitting the creation of 
the new markets commission and giving 
power to the city to purchase and sell at re- 
tail articles of food was delayed for three 



76 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 20, 1917 




years by interested opposition. The new com- 
missioner intends to use the results of sur- 
veys and investigations already made by pri- 
vate committees and to start at once with a 
program of action to lower prices. 



California 

fnis winter 

("Santa Fe, 

all the* way 

Mowing Exclu= 
sive advantages: 

— Santa Ep deluxe 
weekly in winter 

—Fred Harvey 
meal service 

- Visit Grgnd Can- 
yon enroute © 

-And four fast trains 
^^ dailv. including the 

(Mom 

limited 

Ask forihlifornid Travel liooklds.- 
W J. Black Ris.Trafrir.fk ATcSFRv 
1093 Railway Exchange Chicago 



PROF. HENRY R. SEAGER, of Columbia 
University, has been appointed secretary of 
the adjusting board, of which V. Everit 
Macy is chairman, appointed to mediate in 
all disputes in government work in ship- 
yards. 



AMONG new publications is Bagdad on the 
Subway, its title borrowed from O. Henry, 
its text from the work of the New York 
Association for Improving the Condition of 
the Poor since it was organized in 1843, 
and its make-up sprightly and well illus- 
trated. 



LETTERS signed by representatives of 
unions of painters, plumbers and steam- 
fitters, plasterers, carpenters, laborers and 
electrical workers of Gary, Ind., have been 
issued to refute the charge made in New 
York city that organized labor in Gary is 
opposed to the Gary school system. 



DIRECTORS of civilian relief have been 
appointed by the American Red Cross for 
all divisions. The Survey published the 
names of eight of these in its issue of Sep- 
tember 1. The others are: Pennsylvania, 
J. Byron Deacon ; Southern, Joseph C. Lo- 
gan ; Gulf, Emmet W. White ; Lake, James 
I. Fieser; Southwestern, Alfred Fairbank; 
Central, T. J. Edmunds (acting). Their prin- 
cipal duty will be to organize and supervise 
"home service" work by Red Cross chapters 
for the families of soldiers and sailors. 



F. P. FOISIE, director of Civilian Relief 
for the Northwest Division of the American 
Red Cross, covering Alaska, Idaho, Oregon 
and Washington, with headquarters in the 
White building, Seattle, wishes to communi- 
cate with Survey subscribers in those states 
who are interested in civilian relief. He 
writes: "The marked absence of trained 
social workers in this Northwest is occasion 
for concern at this time when the needs of 
home service are revealing themselves very 
rapidly." 



EDITH SHATTO KING, formerly head 
resident of Neighborhood House, San Diego, 
Calif., and a worker in various social lines 
in other parts of California, Wisconsin and 
New York, is the new manager of the Na- 
tional Social Workers' Exchange, 130 East 
22 street, New York city. The exchange it 
will be remembered was organized last sum- 
mer to take over the social work department 
of the Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations. 
Mrs. King succeeds the first manager, Eme- 
lyn Peck, who will work in the civilian di- 
vision of the American Red Cross at Paris 
under Homer Folks. 



THE League of Small and Subject Nationali- 
ties [see the Survey for May 5], organized 
to bring together American representatives 
of the weaker nations, now embraces twenty- 
five national groups. Frederic C. Howe has 
accepted its presidency and on the council 
are such well known figures as Prof. Henri 
La Fontaine (Belgium), Mme. Aino Malm- 
berg (Finland), J. R. Gaudhi and Lajpat 
Rai (India), Prof. Richard Gottheil 
(Judaea), Rev. F. G. Noli (Albania) and 
Miran Sevasly (Armenia). The league was 
established to assert the right of the consti- 
tuent nationalities to independent representa- 
tion at international conferences and to pre- 
sent their joint case to the world. To further 
these objects, it will hold a conference at 
the Hotel McAlpin, New York, October 



Illustrations will add, not only to the entertain- 
ment, but to the educational value of sermons and 
lectures. Illustrate YOUR talks with the 

^auscli [omb 

Ralopticon 

THE PERFECT STEREOPTICON 

The Baloptleon's new gas-filled Mazda lamp is 
greatly superior to the old style A. C. arc In that It 
furnishes more evenly distributed light to the very 
edges of the screen at less current cost, and is entirely 
automatic. Anyone can operate it. 

Models of the Balopticon for the projection of 
slides only may be purchased as low as $2 6.50. Models 
for opaque objects (such as charts, photos, colored 
prints, etc.) are priced it $35.00 ud. Combined 
Models which may be used for both forms of projec- 
tion are listed from $45.00 up. 

Let us send you our illus- 
trated price list of Balopticons 
— it will help you to select the 
right model. 

BAUSCH & LOMB 
OPTICAL COMPANY 

528 St. Paul Street 
Rochester, N. Y. 

New York Washington 
Chicago San Francisco 

Leading American Mak- 
ers of Photographic and 
Ophthalmic Lenses, Mi- 
croscopes, Projection Lan- 
terns, Stereo-Prism Binoc- 
ulars and other High- 
Grade Optical Products. 




Food for the Worker 

By STERN AND SPITZ 
Netfl.00 

"Practical, usable, intelligently planned, for the 
aid of housewives catering on a workingman's 
income, and useful to the teacher, visiting house- 
keeper or social worker. Gives 120 recipes ar- 
ranged into menus of balanced rations, and a 
scientific discussion of the food requirements of 
a normal family." — Am. Library Asso, Booklist. 

WHITCOMB & BARROWS, PUBLISHERS 
Huntington Chambers, Boston,. Mass. 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



EXECUTIVE, Initiative, Efficiency, Or- 
ganizer. School of Philanthropy and uni- 
versity graduate. Thorough training and 
experience in Research, Charities, Recrea- 
tion, Industrial Welfare. Address 2614 
Survey. 

MATRON — progressive, efficient and ex- 
perienced — desires position in institution 
either with children or aged people. Ad- 
dress 2616 Survey. 

COLLEGE graduate, experienced in care 
of children would like position as matron 
of child-bearing institution or convalescent 
home. Address 2619 Survey. 

MAN — Jewish, extensive social service 
experience. Address 2620 Survey. 

WANTED by a woman of experience, 
executive ability and character, position 
as matron or investigator. Address 2625 

Survey. 






THE SURVEY EO R OCTOBER 20, 1917 



77 



EXECUTIVE— 36, university graduate, 
Christian, 12 years' community betterment, 
civic and industrial experience with em- 
ployees as organizer and director, contem- 
plates change in present employment and 
will consider the work of employment man- 
ager, of chamber of commerce, of better- 
ment organization. Address 2628 Survey. 

Woman secretary seeks position in social 
center or welfare work. Ten years busi- 
ness experience, three years in social work. 
Salary moderate if opportunity is large. 
Address 2629 Survey. 



HELP WANTED 



WANTED : A Chief Parole Officer in a 
Southern reformatory institution for boys. 
Must be a man of strong character and 
personality, who likes and understands 
boys, is single, and willing to devote his 
entire efforts in behalf of the boys. Ad- 
dress 2623 Survey. 

WANTED: A first-class instructor in 
printing in a Southern reformatory insti- 
tution for boys. Must be a man of excel- 
lent moral character, a firm but kind disci- 
plinarian, able to instruct boys in all 
branches of the printing trade and edit an 
up-to-date School paper. Address 2624 
Survey. 

WANTED— Superintendent for Settle- 
ment house in a Pennsylvania town of 
25,000 population. Address 2626 Survey. 

WANTED— SUPERINTENDENT 
AND MATRON FOR ORPHANAGE. 
THE J. M. GUSKY HEBREW OR- 
PHANAGE & HOME, PITTSBURGH, 
PA., WILL ACCEPT APPLICATIONS 
FROM MARRIED COUPLES FOR THE 
ABOVE POSITIONS. PRIVATE RESI- 
DENCE WITH MOST HEALTHFUL 
SURROUNDINGS IS INCLUDED 
WITH THE POSITION. GIVE FULL 
DETAILS WITH QUALIFICATIONS 
AND REFERENCES IN FIRST LET- 
TER. A. L. SOLOMON, PRESIDENT, 
623 PENN AVE., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

WANTED — Man of executive ability, 
experienced in case work, as head of a 
Children's Organization. Apply, giving full 
particulars, to 265 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

WANTED — Young man of executive 
ability to do case work with a Children's 
Organization. Apply, giving full particu- 
lars, to 265 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

WANTED — Experienced Jewish woman 
as matron and house-mother in St. Louis 
Jewish Shelter Home for Children, 4410 
Westminster Place. References required. 

WANTED : Executive Secretary for 
Consumers' League of Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania. Executive ability, public speaking 
and knowledge of industrial conditions 
chief qualifications required. 814 Otis 
Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



REAL ESTATE 



TO rent free, for care in winter, an old- 
fashioned Maine farm house, furnished — 5 
fireplaces, Dutch oven, horse. Address 
2627 Survey. 



29-31, to which the public is invited. Tickets 
may be , obtained from Marion A. Smith, 
secretary, 480 Central Park West, New York 
city. 



DRASTIC recommendations are made by a 
special commission appointed by the Bra- 
zilian government to investigate the high 
cost of living in Rio de Janeiro. One would 
give power to the prefect of that city to 
establish warehouses for the retail sale of 
food, bought from producers but in no case 
stored for more than thirty days. Another 
deals with the partial substitution of native 
flours, such as corn and manioc, for wheat. 
To combat the excessive rise in the price of 
meat, the commission suggests a system of 
licenses to be issued by auction to the lowest 
bidders who have to enter a bond for the 
supply of the city market with fresh meat 
at the price to which they have agreed. 



ISAAC NEWTON SELIGMAN, the New 
York banker who died on September 30 at 
the age of 62, was often called among his 
friends, the "universal treasurer," owing to 
the large number of philanthropic under- 
takings which he served in that capacity. 
His own "social investments," in keeping 
with the best traditions among wealthy Jews, 
were placed in living movements rather 
than comatose institutions; they were dis- 
tributed over a considerable variety of use- 
ful activities; and they were always accom- 
panied by a lively personal interest. Among 
a number of trusteeships held by Mr. Selig- 
man, were those of the Civic Forum, the Le- 
gal Aid Society and the National Civic Fed- 
eration. He was chairman of the Finance 
Committee of the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee, vice-president of the United Hebrew 
Charities of New York and of the People's 
Institute and treasurer of the City and Su- 
burban Homes Company. 



COMING MEETINGS 

[Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month.] 

The annual meeting of Survey Associates, Inc., 
will be held on Monday, October 29, at 4 p.m. in 
the Survey offices, twelfth floor, 112 East 19 
street. New York city. Four members of the 
Board of Directors will be elected to succeed Ed- 
ward T. Devine, V. Everit Macy, Simon N. Pat- 
ten and Nathan A. Smyth, whose terms of office 
expire; and to transact such other business as 
may come before the meeting. All members of 
Survey Associates, Inc. — life members and co- 
operating subscribers who have paid $10 or more 
since October 1, 1916, toward the maintenance 
of the Survey — are entitled to vote at this year's 
annual meeting. 

PERIODICALS 

Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

A. L. A. Book List; monthly; $1; annotated mag- 
azine on book selection; valuable guide to best 
books; American Library Association, 78 East 
Washington St., Chicago. 

American Red Cross Magazine; monthly; $2 a 
year; Doubleday, Page & Co., publishers, New 
York. 

American Journal of Public Health; monthly; $3 
a year; 3 months' trial (4 months to Survey 
readers), 50 cents; American Public Health As- 
sociation, 126 Massachusetts Ave., Boston. 

A Voice in the Wilderness; $1 a year. A magazine 
of sane radicalism. At present deals particu- 
larly with our autocratic suppression of free 
speech, free press and peaceable assembly. An 
indispensable magazine to the lover of liberty. 
12 Mount Morris Park. New York City. 

Better Films Movement: Bulletin of Affiliated 
Committees; monthly; $1; ten cents an issue. 
Information about successful methods. Ad- 
dress National Committee for Better Films, or 
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, 
70 Fifth Ave.. New York. 

The Child Labor Bulletin; quarterly; $2 a year; 
National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22 
street, New York 



The Club Worker; monthly; 30 cents a year; Na- 
tional League of Women Workers, 35 East 30 
St., New Vork. 

The Co-operative Consumer; monthly; 25 cts. per 
year. Co-operative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

The Crisis; monthly; $1; National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People, publisher. 
70 Fifth Ave.. New York. 

The Critic and Guide; monthly; $1 a year. De- 
voted to medical sociology, rational sexology, 
birth control, etc. Wm. J. Robinson, M.D., 
Editor. 12 Mount Morris Park, New York City. 

The Dial; fortnightly; $3 a year; five months' 
trial to Survey readers $1. Constructive articles 
on social aspects, war and peace, by H. M. 
Kallen, of Committee on Labor, Advisory Cora- 
mission, Council National Defense, starts Oc- 
tober 11. The Dial, 608 So. Dearborn St., 
Chicago. 

The Journal of Home Economics; monthly; $2 
a year; foreign postage, 35c. extra; Canadian, 
20c; American Home Economics Association. 
1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

The Journal of Negro History; quarterly; $1 a 
year; foreign subscriptions 25 cents extra; con- 
cerned with facts not with opinions; Association 
for Study of Negro Life and History, 1216 You 
St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Life and Labor; $1 a year; a spirited record of 
the organized struggle of women, by women, for 
women in the economic world. Published by 
The National Women's Trade Union League, 
Room 703, 139 North Clark street, Chicago. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; National 
Committee for Mental Hygiene, 50 Union 
Square, New York. 

National Municipal Review; monthly; $5 a year; 
authoritative, public spirited, constructive; Na- 
tional Municipal League; North American Bldg., 
Philadelphia 

The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. postpaid; permanent record of cur- 
rent events. An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

The Playground Magazine; monthly; $2; Recrea- 
tion in Industries and Vocational Recreation 
are discussed in the August Playground. Prob- 
lems involved in laying out playgrounds are 
taken up in detail by A. E. Metzdorf, of Spring 
field, Mass. Price of this issue $.50. Play 
ground and Recreation Association of America, 
1 Madison Ave., New York. 

Proportional Representation Review; quarterly; 
40 cents a year. American Proportional Repre- 
sentation League, 802 Franklin Bank Bldg., 
Philadelphia. 

Public Health Nurse Quarterly, $1 a year; na- 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Social Hygiene; a quarterly magazine; $2 per 
year; The Social Hygiene Bulletin; monthly; 
$.25 per year; both free to members; pub- 
lished by the American Social Hygiene Asso- 
ciation, 105 W. 40 St., New York. 

Southern Workman; monthly; illustrated; folk 
song, and corn club, and the great tidal move- 
ments of racial progress; all in a very human 
vein; $1 a year; Hampton Institute, Hampton, 
Va. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 

Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

[Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser 
tions, copy unchanged throughout the month.'] 
Order pamphlets from publisher!. 

American Plan for Keeping the Bible in Pub- 
lic Schools; 32 pp., 6 cents postpaid, and A 
Primer of the Science of Internationalism; 
96 pp., 15 cents postpaid. Published by Inter- 
national Reform Bureau, 206 Pennsylvania Ave., 
S. E., Washington, D. C. 

Buying Clubs. Published by the Co-operative 
League of America, 70 Fifth avenue. New 
York. 5 cents. 

CO-OPERATION IN THE UNITED STATES. C. W. 

Perky, Co-operative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

The Gary Plan in New York City Schools. 
Peter J. Brady, 823-4 World Building, New York. 

Law Concerning Children Born Out of Wed 
lock (so-called Castberg law). Adopted by the 
Norwegian Storthing, April 10, 1915. 10 cents 
from chairman of committee on Castberg Law, 
679 Lincoln Parkway, Chicago. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

The Reconstruction of Religion for Humanity. 
Baccalaureate sermon preached by Rabbi Eman- 
uel Sternheim, Sioux City, Iowa, at Nebraska 
State Normal School. 5 cents. 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 




KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Americanization, Nltl. 

Better Filmt Movement, Nc»F. 

Birth Registration, Aaspim. 

Blindness, Ncpb. 

Cancer. Ascc. 

Central Councils, Aaoc. 

Charities, Ncsw. 

CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Amer Assn. for Org. Charity. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Nml, Sbo. 
CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Exhibit Assn. 

Natl. Com. for Better Film*. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Nspie, Praa. 
CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

(Episcopal) Jt. Com. on Soc. Ser., Pec 

(Federal) Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

(Unitarian) Dept. of Soc. and Pub. Ser., Aua. 
CIVICS 

Am Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Natl. Municipal League. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Civilian Relief. Arc. 
Clinics, Industrial, Ncl. 
Commission Government, Nml, Sbo. 
Community Organization, Aiss. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs. Ni ww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 

Coordination Social Agencies, Aadc, Aiss. 
Correction. Nrsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 
COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca, Arc. 

County Ywca. 
Crime, Sa. 

Disfranchisement. Naacp. 
EDUCATION 

Amer. Library Assn. 

Cooperative League of America. 

Natl Kindergarten Assn 

Natl. Soc. for Prom, of Ind. Ed. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Ht. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Efficiency Work. Bmr. 
Electoral Reform, Nml, Ti, Apkx. 
Eugenics, Er. 
Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb, Nyshs. 



Fatigue, Ncl. 
Feeblemindedness, Cpfm, Ncmb. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation 
Franchises, Nml. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Pub. Health Assn. 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Com. of One Hund. on Natl. Health. 

Com. on Prov. for Feebleminded. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Natl. Soc. Hygiene Assn. 

New York Social Hygiene Society, 

Ncsw, Ncwea, 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
History, Asnlh. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work, Ncl, Nclc. 
Hospitals, Naspt. 

Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca. 
Idiocy, Cpfm. 
Imbecility, Cpfm. 

IMMIGRATION 

Council of Jewish Worn., Dept. Im. Aid. 

International Institute for Foreign-born Women 
of the Ywca. 

Natl. Lib. Im. League, Nfs, Ntas, Tab. 
Industrial hygiene, Apha. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. • 

Natl. Consumers League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Nspie. 
Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 
Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Natl. Woman's Peace Party. 

Labor Laws, Aall, Ncl, Nclc. 

Legislative Reform, Aprl. 

Liquor, Nml. 

LIBRARIES 

American Library Assn. 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 
Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 
Military Relief, Arc. 
Minimum Wage, Ncl. 
Mountain Whites, Rsf. 
Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs, Nml. 
National Service, Aiss. 
Negro Training, Asnlh, Hi, Ti. 
Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha, Arc, Nophs. 
Open Air Schools, Naspt. 

PEACE 

National Woman's Peace Party. 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 
Physical Training, Praa. 
Police, Nml. 

Protection Women Workers, Ncl, Ntas. 
Prostitution, Asha. 
Public Health. Apha, Cohnh, Nophs. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Assn. for Study Negro Life and Hist. 

Hampton Institute. 

Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 

Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 

Tuskegee Institute. 

Alil, Er. 
Reconstruction. Ncsw. 
Regulation of Motion Pictures, Neap. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 

Ncbf. Ywca. 
REMEDIAL IOANS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans. 
Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Self-Government, Nlww. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Natl. Fed. of Settlements. 
Sex Education, Asha. Nyshs. 
Schools, Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Short Working Hours, Ncl. 
Social Agencies, Surveys of, Aaoc. 
Social Hygiene, Asha, Nyshs. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Amer. Inst, of Soc. Service. 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, FaecA. 



Dept. of Soc. and Public Service, Aua. 
Joint Com. on Soc. Service, Pec. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 

Ncmh, Praa, Ncwea, Nspie. 
Taxation, Nml. 

National Travelers Aid Society. 

TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers' Aid Society. 

Travelers Aid Society. 

Cjw. 
Tuberculosis, Naspt. 
Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 
Unemployment, Aall. 
WAR RELIEF 

Am. Red Cross. 

Preventive Constructive Girl*' Work of Ywca. 
WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 

Natl. Consumers' League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Working Girls, Cjw, Ntas, Tass, Nlww, Tas. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. Workmen's compensation; health in- 
surance; industrial hygiene; unemployment; one- 
day-rest-in-seven; administration of labor laws. 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ORGANIZING 
CHARITY— Mrs. W. H. Lothrop, ch'n; Francis 
H. McLean, gen. sec'y; 130 E. 22 St., New York. 
Correspondence and active field work in the or- 
ganization, and solution of problems confronting, 
charity organization societies and councils of 
social agencies; surveys of social agencies; plans 
for proper coordination of effort between different 
social agencies. 

AMERICAN ASSOC. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature on request. Traveling exhibit. 
Urges prenatal instruction; adequate obstetrical 
care; birth registration; maternal nursing; infant 
welfare consultations 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA- 
TION— Mrs. Alice P. Norton, sec'y; 1326 E. 
58 St., Chicago. Information supplied on any- 
thing that pertains to food, shelter, clothing or 
management in school, institution or home. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SERV 
ICE — Founded by Dr. Josiah Strong. Nathaniel 
M. Pratt, gen. sec'y. Edward W. Bemis, Robert 

A. Woods, dept. directors, Bible House, Astor 
Place, New York. Welcomes inquiries as to al' 
matters of community organization and progress. 
Members of its staff glad to enter into consulta- 
tion by correspondence about given conditions 
or particular projects. Assists in bringing to in- 
dividual new undertakings the combined results 
and lessons of the best productive achievement. 
Ready to aid in securing publications, speakers, 
temporary or permanent leadership. Particular 
attention given to requests from communities in 
which all such effort is at an early stage. Seeks 
to bring about better cooperation among special- 
ized national organizations, toward securing the 
more comprehensive local application of their 
types of service. Promotes the fullest extension 
of principles and methods which on a limited 
scale have conclusively shown their power for the 
upbuilding of the nation. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION— George 

B. Utley, exec, sec'y; 78 E. Washington St., Chi- 
cago. Furnishes information about organizing 
libraries, planning library buildings, training 
librarians, cataloging libraries, etc. List of publi- 
cations on request. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE — C. G Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives. 
Literature free. Membership $1. 
AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION 
—Dr. W. A. Evans, pres., Chicago; A. W. Hed- 
rich, acting sec'y; 1039 Boylston St., Boston. Ob- 
ject: to promote public and personal health. Health 
Employment Bureau lists health officers, public 
health nurses, industrial hygienists, etc. 
AMERICAN RED CROSS — National officer*: 
Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, 
president; Robert W. DeForest, vice-president; 
John Skelton Williams, treasurer; John W. Davis, 
counselor; Charles L. Magee, secretary; Hon. 
William Howard Taft, chairman central commit- 
tee; Eliot Wadsworth, vice-chairman; Harvey D. 
Gibson, general manager. 

Central Committee, appointed by the President 
of the United States: William Howard Taft, chair- 
man; Eliot Wadsworth, vice-chairman; Robert 
Lansing, Secretary of State; John Skelton Wil- 
liams, Controller of the Currency; Major-General 
William C. Gorgaa, Surgeon-General, U. S. A.; 






THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



Rear-Admiral William C. Braisted, Surgeon-Gen- 
eral, U. S. N.; John W. Davis, Solicitor-General. 

War Council, appointed by the President of the 1 
United States: Henry P. Davison, chairman; 
Charles D. Norton, Grayson M.-P. Murphy, John 
D. Ryan, Cornelius N. Bliss, Jr.; William Howard 
Taft, ex-omcio; Eliot Wadsworth, ex-officio. 

Major Grayson M.-P. Murphy, U. S. A., Com- 
missioner to Europe. 

Department of Military Relief: John D. Ryan, 
director-general; Gen. Winfred Smith, assistant di- 
rector-general. 

Department of Civilian Relief: W. Frank Per- 
sons, director-general. 

Bureau of Medical Service: Lieutenant-Colonel 
H. C. Connor. 

Nursing Service: National Committee, Miss 
Jane Delano, chairman; Bureau of Nursing Serv- 
ice, Miss Clara Noyes, director; Bureau of Town 
and County Nursing Service, Miss Fanny F. 
Clement, director. 

Woman's Bureau: Miss Florence Marshall, di- 
rector. 

Supply Service: Frank B. Gifford, director. 
THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION— William F. Snow, M. D., gen. sec'y; 
105 W. 40 St., New York. For the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education; pam- 
phlets upon request; membership $5; sustaining 
$10. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Curtis E. Lakeman, exec, sec'y; 
25 W. 45 St., New York. To disseminate knowl- 
edge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment 
and prevention. Publications free on request. 
Annual membership dues $5. 

ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF NEGRO 
LIFE AND HISTORY— Carter G. Woodson, di- 
rector of research; 1216 You St., N. W., Wash- 
ington, D. C. To popularize the Negro and his 
contributions to civilization that he may not 
become a negligible factor in the thought of the 
world. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH— 261 
Broadway, New York. Specialists in surveys of 
all kinds; also installs efficiency systems. Twelve 
years successful work throughout United States 
and Canada; estimates furnished. 
COMMITTEE OF ONE HUNDRED ON NA- 
TIONAL HEALTH— E. F. Robbins, exec, sec'y; 
203 E. 27 St., New York. To unite all govern- 
ment health agencies into a National Department 
of Health to inform the people how to prevent 
disease. 

COMMITTEE ON PROVISION FOR THE 
FEEBLEMINDED— Joseph P. Byers, ex. sec'y; 
Empire Bldg., Phila. Object to spread knowledge 
concerning extent and menace of feebleminded- 
ness; initiate methods for control and eradication. 

CO-OPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13- St., New York City. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice on all phases of consumers' 
co-operation, foreign and American. Annual mem- 
bership, $1, includes monthly, Co-Operative Con- 
sumer. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN (NATIONAL) 
— Department of Immigrant Aid, with headquar 
ters, 242 E. Broadway, New York. Miss Helen 
Winkler, ch'n; gives friendly aid to immigrant 
girls; meets, visits, advises, guides; has interna- 
tional system of safeguarding. Invites member- 
ship. 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY SERVICE, 
AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION— El- 
mer S. Forbes, sec'y; 25 Beacon St., Boston. 
Makes community studies; suggests social work; 
publishes bulletins. 

EUGENICS' REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Board of Registration: Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. 
Irving Fisher, Dr. Chas. B. Davenport, Luther 
Burbank, Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. A pub- 
lic service conducted by the Race Betterment 
Foundation and Eugenics' Record Office for 
knowledge about human inheritance and eugenics. 
Literature free. Registration blanks for those 
who desire an inventory, and wherever possible, 
an estimate of their hereditary possibilities. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
renl. sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on tne Church and Social Service; 

Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Rev. 

Clyde F. Armitage, asso. sec'y; Herbert M. 

Shenton, special sec'y; Miss Grace M. Sims, 

office sec'y. 
Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 
Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 

Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 
Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev. 

Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St, 

Columbus, Ohio. 
Campaign for the Conservation of Human Life; 

Charles Stelzle, sec'y. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— G. P. Phenix, vice- 
prin.; F. K. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y; 
Hampton, Va. "Hampton is a war measure" (H. B. 
Frissell). Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither 



a State nor a Government school. Supported by 
voluntary contributions. Free literature on race 
adjustment, Hampton aims and methods. 
JOINT COMMISSION ON SOCIAL SERVICE OF 
THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH— 
Address Rev. F. M. Crouch, exec, sec'y; Church 
Missions House, 281 Fourth Ave., New York. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Pre«., 
Moorefield Storey; chairman, Board of Directors, 
Dr. J. E. Spingarn; treas., Oswald Garrison Vil- 
lard; dir. of pub. and research, Dr. W. E. B. 
Du Bois; act'g sec'y, James Welden Johnson; 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. Membership 8,500 
with 90 branches. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY 
AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS— 
Charles J. Hatfield, M. D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph.D., ass't sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methodi. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York. 35 state branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration; education; mothers' pensions; juvenile 
delinquency; health; recreation; children's codes. 
Publishes quarterly Child Labor Bulletin. Photo- 
graph, slides, and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION. 
—Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Cooperates with hundreds of social 
agencies. Headquarters for child welfare material 
and information, exhibits, posters, charts, lantern 
slides, pamphlets, bulletins, lecturers. Inquiries, 
invited. Publications free to members. Dues: ac- 
tive, $10; associate, $5. Will you help us build 
a better generation? 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR BETTER FILMS 
— Department of National Board of Review of 
Motion Pictures. O. G. Cocks, sec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. Promotion of better fam- 
ily and young people's films. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Write for pamphlets on mental hy- 
giene, prevention of insanity and mental deficiency, 
care of insane and feebleminded, surveys, social 
service in mental hygiene, state societies for men- 
tal hygiene. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
man. dir.-; Gordon L. Berry, fld. sec'y; Mrs. Wini- 
fred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E, 22 St., New York. 
Objects: To furnish information for associations, 
commissions and persons working to conserve 
vision; to publish literature of movement; to fur- 
nish exhibits, lantern slides, lectures. Printed 
matter: samples free; quantities at cost. Invites 
membership. Field, United States. Includes 
N. Y. State Com. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

Robert A. Woods, pres., Boston; William T. Cross, 
gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. Gen- 
eral organization to discuss principles of humani- 
tarian effort and increase efficiency of agencies. 
Publishes proceedings annual meetings, monthly 
bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information bureau. 
Membership, $3. 45th annual meeting Kansas 
City, May 15-22, 1918. Main divisions and chair- 
men : 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Mrs. Jessie D. 
Hodder. 

Health, Haven Emerson, M.D. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 
Johnstone. 

The Family, Gertrude Vaile. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 
Florence Kelley. 

The Local Community, Charles C. Cooper. 

Mental Hygiene, Frankwood E. Williams. 

Organization of Social Forces, Allen T. Burns. 

Social Problems of the War and Reconstruction, 
V. Everit Macy. 

NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE— Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley, gen. sec'y; 289 Fourth Ave., New 
York. 87 branch leagues. 15,000 members. War 
program: To help our industrial army by pro- 
moting clinics for treatment of new diseases (in- 
cident to munitions work and to fatigue and 
strain); reasonable working hours; safe and sani- 
tary working conditions; decent standards of liv- 
ing; safeguards for women taking men's places in 
industry; protection for children. Minimum mem- 
bership, $2. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
—Robert A. Woods, sec'y, 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state, and na- 
tion, for meeting the fundamental problems dis- 
closed by settlement work; seeks the higher and 
more democratic organization of neighborhood life. 
NATIONAL KINDERGARTEN ASSOCIATION 
— 250 Madison Ave., New York. Object: To 
have the kindergarten established in every public 
school. Four million children in the United States 
are now without this training. Furnishes bul- 



letins, exhibits, lecturers, advice and information. 
In cooperation with United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation, works for adequate legislation and for a 
wider interest in this method of increasing intelli- 
gence and reducing crime. Supported by volun- 
tary contributions. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS 

— Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New 
York. Evening clubs for girls; recreation and 
instruction in self-governing and supporting group* 
for girls over working age. 

NATIONAL LIBERAL IMMIGRATION LEAGUE 
— Address Educational Dept., Sun Bldg., N. Y. 
Advocates selection, distribution and Americani- 
zation and opposes indiscriminate restriction. Sum- 
marized arguments and catalog of publications on 
request. Minimum membership ($1) includes all 
available pamphlets and current publications. 

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE — Lawson 
Purdy, pres.; Clinton Rogers Woodruff, sec'jr; 
North American Bldg., Phila.; charters; commis- 
sion government; taxation; police; liquor; elec- 
toral reform; finances; accounting; efficiency; 
civic education; franchises; school extension. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 600 Lexington Ave., New 
York. Object: To stimulate the extension of 
public health nursing; to develop standards of 
technique; to maintain a central bureau of in 
formation. Bulletins sent to members. 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION 
OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION— May Allinsom, 
asst. sec'y; 140 W. 42 St., New York. Promotion 
of legislation for federal and state-aided voca- 
tional education; organization of industrial schools 
and classes; surveys, publications, conferences. 
NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of 
travelers, especially women and girls. Non-sec- 
tarian. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S PEACE PARTY. Section 
for the United States of the International Com- 
mittee of Women for Permanent Peace — Mrs. 
Eleanor Daggett Karsten, office sec'y; Jane Addams, 
ch'n; 116 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago. The purpose 
of this organization is to enlist all American wom- 
en in arousing the nations to respect the sacred- 
ness of human life and to abolish war. 
NATIONAL WOMAN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. [roont 703], Chicago. Stands for self 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labor. 
NEW YORK SOCIAL HYGIENE SOCIETY 
(Formerly Society of Sanitary and Moral 
Prophylaxis) — Dr. James Pederson, sec'y; 105 W. 
40 St., New York. Seven educational pamphlets, 
10c. each. Four reprints, 5c. each. Dues — Ac- 
tive, $2; Contributing, $5; sustaining, $10. Mem- 
bership includes current and subsequent literature; 
selected bibliographies. Maintains lecture bureau 
and health exhibit. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASS'N OF 
AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1' Madison At., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 
RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
Dir., 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, South- 
ern Highland Division. 

SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION — Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. National clearing 
house for information on short ballot and com 
mission government, city manager plan, county 
government. Pamphlets free. 

TRAVELERS' AID SOCIETY— Orin C. Baker, 
gen'l sec'y; 465 Lexington Ave., New York. Pro- 
vides advice, guidance and protection to travelers, 
especially women and girls, who need assistance. 
It is non-sectarian and its services are free ir- 
respective of race, creed, class or sex. 
TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE — An institution for the 
training of Negro youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 
— Miss Mabel Cratty, general sec'y; 600 Lexington 
Ave., New York. To advance the physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county Associa- 
tions; hygiene and physical education; gymna- 
siums, swimming-pools and summer camps; rest- 
rooms, lunch-rooms and cafeterias; educational 
and business classes; employment bureaus; Bible 
study and vesper services; holiday homes; na- 
tional training school for secretaries; foreign 
work; war emergency work. 



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fthridge Posters. N.Y 



WAR DEPARTMENT and NAVY DEPARTMENi 
COMMISSIONS ON TRAINING C/^ ACIIViriES 

OFFICIALLY REP«ES£NT£0 IN 
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NOTICE TO READER 
When you finish reading this magazine 
place a one-cent stamp on this notice, hand 
same to any postal employe and it will be 
placed in the hands of our soldiers or sail- 
ors at the front. 
NO WRAPPING. NO ADDRESS 
A. S. Burleson, 
Postmaster General. 



SOTWEy 



Photo by courtesy Philadelphia Public Ledger 




w SS>*h. ( itS • 



THE CITIZENS OF THE NEW CITY — AN ARMY IN THE MAKING 



Our New Cities, the Army Cantonments 

By John Ihlder 

Making a Housing Conference Count 
Housing War Workers Health in Spite of War 

Social W elf are in Time of fVar and Disaster 

Christine McBride and Susan M. Kingsbury 



Price 10 Cents 



October 2J , IQIJ 





PAMPHLETS 





Pamphlets are isted once in this column 
•without charge. Later listing may be made 
under CURRENT PAMPHLETS {see page 
101). 

CIVIC AND RECREATION 

The City Manager Plan for Chicago. Draft 
of a bill for the reorganization of the municipal 
government, with explanatory statement. Pre- 
pared and presented for public consideration by 
the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency. 

Better Motion Pictures in Your Community; 
How to Obtain Them. National Committee 
for Better Films, 70 Fifth avenue., New York 
city. 10 cents. 

Developments of Ten Years In New York's Pro- 
bation Service. Address of President Homer 
Folks upon retiring from the State Probation 
Commission. State Probation Commission, Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

Inheritance of Stature. By Charles B Daven- 
port Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No 18, 
Cold Spring Harbor, N Y. 40 cents. 

EDUCATION 

Demand for Vocational Education in the Coun- 
tries at War. By Anna Tolman Smith, special- 
ist in foreign educational systems. Bulletin, 
1917, No. 36 of the Bureau of Education. 5 
cents, from Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Current Practice in City School, Adminis- 
tration. By W. S. Deffenbaugh, chief, division 
of school administration, Bureau of Education. 
Bulletin, 1917, No. 8, Bureau of Education. 15 
cents, from Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Some Effects of the Duplicate Schools. By 
Joseph S. Taylor, district superintendent of 
schools. Published by the Board of Education, 
New York city. 

HEALTH 

Pin Maps and Charts. (Notes on their use by 
health officers. By Gardner T. Swarts, Jr. 25 
cents. Educational Exhibition Company, Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Mental Health for Normal Children. By 
William H. Burnham. Massachusetts Society 
for Mental Hygiene, 1132 Kimball building, 
Boston. 

A Sanitary-Privy System for Unsewered Towns 
and Villages. By L. L. Lumsden. Public 
Health Bulletin No. 89, United States Public 
Health Service, Washington, D. C. 

Report on the Medical Organization of the 
Police Department of New York City B.v 
the Public Health Committee of the New 
York Academy of Medicine. Reprinted from 
the Medical Record, 51 Fifth avenue, New 
York city. 

LIVELIHOOD 

Graphic Exhibits on Food Conservation at 
Fairs and Expositions. United States Food 
Administration, Washington, D. C. 

Conservation of Fats. By Hermann T. Vulte. 
assistant professor of household chemistry. 
Teachers' College, Columbia University, New 
York. Emergency Committee of the American 
Home Economics Association, 19 West 44 street, 
New York city. 10 cents. 

Compilation of tue Laws of Minnesota Relat- 
ing to Children. William W. Hodson, direc- 
tor, Children's Bureau, State Board of Con 
trol, St. Paul. 

Cooperative Store Management. By William A. 
Kraus. Cooperative League of America, 70 
Fifth avenue, New York city. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Kids Is Kids. Bv Ellis Parker Butler. Public 
Welfare Committee, 50 E. 42 street, New York' 
city. 

The South to Have a Training School of So- 
cial Work and Public Health Nursing. By 
Henry H. Hibbs, Jr., director, Virginia School 
of Social Work, 1112 Capitol street, Richmond, 
Va. Reprinted from Social Sendee Review, 
August, 1917. 

Social Psychology. By Emory S. Bogardus, pro- 
fessor of sociology, University of Southern Cal- 
ifornia, Los Angeles. 

In the Shadow of the Underworld. By Alice 
D. Menken, 149 West 77 street. New York city. 

Race Suicide in the United States, III. By 
Warren S. Thompson. Reprinted from the 
Scientific Monthly. Science Press, Sub-Station 
84, New York city. 

The Second Liberty Loan of 1917. Bulletin No. 
17, Committee on Public Information, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



October 27, 1917 Vol. 39, No. 4 

THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 

U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 

secretary; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 

10 cents a copy; $3 a year; foreign 

postage $1.50, Canadian 75 cents. 

Copyright, 1917, by Survey Associates, 

Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 

25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 

N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 





CALENDAR OF 
CONFERENCES 





Items for the next calendar should reach the 
Survey before November 7. 

OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER 

Charities and Corrections, Kansas State Confer- 
ence. Emporia, October 29-30. Sec'y, G. M. 
Pfeiffer, Kansas City, Kan. 

Charities and Correction, Kentucky Conference 
of. Berea, Ky., November 10-12. Sec'y, Charles 
Strull, 531 S. First street, Louisville. 

Charities and Correction, New York State Con- 
ference of. Binghamton, Nov. 13-15. Sec'y, 
Richard W. Wallace, Drawer 17, Albany, N. Y. 

Charities and Correction, South Carolina Con- 
ference of. Aiken, S. C, November. Pres., 
Rev. K. G. Finlay, Columbia, S. C. 

Civic League, Massachusetts. November. Sec'y, 
Edward T. Hartman, 3 Joy street, Boston. 

Consumers' League, National. Baltimore, Md., 
November 14-15. Sec'y, Louise Cornell, 105 
East 22 street, New York City. 

Governmental Research Agencies, Association 
of. Detroit, November 21-24. Further informa- 
tion may be secured of Frederick P. Gruenberg, 
805 Franklin Bank Bldg., Philadelphia. 

Municipal League. National. Detroit, November 
21-24. Sec'y, Clinton Rogers Woodruff, North 
American Bldg., Philadelphia. 

Prisoners' Aid Association, National. New Or- 
leans, La., November 19-23. Sec'y, C. M. 
Thompson, Supt. Prison Association, Hartford, 
Conn. 

Prison Congress, American. New Orleans, La., 
November 19-23. Sec'y, Joseph P. Byers, 702 
Empire building, Philadelphia. 

Probation Officers, State Conference of. Bing- 
hamton, N. Y., November 11-13. Sec'y, Charles 
L. Chute, State Probation Commission, Albany. 

Recreation Congress of the Playground and 
Recreation Association of America. Milwau- 
kee, Wis., November 20-23. Sec'y, H. S. 
Braucher, 1 Madison avenue, New York city. 

Small and Subject Nationalities, League of. 
First Congress, New York, October 29-31. Sec'y, 
Marion A. Smith, 480 Central Park West, New 
York city. 

Social Work, Conference on. Maryland, Dela- 
ware and District of Columbia, Wilmington, 
Delaware, November 7-9. Sec'y, William H. 
Davenport, 105 Court House, Baltimore, Md. 

Social Welfare, Missouri Conference for. Jop- 
lin, November 18-20. Sec'y, J. L. Wagner, 
Columbia, Mo. 
Tuberculosis, sectional conferences on: 

Southern, Chattanooga, Tenn., November 9-10. 
Further information may be secured from Philip 
Jacobs, 105 East 22 street, New York city. 

LATER MEETINGS 

International 

Child Welfare, Pan-American Congress on. 
Montevideo, Uruguay, March 17-24, 1918. Sec'y, 
Edward N. Clopper', 105 East 22 street, New 
York city. 

National 

Social Work, National Conference of. Kansas 
City, Mo., May 15-22, 1918. Sec'y, W. T. 
Cross, 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. 

Sociological Society, American, Philadelphia, 
Pa., December 27-29. Sec'y, Scott E. W. Bed- 
ford, University of Chicago, Chicago. 



For classified advertisements of 
Coming Meetings, Periodicals and 
Current Pamphlets, see page 101. 



For France and the Faith. By Alfred Eugene 
Casalis. Association Press. 102 pp. Price, $.60; 
by mail of the Survey, $.66. 

Under the Highest Leadership. By John Doug- 
las Adam. Association Press. 135 pp. Price, 
$.60; by mail of the Survey, $.64. 

Thirty Studies About Jesus. By Edward In- 
crease Bosworth. Association Press. 180 pp. 
Price, $.50; by mail of the Survey, $.53. 

Applied Psychology. By H. L. Hollingworth 
and A. T. Poffenberger. D. Appleton & Co. 
337 pp. Price, $2.25; by mail of the Survey, 
$2.37. 

Psalms of the Social Life. By Cleland B. Mc- 
Afee. Association Press. 187 pp. Price, $.60; 
by mail of the Survey, $.65. 

The Calling of Boyman. By H. M. Burr. As- 
sociation Press. 143 pp. Price, $.50; by mail 
of the Survey, $.55. 

The Physical Effects of Smoking. By Dr. 
George J. Fisher and Elmer Berry. Associa- 
tion Press. 188 pp. Price, $1; by mail of the 
Survey, $1.10. 

Using the Resources of the Country Church. 
By Ernest R. Groves. Association Press. 152 
pp. Price, $.75; by mail of the Survey, $.83. 

Community Work. By Frank H. T. Ritchie. As- 
sociation Press. 102 pp. Price, $.75; by mail 
of the Survey, $.81. 

The Challenge of the Present Crisis. By 
Harry Emerson Fosdick. Association Press. 
99 pp. Price, $.50; by mail of the Survey, 
$.56. 

The Adventure of a Prodigal Father. By F. H. 
Cheley. Association Press. 132 pp. Price, 
$.50; by mail of the Survey, $.55. 

The Dynamic of Manhood. By Luther H. Gu- 
lick. Association Press. 158 pp. Price, $.75; 
by mail of the Survey, $.81. 

A Big Brother Investment. By F. H. Cheley. 
Association Press. 101 pp. Price, $.50; by 
mail of the Survey, $.55. 

The New Unionism. Second edition. By An- 
dre Tridon. B. W. Huebsch. 198 pp. Price. 
$1; by mail of the Survey, $1.10. 

The Angel of Christmas. By Stella G. S. Perry. 
Frederick A. Stokes. 112 pp. Price, $.75; by 
mail of the Survey, $.81. 

The Forfeit. By Ridgwell Cullum. George W. 
Jacob*. 371 pp. Price. $1.35; by mail at the 
Survey, $1.47. 

Records of the Life of Jesus. By Henry Bur- 
ton Sharman. Association Press. 319 pp. Price 
$2.50; by mail of the Survey. $2.70. 

Benefits Forgot. A story of Lincoln and Mother 
Love. Bv Honore Willsie. Frederick A. Stokes. 
80 pp. Price $.75; by mail of the Survey, $.81. 

Austria-Hungary, The Polygot Empire. By 
Wolf von Schierbrand. Frederick A. Stokes. 
351 pp. Price $3; by mail of the Survey, $3.15. 

Using the Bible in Public Address. By Ozora 
S. Davis. Association Press. 184 pp. Price 
$.75; by mail of the Survey, $.83. 

Geography of China. By Horatio Hawkins. 
Commercial Press. Shanghai. 86 pp. Price 
$.62; by mail of the Survey $.77. 

Outlines of Chinese History. By Li Ung Bing. 
Commercial Press, Shanghai. 644 pp. Price 
$3.72; by mail of the Survey $4.00. 

The Food of Working Women in Boston. Vol. 
10. Dept. of Research of Women's Educational 
and Industrial Union, publishers. 213 pp. Price 
$1; by mail of the Survey $1.10. 

The Challenge of Pittsburgh. By Daniel L. 
Marsh. Missionary Education Movement. 311 
pp. Price $.40 paper: $.60 cloth; by mail of 
the Survey $.50 or $.70. 

Woodrow Wilson and the World's Peace. By 
George D. Herron. Mitchell Kennerley. 173 
pp. Price $1 25; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 

The Right to Work. By J. Elliot Ross. Devan- 
Adair Co. 106 pp. Price $1; by mail of the 
Survey $1.10. 
Shakespearean Playhouses. By Joseph Quincy 
Adams. Houghton. Mifflin Co. 472 pp. Price 
$3.50: by mail of the Survey $3.65. 

Goon Houstng Th*t Pays. By Fullerton L. 
Waldo. Harper Press. 126 pp. Price, $1; by 
mail of the Survey, $1.10. 

Protestant Reformation and Its Influence. 
1517-1917. Addresses before General Assembly. 
Presbyterian Board of Publication. 150 pp. 
Price, $.75; by mail of the Survey, $.81. 

Russia In Transformation. Bv Arthur T. Brown. 
Fleming H. Revell Co. 190 pp. Price, $1; by 
mail of the Survey, $1.08. 

With the Children on Sundays. By Sylvanus 
Stall. Vir Publishing Co. 330 pp. Price, 
$1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.65. 

My Doctor Dog. By Edward A. Steiner. Flem- 
ing H. Revell Co. 64 pp. Price $.50; by mail 
of the Survey, $.55. 
The Disintf'-iatton or Islam. Bv Samuel M. 
Zwemer. Fleming H. Revell Co. 231 pp. 
Price, $1.25; by mail of the Survey, $1.37. 




Housing War Workers 

The New Committee Appointed to Recommend on Government Aid 



SECRETARY OF WAR BAKER, as chairman of 
the Council of National Defense, has appointed a com- 
mittee to study the housing needs of war workers and 
to make definite recommendations to the government 
concerning such steps as may be necessary to reduce overcrowd- 
ing in the neighborhood of new and extended plants engaged 
in government contract work. The chairman of this com- 
mittee is Otto M. Eidlitz, a builder, of New York. The other 
members are William J. Spencer, general secretary and treas- 
urer of the Building Trades Department of the American 
Federation of Labor, Theodore Robinson, first vice-president 
of the Illinois Steel Company, and Mrs. Finley J. Shepard, of 
New York. 

The appointment of this committee arose from hearings held 
two weeks ago by the advisory commission of the Council of 
National Defense on the appalling conditions of overcrowding 
which had been reported near many of the chief war-contract 
plants. A conference held by members of the committee on 
labor welfare of the council with members of Congress and 
certain labor officials endorsed a proposal that $100,000,000 
be appropriated by Congress to provide homes for workers in 
these plants. This recommendation was coupled with a plea 
for the creation of a federal housing commission, housing ad- 
ministration or other governmental body, permanent in char- 
acter and possessing broad administrative powers. 

Charles H. Whitaker, editor of the Journal of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, made the first definite proposal 
for immediate action. His plan, which is now under consid- 
eration by the new committee, includes the proposal for the 
large Congressional appropriation just mentioned. It is 
founded largely upon British experience during the present 
war and calls for the granting by Congress to the President of 
the power to expropriate land for housing purposes and build- 
ings now serving other purposes which might be converted into 
dwellings of a suitable character, to regulate rents for in- 
dustrial housing, for boarding houses and canteens, and to pro- 
vide for the financing of building operations. 

Mr. Whitaker presented three alternative or complementary 
proposals for the financial operation. The first is the advanc- 
ing of government funds to owners of industrial plants to build 
houses and rent them to their employes. The second is the 
loaning of money at low rates — on a plan similar to that of 
the federal farm loans — to groups of workers who are ready 



The Survey, October 27, 1917, Volume 39, No. 4. 112 East 19 Street, New York city 



to build homes. The third is the outright purchase of land 
and construction of houses by the government. 

The ownership and administration of industrial settlements 
by the government itself has the special advantage, in his opin- 
ion, that it enables a large scale improvement of public utili- 
ties and the provision of parks, of lighting and other services, 
as well as the employment of trained organizers of community 
life among the tenants. The difficulties, on the other hand, 
are so serious that the government is almost certain to adopt 
one of the other alternatives in the bill which is to be intro- 
duced in the next session of Congress. 

In presenting his plan to the conference, Mr. Whitaker in- 
cidentally declared that he deemed the emergency too pressing 
for any possibility of meeting it by a scheme of voluntary co- 
operative house-building without government aid. A large 
employer present held that the formation of cooperative so- 
cieties which would tend to make home-owners of the workers 
should be encouraged. At this, Frank Morrison, secretary 
of the American Federation of Labor, protested that organized 
labor would not give up its long established opposition to any 
plan which would tie the worker down to one locality and 
thereby reduce his freedom to strike against oppressive condi- 
tions of employment in his immediate neighborhood. 

The issue thus drawn is likely to run through much of the 
further discussions of this problem when it comes before Con- 
gress next winter. Organized labor will prefer government 
housing, and even company housing, to increased individual 
ownership which tends to hold men to their jobs. Mr. Whit- 
aker expressed the view that any system of house tenancy is 
only a temporary expedient at best, and that the solution of 
the problem of economic freedom must precede a permanent 
solution of the housing problem. Until the labor movement 
has so far won its struggle as to feel secure in encouraging 
the individual worker to settle down in a given locality and 
to buy a home, the best that can be done is to apply palliatives 
to the trouble. 

The immediate evil of congestion around the war-contract 
plants has also been considered by a war industries housing 
committee of the National Housing Association ; and in view 
of its unanimity on the main questions, Mr. Eidlitz has in- 
vited its members to act as advisers to the committee of which 
he has just been made chairman ; they are Grosvenor Atter- 
bury, of New York, chairman ; Frederick Law Olmsted and 

83 



84 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1917 



John Nolen, of Cambridge, Mass. ; and Laurence Veiller, of 
New York. This committee does not consider it advisable 
that the government should invest as an owner in industrial 
housing. 

"Even if the government were to recognize proper housing 
as a legitimate item to be included in general plant invest- 
ment," says Mr. Atterbury, "and consequently pay interest 
thereon, either directly or in the price of the product pur- 
chased, it is practically impossible today to get the capital." 

The chief difficulty, in his opinion, is that companies which 
would be willing to invest the necessary capital are quite un- 
able to raise it at anything like a rate which would pay costs, 
not to speak of the moderate return of 2 or 3 per cent which 
in the past has usually been expected. One development, in 
which he acted as consultant, recently had to stop entirely, 
though the building of three thousand houses had been con- 
templated. Similar action has been taken in relation to many 
other industrial housing developments and extensions. Mr. 
Atterbury said : 

If it were not for this proven difficulty of getting funds, the whole 
problem would be simply and easily solved, in my judgment, by the 
recognition of the government that to a certain extent the housing 
of the laborer is a part of the plant cost. This, of course, is true 
and generally recognized in the case of mines, merely because in 
that case there are usually no communities upon which the burden 
of supplying the housing can be put. Under this system it would 
simply remain to determine the difference between the normal in- 
terest rate to which industrial housing investments are entitled or 
required to attract capital in the open market and the actual net 
interest returned on housing such as is required by the labor situa- 
tion today under the present scale of construction prices. 

Roughly speaking, I think it safe to assume that such net return, 
after proper deduction for physical depreciation, would run between 
2 and 3 per cent. Under normal conditions, but of course varying 
with the locality in the country, funds for this type of investment 
might be attracted at 5 or 6 per cent. The government would, there- 
fore, have to allow the difference of 2 or 3 per cent on all such 
housing developments as were requisite to stabilize and render effi- 
cient labor required in the products demanded for its use. 

The only other important factors which, I think, would have to 
be determined would be the rate of deterioration and the consequent 
sinking fund to be provided, and the amount of housing fairly 
chargeable in each instance as a result of the government's demands 
for production. 

As a matter of fact, however, I am convinced that in the present 
emergency this plan would fail because capital cannot be found at 
anything but an exorbitant rate. It would be cheaper for the gov- 
ernment to lend the capital at the rate mentioned above — from 2 to 3 
per cent — for such housing as it required rather than pay the 7 or 8 
per cent difference between the actual rate of earnings and the very 
high rate of return necessary to secure capital in the open market. 

In view of this recommendation to lend government funds 
at a low rate of interest directly to employers of labor for the 
construction of houses, it is important to note that the British 
government, which in the past liberally financed housing enter- 
prise in other ways, has found itself compelled to supplement 
those other methods by such direct lending. Side by side with 



large loans to public utility housing societies which undertake 
the housing of munition workers but look upon their develop- 
ments as permanent in character — limited in profit and sub- 
ject to a number of regulations — and with loans to municipal- 
ities, the British treasury now lends directly to individual 
firms, usually at the current rate of interest charged these 
other bodies, 5 per cent, and for a period of forty years. 

"Some of these private concerns," John Nolen told the Na- 
tional Housing Association conference in Chicago, "are per- 
mitted to charge a portion of the increase on the cost of build- 
ing due to war conditions to that part of the profit which, 
through taxation, would have gone to the government. In 
other instances, a contribution of a part of the capital cost of 
building is made by the state to certain local authorities. In 
all cases, however, this contribution is less than the estimated 
increase due to war conditions." 

One source of revenue towards housing enterprise in Great 
Britain which sometimes assumes substantial proportions is the 
assessment of the increment in neighboring land values due to 
the housing development. This was especially contributory, a 
speaker at the Washington meeting explained, to the financing 
of the fine model tenements of the London County Council. 

Owing to the lack of housing enterprise during the war 
and the congestion resulting, especially in war industry 
centers, the problem of rising rents in Great Britain became 
acute, as it tends to become here. Responding to the demands 
of the Labor Party, says the People's News Service, Parlia- 
ment has passed an act which outlaws any and every claim for 
rents over and above the amount charged on August 3, 1914. 
If the house was empty on that date, the rent charged the last 
previous tenant, if it was first rented on any susbequent date, 
the rent charged the first tenant is allowed. Increases of rent 
already paid can be recovered by tenants for the period be- 
tween November 25, 1915, and the date of the amending act, 
July 10, 1917. 

This new law, in London, is limited in its application to 
houses renting up to $175 a year, or approximately $12 a 
month — accommodation which in the large American cities 
would rent at from $20 to $30 a month. In Scotland the limit 
is set at rents of $150 a year; in England (outside London), 
Wales and Ireland at rents of $130 a year. This law does 
not apply to rents including charges for board, attendance or 
use of furniture. A landlord is not allowed to increase the 
rent on account of decorations or of ordinary repairs; nor 
can he legally ask the tenant to do repairs formerly done by 
himself. Except for non-payment of rent and under other spe- 
cified exceptional circumstances, evictions are prohibited. A 
bonus paid in order to secure a house, or "key money," can be 
deducted by the tenant from the first rent paid. 



Health in Spite of War —and Because of It 



WAR. Unmistakably war. No sign of wounds, 
no sound of guns, very little display of bunting 
here in the capital. Nevertheless, a stern tension 
is in the air, and from ever-new angles the fact 
strikes across your consciousness — war. 

A speaker announced for a convention meeting fails to 
appear ; he was called to a conference of the General Medical 
Board. A uniformed and determined attendant ushers you 
away from the room in which you supposed the convention 
would meet; that place has been taken by the government for 
the offices of the new Soldiers' Compensation and Insurance 



Bureau. War and the preparations therefor — military, 
economic, commercial, medical or philanthropic — -these are 
the theme of table-talk and platform address. No excitement. 
But an exceeding alertness. Even word of the first lost 
transport meant, apparently, after the quick breath of sym- 
pathy, just a steadying of nerve, a tighter grip on the task. 

All of which explains at once two things about the Ameri- 
can Public Health Convention, just adjourned in Washing- 
ton: First, the theme, War and Health; second, the remark- 
able degree to which present conditions are furthering the 
health movement through the world. Physicians, health offi- 



THE SU RV EY FOR OCTOBER 27 , 19 17 



85 



cers, educators, military and naval officers, munition manufac- 
turers, social workers, and citizens in general — more than 700 
all told — have been considering during the four days of the 
convention, what ought to be done to keep soldier and civilian 
alike in health. 

Military medical problems were not more acutely felt than 
those of rural sanitation. The newest truth of science — the 
discovery of mixed typhoid infection — will be applied alike by 
motor ambulances on "the field" and by health trains (a two- 
year-old name for precisely the same thing) in the country. 
And this range is geographical as well as topical — the new 
president of the association being a Canadian, Dr. C. J. Hast- 
ings, health officer of Toronto ; the vice-presidents come from 
Washington, D. C. (Dr. George A. Kober), Mexico (Dr. 
Manuel S. Iglesias) and Iowa (Dr. G. H. Sumner). 

There was so little formal or staged that the meeting de- 
serves the name conference rather than that of convention. 
But the two addresses by Surgeon-General Gorgas, the thrill- 
ing story told by Surgeon-Major Edward Rist of the French 
Scientific Commission, how the French army doctors low- 
ered the sickness incidence from 6,000 to 20 ; and the serious 
earnestness of Herbert C. Hoover's insistence upon a wise care 
in the use of foods — these were clearly high lights. 

That Gorgas gave the world Panama is the fact which out- 
shines even his present eminent position and urgent responsi- 
bilities. And applause split the air when the surgeon-general 
of the United States army arose, and kept him awaiting his 
turn to speak until the audience had freed its mind concerning 
him. His first address was informal ; a greeting to the con- 
vention with a bit of reminiscence of yellow fever days. But 
at the joint conference of the Public Health and Social 
Hygiene Associations, Gorgas focused his remarks on venereal 
diseases — the "greatest single cause of disability in the army 
today." Could a military surgeon be given his choice between 
the elimination of all wounds or all venereal disease, Surgeon- 
General Gorgas believed he would not hesitate to say, take 
away venereal disease and we shall save time even though we 
have all the wounds to treat. And he believed that the cam- 
paign against yellow fever had for this later campaign against 
venereal disease an important analogy. For even after they 
knew surely that the mosquito carried yellow fever, they 
thought they were doing much when they screened the houses. 
But the mosquitoes still got in, and cases of yellow fever still 
occurred. And then they went for the mosquito swamps and 
breeding places — to the amazement and incredulity of not a 
few people. And presently the cases stopped. So in the in- 
stance of venereal disease, don't stop at "screening;" go after 
the "mosquitoes" — depend upon not remedial measures only, 
but upon education, public opinion and moral reform. The 
new attitude of women toward this evil was a great influence. 

Vividly Surgeon-Major Rist told of the French army at the 
opening days of the war — hours, rather, since the first warning 
came at 4 o'clock of an afternoon, and at 1 o'clock that night 
the muster began. "You must always remember the sudden- 
ness of the onset," said Major Rist. "We had not time for 
training; we did not dream of making physical examinations; 
only those were examined who said they were sick— and they 
were very few." In a month France Tiad an army of three 
millions. Inevitably the sickness and death rates were high. 
There was necessity for reorganization. But yet, in spite of 
so grave a disadvantage, both morbidity and mortality rates 
had decreased to a marvelous degree (charts illustrating this 
will appear in a later issue of the Survey). Epidemics of 
dysentery, typhus, cholera, such as were reported from Ger- 
many, Austria and Serbia, were averted from the French army. 



Especially significant was Major Rist's report on typhoid, 
the subject of his special research at home. Curious instances 
have frequently been reported in which inoculation apparently 
failed to protect, or even increased susceptibility, if not caus- 
ing the disease. The explanation rapidly winning acceptance 
is that of a "mixed infection," paratyphoid as well as typhoid 
often being present. Safety, therefore, evidently lies solely in 
protection against organisms causing both diseases. Sure, safe, 
rapid means to this end are being sought in many laboratories. 

Whether one really understands the words that fill one's 
ears these days about calories, vitamines and what not, this 
much is clear: People may well eat less, save more; eat 
sensibly, avoid waste. "We have been too long comfortable," 
said Mr. Hoover, as he attempted to give his idea of the food 
situation and its relation to economics and to health.. Instead 
of sending one hundred and twenty-five million bushels of 
grain abroad as usual, America is undertaking to send one 
and one-quarter billion bushels. And sugar and meat "must 
be shipped whether or no." Further, the grave increase of 
nutritional diseases at home adds weight to a movement for 
wiser eating. Belgium reduced its tuberculosis death-rate by 
giving more fats to adolescent children. 

The convention paid tribute to Mr. Hoover by unanimously 
electing him to honorary membership and appointing a com- 
mittee to inform him of this election and to assure him of the 
support of public health workers in his vast undertaking. 

A very clever arrangement was that which brought into the 
closing hour of the convention the chairmen of all sections, 
who summarized the work of the several conferences. These 
summaries brought members of each group in touch with the 
work of all. They showed how great was the responsibility 
already laid upon the public health movement by war. They 
showed, too, how practical was the trend of all discussion — 
not of problems per se, but of the surest way of meeting them, 
and applying scientific knowledge to social weal. Pass then 
again in review the sections on laboratory work, vital statistics 
and the rest: 

That citizens and physicians should know the value of lab- 
oratories and demand a wider use of them for tests of all kinds 
was the verdict of the first section. Such wider use would 
aid in quickly determining infections, would furnish data for 
the vexed questions of duration of quarantine, detection of 
carriers and other matters as important to civil as to military 
health. 

From the division of vital statistics comes one of the most 
far-reaching plans of the whole meeting, one that is hardly 
to be described briefly. At this time, it may suffice to say 
that already in some states — notably California — an inter- 
change of reports takes place between civil and military health 
authorities, that cases of disease barring men from service may 
be kept under care, whether easily correctable or, as tubercu- 
losis, calling for longer treatment and possibly for economic 
readjustment, such as change of kind or locality of work. 
There is opportunity for valuable follow-up work for cases of 
tuberculosis, venereal disease, trachoma, etc., found during 
examination of men under the selective service regulations. 

The section of public health administration had three impor- 
tant symposiums: On health work in rural districts, at which 
were discussed such plans of cooperation between several little 
towns as the "Wellesley plan," and the similar work in Illi- 
nois and California; the state "health district," irrespective of 
political boundaries, with its full-time supervising officer, and 
the North Carolina "unit plan," whereby a section of the 
state decides which of several pieces of work it wishes to do 
first, and has the assistance of a "unit" from the state 



86 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1917 



department to start that thing, be it child welfare, public 
health nursing, or clean-up of milk or water supply. A second 
symposium was that on educational methods. The value of 
spot maps and charts as a relief from the printed page was 
urged by Dr. John W. Trask, United States Public Health 
Service, and the necessity — shown by Dr. Ira S. Wile, of 
New York — of adapting language and symbols to school usage 
if successful health education was to be carried on through 
the schools. Moving pictures were said by Dr. C. F. Bold- 
uan, of the New York Department of Health, to be less sat- 
isfactory as a means of instruction because people at a "movie 
show" were in a mood for entertainment, not instruction. 

The third symposium was in joint session with the American 
Social Hygiene Association, on "control of venereal disease in 
army, navy and civil community." A remarkable record was 
quoted by Colonel Russell for the first week of the new army. 
At that time the incidence rate in the regulars was 85 per 
thousand; in the National Guard, just called out, 144 per 
thousand; in the new army, 193 per thousand, a bad com- 
mentary on conditions in the civil population. That the 
navy had forbidden the further use of "prophylactic packages," 
relying instead on education, scientific and moral, and com- 
pulsory treatment, was reported by Surgeon Holcomb, of the 
Navy. The special efforts of the Y. M. C. A. in training 
camps, told by Raymond B. Fosdick, have already been an- 
nounced in the Survey. 

It was no effort for the section on industrial hygiene to 
make war industries the most prominent feature of its pro- 
gram, for the manufacture of explosives and the loading of 
shells are not only industries full of danger to the workmen, 
but they are unfamiliar and need all the light that can be 
thrown on them by British industrial physicians and by the 
few Americans who have had experience in this field. Most 
of those who took part in the discussions on industrial poison- 
ing in the manufacture of explosives are members of the com- 
mittee appointed under the Council of National Defense to 
draft regulations for safeguarding workers in this industry. 

The final meeting of the sections consisted in an all-day 
symposium with representatives of manufacturing campaigns, 
during which the rules the committee had formulated were 
presented and criticized. Briefly stated, these rules provide not 
only for mechanical safeguards against the escape of poisonous 
dusts and fumes, but for adequate medical supervision, for an 
eight-hour day, prohibition of employment of workers under 
eighteen years of age and for proper instruction of workers in 
the dangers to be faced and the way to avoid them. These 
rules when complete will probably be adopted by the labor 
departments of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, two states 
which together are said to produce at least 60 per cent of the 
whole output of explosives and loaded shells. 

There is no prohibition of women's employment in this code 
of standards, since there seems no reason to believe that women 
suffer more from the poisons in question than men do ; and 
there is certainly no reason why they should not face the 
risk of sickness and of crippling from explosives as well as men. 
The subject of women's work was taken up at a meeting ad- 
dressed by Josephine Goldmark, at which Dr. F. S. Lee, of 
Columbia; P. Sargent Florence, who worked for the British 
Health of Munition Workers' Committee; and E. L. Scott, 
of Columbia, discussed industrial fatigue. Much of the 
material dealt with by them has been gathered by the Com- 
mittee on Fatigue, of which Dr. Lee is executive secretary, 
and, though of great value and interest, is too technical to be 
given here. 

Miss Goldmark's paper was on the replacement of men by 



women in war industries. The impression left on the listener 
was that this readjustment, so vitally important from every 
point of view, is at present proceeding along haphazard lines 
without any attempt at systematic guidance. One wonders 
whether it is not possible for some of the committees appointed 
in the interests of women to undertake a survey of war in- 
dustries and to recommend some as fit for women and brand 
others as unfit. Miss Goldmark spoke of women now acting 
as freight-handlers, as carriers in glassworks, as foundry 
workers, pushing scrap-iron in wheelbarrows up an inclined 
plane, piling lumber in yards, while at the same time work 
requiring little or no muscular strain is still done by men. 
She suggested that women might well displace men as shoe- 
salesmen, as floor-walkers and in the elevated and subway 
ticket-offices. Especially she deplored the entrance of young 
girls into the messenger service, work already recognized as 
morally dangerous for boys. 

The discussion revealed the fact that there are no stand- 
ards for use in determining the weight which women should 
be allowed to handle. The association of foundry owners has 
adopted an arbitrary limit of twenty-five pounds for women. 
Probably it must be a matter for industrial physicians to deter- 
mine and the amount a woman may be allowed to lift must be 
decided by physical examination before she begins work. 

In addition to occupations involving great muscular strain, 
the poisonous industries were discussed, and it was agreed 
that since lead is more poisonous to women than to men and 
lead poisoning in the mother shows its effects upon her chil- 
dren, the employment of women exposing them to lead should 
be forbidden. Apparently lead is the only poison of 
which this may be said with certainty, though Dr. Alfred 
Stenger mentioned the possibility that as alcoholism in the 
mother injures the offspring more than alcoholism in the 
father, the same thing may prove to be true of other volatile 
poisons. 

A representative of the Department of Labor of Penn- 
sylvania stated that his state and New Jersey had adopted a 
code which opens to women positions formerly closed to them, 
but factories must apply for permits and these are given only 
after inspection. They have tentatively decided on fifteen 
pounds as the maximum weight for a woman to handle if the 
work involves continual lifting. Women are barred from 
the lead trades. 

This question is of such great moment, economically, so- 
cially and in view of the health of this generation and the 
coming one, that it seems worthy of a conference dealing with 
it alone. A great blunder will be committed if the question is 
left to be worked out simply by those who seek employment 
and those who seek workers. 

Other events crowd into one's page — the startling tubercu- 
losis survey in Chicago, advance report of which, given by 
Dr. John Dill Robertson, showed in the given region 44 per 
cent of the population in some stage of tuberculosis. The 
"extra-cantonment zones" and their supervision by the United 
States Public Health Service will be described in a later article 
in the Survey; also the new "sanitary service" of the Red 
Cross on duty; so, too, the fine development of psychiatric 
clinics, at the army camps and cantonments, under the general 
direction of Major Pearce Bailey, of New York. 

Called upon to close a long discussion, Dr. C. V. Chapin 
responded with a bit of sage and epigrammatic advice with 
which we will close this sketch of the convention : "You've 
heard it all," said Dr. Chapin. "Go home and get to work on 
Monday morning!" 

G. S. 



Making a Housing Conference Count 



THE sixth National Conference on Housing in Amer- 
ica, held in Chicago, October 15-17, marked what 
seemed to many of the delegates the culminating 
point for these conferences as at present arranged. 
The delegates from out of town registered by the afternoon of 
the last day numbered 159 and represented fifteen states. This 
is a very good showing. The Chicagoans who registered num- 
bered 314, the best showing that any convention city has yet 
made, for it does not include the members of the Chamber 
of Commerce, who packed the large ball room of the Hotel 
LaSalle at the luncheon session when Lawson Purdy, of New 
York, speaking on zoning, gave perhaps the ablest, certainly 
the most skilfully presented address of the conference. The 
success of this year's conference may be attributed primarily 
to two factors: a program which dealt very largely with prob- 
lems that are acute in many of our industrial centers and with 
the National Army cantonments; and the effective work of the 
local committee. Superficially, then, the conference was a 
great success and might be thought to presage even greater suc- 
cess for future meetings. But beneath the surface there were 
indications that it marked the highest point under its present 
policy. 

Those who have followed the housing conferences from 
the beginning know that they are now in the second stage of 
their development. The first conference, held in New York, 
in 1911, was that of a small group of enthusiasts, "reformers" 
who looked to New York for guidance and for the lessons of 
experience. Other cities had done things, but New York domi- 
nated. And New York's great contribution was in the en- 
actment and enforcement of its tenement-house law. 

New York's dominance carried over to the second confer- 
ence, held in Philadelphia the year following. But already 
there was discontent, and at Philadelphia those interested 
primarily in construction and management organized an in- 
formal little conference of their own. The demand for dis- 
cussion on these subjects was so strong that at the third con- 
ference section meetings for them were provided on the pro- 
gram. So great was their popularity that later they were 
given places at the general meetings ; and at last year's meeting 
in Providence they threatened, what this year they achieved, 
to become the principal subjects of discussion. 

On the first evening in Chicago the subjects were Housing 
as a War Problem, i.e., how shall we finance and build and 
manage the new houses needed immediately in many industrial 
centers, and What Employers Have Done to House Their 
Employes in the United States. On the second evening, the 
subject was The Housing of the Single Worker. Under this 
were The Housing of the New Army and Bunk Houses, 
Boarding Houses and Labor Camps, both dealing with con- 
struction. The first afternoon session also was given chiefly 
to construction, together with papers on law enforcement and 
on health. Each morning there were two section meetings, 
one on construction and one on health. Chicago presented a 
unique program on what Chicagoans thought of it — the house 
as seen by a physician, by a settlement resident, by a worker 
with delinquent children and by a friend of the Negro. Some- 
what of a relief from the more technical discussions at other 
sessions, these short addresses were interpretive of the vision 
that inspires the housing worker, and two of them at least rose 
to the level of real eloquence. 

But with all this there was, as at Philadelphia, discontent, 
voiced by two groups. One of them felt that the conference 
had swung too far toward new construction and was leaving 



out of account those problems that for many years to come 
must concern the social worker in the older, neglected, poverty- 
stricken sections of our cities. The' other group was that 
which came for definite guidance on questions of construction 
and management only to hear one man in relating his experi- 
ence contradict much that a predecessor had just said. A man- 
ufacturer from Ohio complained bitterly on this score at one 
of the section meetings, and the only comfort that could be 
given him was that factors in the problems of the two speakers 
had been different or the emphasis different, and that the solu- 
tion reached by either of them would probably not fit his case. 

So the housing conference, like the city planning conference, 
apparently has reached a stage in its development when it 
must definitely provide for two groups of people, neither of 
whom is satisfied at present. It must have sessions where 
housing in general is discussed, where its principles and pur- 
poses are iterated and reiterated, where its relation to other 
social work is set forth; this for the workers in allied fields, 
for that public which each year produces new recruits who 
must learn the first lessons. 

Then the conference must provide for the specialists to 
whom such iteration and reiteration has become a weariness. 
This purpose the section meetings were designed to serve, but 
this year's program shows that the purpose has not been kept 
in mind. Instead of becoming more technical, of more value 
to the specialists for whose benefit they were created, the line 
between them and the general sessions has been broken down 
until there is no obvious reason why a paper should be pre- 
sented in one rather than in the other. The only result has 
been to make possible the crowding of more papers on the 
program. 

When the sections were started it was necessary to have 
the discussions based upon individual experience. There were 
but few people in the country really interested in housing who 
had had practical experience. By gathering together those 
who were dealing with construction and management and 
starting one of them off, the others by question and answer 
were able to check up. But the auditor part of the section 
meetings has grown to such an extent that the old informal 
discussion is no longer practicable. At the same time, the num- 
ber who have had practical experience has multiplied. More- 
over, they have had so little touch with each other that they 
don't always give the same meanings to words, or they take for 
granted things others do not know of, and so talk at cross 
purposes, or they present again much the same material that 
has been given at previous conferences. 

Apparently, the best way to meet this situation is to put the 
program for the section meetings into the hands of a housing 
institute — not such housing institutes as have been held dur- 
ing the past three years, informal, unorganized discussions that 
lead nowhere despite the interest they arouse, but an institute 
organized for serious study and research. The papers pre- 
sented at the section meetings would then no longer represent 
merely the knowledge and opinion of one man, but the con- 
clusions of a committee whose members see their subject from 
several points of view, who have checked each other up, and 
who consequently can present conclusions of more general 
value. 

Two years ago the organization of such a housing institute 
would probably have been impossible. Today, unless it or some 
other method is found of producing in usable form information 
and conclusions of practical value to the specialists, their in- 
terest in the annual conference will decline. J. I. 

87 




A GENERAL VIEW OF CAMP MEADE 



Our New Cities 

The Cantonments of the National Army 
an Achievement of the City Planners 

By John Ihlder 

SECRETARY PHILADELPHIA HOUSING ASSOCIATION 



THREE months ago there were in the United 
States some eighty cities of from 30,000 to 50,000 
population. Today the number is increased by 
nearly one-half. The eighty cities were the result 
of slow development, most of them "growed" like Topsy 
without plan or guidance. Their sites were chosen with 
little thought for the health of their people. By slow and 
sometimes painful degrees they acquired sewer systems and 
water works of which a considerable proportion of their 
citizens have not yet taken advantage. Through private 
benevolence and the receipts from tag days they acquired 
hospitals that more or less meet modern standards. Mean- 
while, year by year, they added to the number of their 
dwellings. Some of these, whether cottages or mansions, 
are all that dwellings should be; healthful, comfortable, ade- 
quate. But many are insanitary shacks and hovels, or 
crowded, ill-lighted and unventilated court houses and tene- 
ments. 

The new cities are different. Their sites were chosen pri- 
marily because of their healthfulness. Instead of growing 
without plan or guidance they were carefully planned before 
a spade full of earth was turned. Their sewer and water sys- 
tems preceded the construction of dwellings and serve every 
dwelling. Their hospitals are on a scale far more generous 
than that of their eighty predecessors and are modern through- 
out. All their dwellings are surrounded by wide open spaces 
and the walls are half of windows so that sun and air may 
enter freely. These are the cantonments in which the soldiers 
of America are being trained. 

Besides the national guard camps in the South, there are 
now nearing completion sixteen of these cities for the national 
army and three embarkation camps. The smallest of the for- 
mer will, when the draft is completed, contain more than 
35,000 people, the largest about 50,000. Each of them fol- 
lows, so far as the topography permits, one general plan, a 

88 



gigantic U that covers about six square miles. At the base of 
the U is the railroad along which lie the store-houses. From 
them on either side extend the two long lines of barracks, 
officers' quarters and other buildings. The space between the 
wings of the U is an open area, perhaps a thousand or twelve 
hundred feet wide. In this open area, which may be the banks 
of a stream, are the headquarters buildings and the civic center. 
Here will probably be the cantonment theater, the cantonment 
library, and the largest Y. M. C. A. building. Other smaller 
Y. M. C. A. buildings are being erected for each brigade. 
For each regiment there is a post exchange. At the entrance 
to the cantonment is the "hostess house" under the manage- 
ment of the Y. W. C. A., a meeting place for the soldiers and 
the women of their families. The Knights of Columbus too 
will have a number of buildings in each cantonment. Be- 
yond the end of one of the wings is the hospital, a village in 
itself, built on the cottage system. 

This is the general plan, and both in general and in detail 
it is one of the fruits of the city planning movement. For- 
tunately for America, city planning had won popular approval 
before this emergency came upon us. San Francisco at the 
time of its catastrophe had just received copies of Burnham's 
plan for its future and these were still in a warehouse where 
the flames destroyed them. Their value unrecognized, the city 
was rebuilt as it had been and its great opportunity lost. In 
the years since then we have learned the value of comprehen- 
sive plans. 

Two days after the secretary of war had created the Can- 
tonment Division of the Quartermaster Corps and given it 
charge of designing the cantonments, Frederick Law Olmsted, 
president of the American City Planning Institute, was ap- 
pointed a member of the Committee on Emergency Construc- 
tion of the Council of National Defense. Colonel Littell, 
head of the Cantonment Division, asked for and largely fol- 
lowed the advice of the Emergency Construction Committee in 



THE SU RF EY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1 9 17 



89 



organizing, expanding and securing personnel for his division. 
The committee also called to Washington a number of tech- 
nical advisers on city planning, housing, water supply, sanita- 
tion and other related subjects who aided in the preparation 
of plans. Major Whitson and Major Gunby were called 
from civil life, the former to take charge of construction, the 
latter of design and engineering. Under Major Gunby are 
Major Wheaton, in charge of building and design, and George 
Gibbs, Jr., consultant of the Boston City Planning Board, 
in charge of plans for the general layout. All the planning 
was not done in Washington, however, but it was decentral- 
ized as much as practicable and study of the design for water 
supply, sewage disposal and general layout assigned as early 
as possible to boards which would adapt them to local condi- 
tions. The result was the development of so practical and 
economical a plan that the Washington correspondent of one 
of the great dailies, commenting upon the deficiencies in some 
of the bureaus, adds, 

It is generally conceded in Washington that the best practical 
brains at the government's disposal are concentrated in the canton- 
ment division of the War Department, which is responsible for the 
construction of the cantonments. By their handling of this great task, 
which required the work of twelve times as many men per week as 
the Panama Canal at its busiest, these men have proved themselves 
practical builders of the first order. 

Incidentally it may be added that the cantonments have 
cost more than a third as much as the Panama Canal, and 
that when the total of all the construction costs in connection 
with training our soldiers is compiled it will overshadow the 
cost of the great waterway. 

But it is not in Washington alone that the "practical 
brains" which have learned to plan before building are em- 
ployed. Take Camp Meade at Admiral, Md., for example. 
There the supervising engineer in charge of sanitation is 
Morris Knowles, who for years past has not only had charge 
of large municipal projects, but has been employed by the 
United States Steel Corporation, by lumber companies in the 
South, and manufacturing companies in the East, to plan and 
build the systems of sanitation that make our newer indus- 
trial villages among the most healthful communities in the 
world. Three years ago he sent his chief assistant to Europe 
to learn what the garden cities there had to teach America. 
Today that assistant has charge at the national guard camp at 
Anniston, Ala. Under Mr. Knowles at Camp Meade are 
engineers loaned him by cities and companies he has served, 
and his knowledge of where to go for these men, his ability 
to secure their services, are not the least items in his value 
to the nation. For in the field of sanitary engineering this 
emergency is putting our national resources to a severe test. 
Our cities can ill spare these men at a time when expansion 
of industry makes imperative extension of work at home, so 
the borrowed men are constantly recalled and new ones must 
be found to take their places. 

Careful planning has reduced the length of sewer and of 
water mains in each cantonment to approximately twenty 
miles. In Camp Meade the sewers are eighteen miles long; 
in others somewhat longer because a more broken surface 
made increased length less expensive than deeper cuts. In 
some cantonments, as at Ayer, Mass., Yaphank, L. I., Battle 
Creek, Mich., and Ft. Riley, Kansas, electric pumping sta- 
tions for sewage have been necessary. At ten cantonments the 
sewage is purified by septic tanks, filters or sand beds. At all 
the water is obtained from a source beyond suspicion or is 
purified. 

The problem put before the planners last spring was easy 
to state: How shall we lay out a given area and plan the 



buildings on it so that they will provide for some thirty thou- 
sand soldiers in the most wholesome, economical and prac- 
tical way and in the shortest time? But the answer involved 
considerations not only of military needs in the way of space 
for company and squad drills as well as for the larger units up 
to the whole division, not only of those questions of transpor- 
tation and distribution which still make the cost of living 
unnecessarily high in the older cities, but also such details as 
whether tin wash-basins shall be permitted ; for the lack of 
basins will make necessary the pumping of some extra millions 
of gallons of water, while the use of basins may spread disease 
and so prove far more expensive. 

Expense has been considered from the beginning, despite 
stories told in Washington, as that of the patriot who finally 
forced his way to the head of a bureau to explain a method 
of his devising which would cut down expense. 

"How much will it save?" asked the bureau chief. 

"Seventy million dollars a year," proclaimed the patriot, 
only to be told to "go talk to the janitor and not disturb those 
who are busy." 

There is no doubt that the word "million" has lost much 
of its impressiveness during the past few months and is no 
longer considered a perfectly round figure, but those who 
planned the cantonments have realized as clearly as does the 
retail merchant that totals are multiples of many small items. 
There must be streets in the cantonments capable of bearing 
the heaviest traffic continuously, great motor trucks in con- 
stant stream. Such roads cost. So two parallel roads were 
built (a less expensive one for lighter traffic) running from 
the base of the U out each wing, which together provide ade- 
quately for the city's transportation. Then the buildings were 
placed so that each road would serve a maximum number, so 
reducing its length ; for every mile saved on the plan meant 
sixteen miles saved in the sixteen cantonments. 

There was another reason for economy. The original 
appropriations were not sufficient. Even these new cities 
suffer under a handicap common to the older ones — there is 
not money available for all that is desired. This has not 
been wholly bad in its results: it has forced those who desired 
certain things to prove their case. One good result has been 
the construction of the more economical two-story barracks in 
place of the single-story ones adopted for the officers' train- 
ing camps and at first proposed for the cantonments. But it 
made necessary a vigorous fight to secure closely spaced 
double windows in every wall instead of a smaller number of 
single windows in two walls only. There was not enough sash 
and glass in the country, was the last objection. But finally 
it was found that of one stock size there was, or could be pro- 
vided, enough. The plans were modified; the windows are in. 

A harder fight was necessary to secure more cubic air space 
per man in the dormitories. The first plans submitted to the 
housing consultant showed only 289 cubic feet. He protested, 
only to be told that a larger cubage meant larger buildings 
at a greater cost and that the appropriation had already been 
overdrawn. The first plan called for a barrack containing two 
dormitories, a messroom and kitchen on the ground floor and 
four dormitories on the floor above. Between each pair of 
dormitories was a double row of open lockers raised one foot 
from the floor and ending three feet below the beams so that 
air might circulate under and over them. The bunks in the 
dormitories were double-deckers similar to those used in the 
officers' training camp barracks. 

The first concession was the substitution of double windows 
for single, described above. Finally it was agreed to lengthen 
the buildings ten feet. As this did not provide sufficient increase 



90 



THE SURFEY FOR OCTOBER 27 , 1 91 7 



of air space for all the dormitories, the housing consultant se- 
cured acceptance of a rearrangement of the dormitories which 
made the air space approximately 300 feet per man and added 
in the middle of the barracks, extending from front to back on 
each floor, a "commons" or instruction room in which the men 
could stay while off duty or while receiving squad instruction, 
and so permit the airing of the dormitories during the day. 
For' if a man's bunk is his only resting place during the scat- 
tered hours and half-hours he is off duty, it is obvious that 
windows will be kept closed during the cold months and that 
the air will become foul. 

Here, however, the medical branch of the service came in. 
The secretary of war appointed a board composed of Surgeon- 
General Gorgas, Dr. William H. Welch of Baltimore, Dr. 
Franklin Martin of Chicago, and Dr. Victor C. Vaughan of 
Ann Arbor, to study the barracks. They consulted a Can- 
adian officer and an American housing worker. They, too, 
found that the dormitories were too crowded. They recom- 
mended the substitution of single bunks for double-deckers, 
the elimination of the lockers to permit freer movement of air, 
and hanging of sections of the outer walls on hinges so that 
these sections might be opened. They also stated that not more 
than fifty men should sleep in one room and, if possible, the 
number should be reduced to thirty. 

The plans at this time provided for thirty-two men in each 
of the ground-floor dormitories, for thirty-six men in three of 
the second-floor dormitories, and for forty men in the other. 
Unfortunately when the secretary of war ordered that 
their recommendations be carried into effect as far as possible, 
the construction department could only cut out all dormitory 
partitions in order to provide space for closely packed single 
cots. So at present the two dormitories on the first floor have 
been thrown into one occupying half the building, while the 
second floor is one large loft, bright and airy, but providing 
little place for the men to put their clothes or other belong- 
ings. Consequently these are hung on nails from the rafters 
and along the walls, or are packed in suit cases, valises 
and paste-board boxes shoved under the beds. The elimina- 
tion of the "commons" has made it possible to get fifty- five 
to sixty-five single-deck beds on the first floor and approxi- 
mately 195 on the second. So long as the weather remains 
clear and warm this condition is not so bad. With the com- 
ing of winter, however, a change will be necessary. 

Surgeon-General Gorgas, because of his experience at Pan- 
ama, has been emphatic in stating the importance of smaller 
dormitories. The smaller the number of men in a unit the 
easier it is to prevent or check an epidemic. The substitution of 
single cots for double-deckers made it necessary, temporarily at 
least, to go directly counter to this in most of the barracks, but 
his insistence has resulted in the building of small 60- and 66- 
men barracks for the embarkation camps and for the training 
battalion barracks that have recently been added to the canton- 
ments. These smaller two-story buildings, open on all sides, 
with from 28 to 33 men on a floor, meet his requirement ad- 
mirably. But they make no provision for a "commons" and they 
necessitate separate buildings for mess hall and kitchen. How- 
detrimental this will be we shall learn during the winter. 

Meanwhile, however, the change made in the large barracks 
is such as may readily be modified if experience proves modi- 
fication wise. Here, as in the layout of the cantonment itself, 
the value of careful planning before beginning actual construc- 
tion has been triumphantly vindicated. In a military organi- 
zation it might be assumed that the conditions to be met would 
be definitely known. But this has not been the case. The size 
of a company has been raised from 150 men to 200 and now 



to 250. The total number of men in a cantonment has been 
increased. Modern war calls for constant change. But the 
layout of the cantonments has made possible these changes 
without confusion or serious impediment to the progress of 
construction ; for such possibilities had been taken into account, 
and while there is no waste space, space may be differently 
utilized, the wings of the U be extended. The barracks, de- 
signed each for a company, are now rearranged so that two 
companies occupy three barracks, the mess hall and kitchen of 
the middle building being converted into a dormitory. 

This, of course, accounts only for the rifle companies, the 
bulk of an army. In addition to them there are machine gun, 
supply and headquarters companies in each infantry regiment, 
their numbers varying from 138 to 294 men. There are artil- 
lery regiments whose companies vary in size from 128 to 228 
men and for which must be provided parking for guns, gar- 
ages for heavy motor cars, stables for horses. There are the 
signal battalion, the engineers' train, the ammunition train, 
the supply train, the sanitary train, all integral parts of what 
has come to be known as a Pershing division. Separate from 
these, yet a part of each division, is a Negro regiment, organ- 
ized as is each of the four white rifle regiments, and the so- 
called training battalions that are to be the reservoirs from 
which wastage in the division will be made good. All of these 
go to make up the complement of a cantonment. Theoretic- 
ally, the total number of men in each cantonment or division 
will be 32,575. Actually the number officially expected in the 
smallest cantonment is 33,905, in the largest 47,650. 

The changes made since the beginning of construction will 
necessarily affect somewhat the routine of training. The 
mess halls, designed to seat 200 men, will scarcely accommo- 
date 250 at a sitting. The lavatories or latrines, concerning 
the size of which there has been difference of opinion from 
the beginning, are certainly no larger than is necessary. They 
are in separate buildings, one to each barrack. Each building 
has a concrete floor and in each are shower baths, faucets for 
washing of face and hands, urinals and water closets. The 
urinals are of zinc, the water closets are of the best types. In 
kind these facilities are all that is necessary — we learned one 
lesson at least during the Spanish War. But the medical 
board quoted above considers the lavatories inadequate in size. 
Its opinion is that the showers, for example, should be so 
numerous that a whole company or regiment may practically 
be marched through in a body. Probably this would be de- 
sirable, for when routine is established the men are not likely 
to have much time after reveille to wait their turns. The 
medical board also recommended sterilizing rooms, and called 
attention to procedure in camps behind the trenches in France 
when a regiment, relieved from weeks of duty at the front, 
undresses and gives its clothes to be sterilized, marches under 
the showers, and when once more clean in person receives back 
its clothes cleaned and dried. 

But the situation at an American cantonment is different. 
The men will not get as filthy as those in the trenches. The 
baths will be available every day. The day's routine will 
simply have to take account of squad bathing instead of com- 
pany bathing. As for the cleaning of clothes, many of the 
cantonments are already provided with laundries — that at 
Camp Meade is the largest in Maryland. Where facilities 
for sterilizing have not been provided they can be added and 
uniforms and other articles sent to this central plant at regular 
intervals. 

What has not been provided, and yet seems to the outsider 
of considerable importance, is a place to dry wet clothes 
quickly. It is probable that each soldier will be provided 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 2 7 , 1917 



91 



with two uniforms, pairs of shoes, etc. If he is out in a storm 
all morning, he will come in at noon soaked through.' There is 
no place to put his wet clothes except to hang them about the 
dormitory. At the end of the afternoon he comes in soaked 
again. Even if he has a third complete change, all of these wet 
clothes hanging about the dormitory will be unwholesome. If 
stormy weather continues for several days in succession he will 
have the choice between putting on wet clothes in the morning 
or sleeping in them — the latter the preferable. This, of course, 
is no more than he will have to do after he gets to France. 
But he is not yet in France, and the question is whether it will 
be more economical to add a section to the lavatories and in- 
stall driers or to run the risk of increased sickness. 

There is a great deal said these days about the men in the 
national army being soldiers and that not only must they 
expect hardships but that hardships will toughen them. The 
regular army men also hark back to the days of the volunteer 
army. There is unquestionably much in this point of view, but 
it leaves out a good many new factors — no analogy is ever 
quite complete. In the first place the national army is not com- 
posed of volunteers nor are its recruits being received into 
established organizations the older members of which can put 
the newcomers wise as to the innumerable little things that 
make for comfort of mind and body. In the second place the 
great majority of these men are soft, susceptible. By good 
fortune they have before them several weeks of mild weather 
in which to begin their toughening, but if the process goes too 
fast the wastage will be unnecessarily great. In the third 
place, the barracks are not like dugouts, cellars and old farm 
houses in northern France, air-tight and easily warmed even 
by crowded human bodies. They were consciously made the 
opposite, but without any idea that the men in them would 
sleep in wet clothes. Had the intention been to make can- 
tonment life as nearly like trench life as possible, the barracks 
would have been quite different. 

The regular officer's proneness to dilate on hardship is per- 
haps a natural reaction from all that is being done for the 
amusement and comfort of our selected men, things that we 
never dreamed of doing for the men in the old army. If the 
old army lived through neglect on the part of civilians, if it 
had no "commons" in its barracks and no sterilizing and dry- 
ing plants, why should the new? 

There is at least one reason. The old army led a compara- 
tively leisurely existence in barracks. The new army is going 
through a period of training comparable to that of the college 
athlete. The element of strain will be introduced. Not only 
must the recruit be ready in the shortest possible time, but he 
must be ready for a terrific ordeal the thought of which is 
constantly in his mind. Not to be disregarded is the danger 
of his going stale — the bugbear of the athletic trainer. One 
officer to whom I mentioned this scoffed at the idea of its 
being important. "What if they are stale? What we want 
is to have them know what to do. Quickness and alertness are 
of minor importance. Why even on a charge nowadays we 
don't run, we walk." Yet a report this week to the New 
York Times from the American training camp in France 
quotes an English drill sergeant on our soldiers: "The best 
thing about 'em, sir, is that they're keen as mustard. We 
can't give 'em too much. They eat it up." 

Will the men of the national army continue eating it up 
after six months, i. e., several months before they are ready 
for actual fighting? Or will they slow down? The answer 
depends largely upon how they live and what they do when 
not drilling. The officers' training camps this summer, short 
as their term was, give us some indication. In some, at least, 
there was a slowing down during the last weeks. In some 



companies, where the men had bunked uncomfortably close 
together, where there was no place in barracks for a man ex- 
cept his bunk, there was an irritation, a tension, that did not 
make for efficiency. In other companies where the men had 
arranged a little "commons" of their own this tension and 
irritability were less. 

At the cantonments the period of training will be longer 
than it was at the officers' camps. The number of men will 
be infinitely larger. The mental attitude will be different. 
Here the individual will feel himself more lost in the im- 
mensity of the group ; whatever grinds him will grind not only 
longer but harder; and the man himself will be not a volunteer 
striving for a prize, but one selected by others to do a hard 
and dangerous duty. It is essential to build up about him 
daily interests outside himself and outside his military duties, 
yet intimate enough to have a personal appeal, to call forth 
human, every-day responses. Many men, of course, will select 
chums upon whom to expend a part of their emotion. Others 
will not, or cannot. But whether they do or not, this will be 
insufficient. The family group in human society is not an 
accident. Where it does not exist, as at college, we have as a 
substitute the fraternity. In the old army where the regiment 
actually numbered under a thousand men, it more or less 
served the purpose of a family, though even then the com- 
pany was not to be disregarded. In the new army, where the 
regiment numbers 3,652, it has become'almost an abstraction. 
There will be regimental pride undoubtedly, but among 
3,600 men one is lost. He needs a smaller group to make him 
comfortable, to make him feel that he is a human being as well 
as an atom in a great new universe, and that smaller group the 
company provides. 

The successful building up of company spirit, company 
unity, will increase the effectiveness of the national army. We 
have provided at the cantonments for recreation, for inter- 
course, on the basis of the whole division, on the basis of 
brigades and of regiments. We must go further and provide 
a center for the home group, the company "commons." 

I have spoken of the proneness of regular officers to dwell 
upon the value of hardship in a soldier's training and have 
perhaps indicated a tendency on their part to minimize certain 
things that to the civilian seem important. But so far at least 
this is in the abstract. So far as I have seen, either at the 
officers' training camps or at the cantonments, the spirit of the 
regular officer in his relations with those under his command 
has always been that of one eager to help, to teach, to enthuse. 
At Camp Meade, the other day, I watched many squads of 
raw recruits receiving their first, second and third lessons. 
The traditional drill sergeant with his rasping voice and biting 
sarcasm was not there. In his place was a low-voiced in- 
structor in whom patience was evidently accounted a virtue. 
Between the commissioned officers — products of the training 
camps — and the enlisted men there is said to be already a 
1 elation of camaraderie and mutual good-will. Outside the 
cantonments, back at Washington, there is, in the Cantonment 
Division at any rate, a willingness on the part of old War De- 
partment officials to listen to civilian advice that utterly belies 
the popular impression of the bureaucrat. 

There have been mistakes, of course, there have been delays, 
there has been waste, due to the urgency of the gigantic under- 
taking. But as one looks back to last April and realizes all 
that has been done he must feel a sense of pride as an Ameri- 
can. The beginning we have made is auspicious. Those in 
authority are not hidebound and impervious to new impres- 
sions. Mistakes will be rectified as those mistakes become 
clear. What we have begun well we have reason to believe 
we shall finish well. 






92 




93 




JITIES 

rama view of a canton- 
jton) showing the con- 
; capital U, the far side 
r in the distance in this 
iecond floor of barracks 
mp butcher (photo by 
iwing projecting eaves 
; the windows open in 
lelphia Public Ledger) ; 
: (photo by Hine) ; the 
lelphia Public Ledger) ; 
here is none too much 
der the enlarged plans 
Public Ledger). 




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Social Welfare in Time of War and 
Disaster: a Bibliography 1 

Prepared by Christine Mc Bride and Susan M. Kingsbury 

CAROLA WOERISHOFFER GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL ECONOMY AND SOCIAL RESEARCH, BRYN MAWR COLLEGE 



Relief Work in Time of Disaster 

•San Francisco relief survey. Survey As- 
sociates, New York, 1913. Discusses the or- 
ganization and methods of the relief work 
at the time of the San Francisco earthquake. 

Bicknell, E. P. In the thick of relief work 
at San Francisco. Charities and the Com- 
mons, 16:295-299. 1906. 

Devine, E. T. The situation in San Fran- 
cisco. Charities and the Commons, 16:299- 
304. 1906. 

Soper, G. A. The sanitary situation at 
San Francisco. Charities and the Commons, 
16:305-308. 1906. 

♦Smith, Mary R. Relief work in its social 
bearings. Charities and the Commons, 16: 
308-313. 1906. Discusses the San Francisco 
relief work. 

Relief work in Syracuse. Survey 21: 1015. 
1016. 1909. Deals with the work done in 
Syracuse for victims of the Messina earth- 
quake. 

•Davis, Katherine B. Relief work for the 
Messina refugees in Syracuse. Survey, 22: 
37-47. 1909. 

Moral effects of an earthquake. Survey, 
22:341-342. 1909. Refers to the Messina 
earthquake. 

Rehabilitation work at Dayton. Survey, 
30:129-130. 1913. Describes the relief work 
at the time of the Dayton flood. 

Bojesen, Johanne. A Red Cross agent's 
personal experience fat the time of the Day- 
ton flood]. Survey, 32:143-146. 1914. 

•Devine, E. T. Flood rehabilitation in a 
city. Survey, 32:147-151. 1914. Describes 
the work at Dayton. 

Women's Services in War Time 

(Special articles) 

•Parker, Grace. The woman power of 
the nation. Independent, Feb. 19, 1917, pp. 
305 :306. Refers to the types of work — social, 
industrial, military, etc., for which women 
will be needed in the United States during 
the war. 

•Parker, Grace. How the resources of 
women are being used in England's crisis. 
National League for Women's Service, 1917. 
Describes the work for the sick and wounded, 
military work social and welfare work, in- 
dustrial and agricultural work. 

•Bell, E. P. British Women's Emergency 
Corps. Survey, 33:64.. 1914. Outlines the 
work of the various departments of the 
Women's Emergency Corps. 

•Spillane, R. Canadian women and the 
war. Outlook, 113:96-101. 1916. Describes 
their social welfare work. 

•Atherton, G. Women of France — what 
they have done in the great war. Delineator 
90:5-6. Feb., 1917. 

Mobilization of German women. Inde- 
pendent, 81:445. 1915. Describes the or- 
ganizing of the Nationale Frauendienst. 

•Baumer, Gertrud. How German women 
are serving in war. In six articles in the 
New York Evening Mail, Sept. 18-23, 1916. 
Describes the social welfare work of the 
Nationale Frauendienst. 

1 Stars (•) are placed before the references 
which seem to the author the most important. 

94 



Civilian Relief in War Time 

•Bicknell, E. P. War relief. Report of 
the National Conference of Charities and 
Correction, 1916. pp. 7-21. Discusses civilian 
relief in the belligerent and non-combatant 
countries. 

*Bicknell, E. P. First aid to Europe. Sur- 
vey, 36:465-473. 1916. Deals with the larger 
phases of war relief and America's part in it. 

To systematize our war charities. Literary 
Digest, 53:1468. 1916. 

Baldwin, Esther E. War relief and the 
American contributor. Survey, 37:63-70. 1916. 

•Red Cross reorganized on military- 
civilian lines [United States]. Survey, 35: 
311-312. 1915. 

American Red Cross in war time. Survey, 
37:549. Feb. 10, 1917. 

Plans for the care of soldiers' families 
[American Red Cross]. Survey, 38:20. 
April 7, 1917. 

•Red Cross civilian relief organization 
[United States]. Survey, 38:94-95. April 
28, 1917. 

•Red Cross civilian relief plan [United 
States]. Survey, 38:162-164. May 19, 1917. 

•Home service bv the Red Cross [United 
States]. Survey, 38:486-487. Sept. 1, 1917. 

Armv pay based on the size of families 
[United States]. Survey, 38:95. April 28, 
1917. 

Devine, E. T. Social forces in war time. 
Allowances to Soldiers' families [United 
States]. Survey, 38:291. June 30, 1917. 

•Chamberlain, Joseph P. Insurance for 
soldiers and sailors. Survev, 38:504-505. 
Sept. 8, 1917. Discusses the bill now before 
the Congress of the United States. 

•Massachusetts Committee on Public Safe- 
ty. Leaflet giving; its scheme of organization 
during war, with provisions for military, 
industrial, and war relief work. April 9, 
1917. 

War-time training and programs Tfor 
civilian relief in the United States]. Sur- 
vey, 38:146. May 12, 1917. 

Red Cross course for civilian relief [Unit- 
ed States]. Survey, 38:261. June 16, 1917. 

•Taylor, G. Social measures prompted by 
the war. Survey, 32:587-589. 1914. Dis- 
cusses England's experience with social leg- 
islation. 

•Great Britain. Government committee 
on prevention and relief of distress due to 
the war. Memorandum on the s f eps taken 
for the prevention and relief of distress due 
to the war. 1914. Describes the National 
Relief Fund Organization. 

•Patterson, A. War funds. Nineteenth 
Century, 76:737-744. 1914. Gives an ex- 
cellent description of the National Relief 
Fund Organization, Great Britain. 

•Conference on war relief and personal 
service. Chari f y Organization Review, 38:1- 
204. 1915. Discusses the assistance given 
to soldiers and sailors and their dependents 
in Great Britain. 

•War relief agencies [Great Britainl. 
Charity Organization Review, 38:281-292. 
1915. 

•Barrington, C. Soldiers' and sailors' 
families. Nineteenth Century, 78:582-589. 



1915. Describes the work of the Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Families' Association, Great 
Britain. 

•The work of the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Families' Association [Great Britain]. Ed- 
inburgh Review, 225:139-157. Jan., 1917. 

Bailward, W. A. The naval and military 
War Pensions Bill [Great Britain]. Char- 
ity Organization Review, 38:267-277. 1915. 

•The War Pensions Act [Great Britain]. 
Charity Organization Review, 40:138-145. 
1916. 

Warburg, F. S. Relief allowances and 
the rise in the cost of food [Great Britain]. 
Charity Organization Review, 39:93-98. 

1916. Points out the need of carefully 
watching and reconsidering the scale of re- 
lief from time to time. 

Hartley, M. F. Dependents. Charity Or- 
ganization Review, 40:146-151. 1916. Em- 
phasizes the importance of the separation al- 
lowance for Great Britain. 

•Fawcett, M. G. War relief and war 
service. Quarterly Review, 225:111-129. 
1916. Discusses the war relief funds and 
the relief work for the unemployed, Great 
Britain. 

*United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Bulletin No. 222. Welfare work in British 
munition factories. Reprints of the memo- 
randa of the Health of Munition Workers' 
Committee, British Ministry of Munitions. 
1917. 

Proud, E. Dorothea. Welfare work in 
Great Britain. 1916. Discusses employers' 
experiments for improving welfare work in 
factories. 

•Kellogg, P. U. A Canadian city in war 
time [Montreal]. Survey, 37:677-684:709- 
715:739-745. 1917. Describes the work of 
the Canadian Patriotic Fund. 

•Reid, Helen R. Y. Canadian Patriotic 
Fund: Its administration and work. Paper 
read at the National Conference of Char- 
ities and Correction, June 8, 1917. 

•Wolfe, S. Herbert. Care of dependents 
of enlisted men in Canada. Children's Bu- 
reau, United States Department of Labor. 
Miscellaneous series No. 10, Bureau publi- 
cation No. 25. 1917. Gives special atten- 
tion to public provisions. 

•Relief of suffering in France. Outlook, 
108:293. 1914. Gives the purpose of the 
Secours National. 

•Lascaris, H. Relief in France during the 
war. Charity Organization Review, 36:192- 
197. 1914. Outlines the work of several or- 
ganizations. 

•The system of allowances to the de- 
pendents of soldiers in France. Charity Or- 
ganization Review, 39:51-53. 1916. 

•Friends' War Victims' Relief Committee. 
Reports from workers in France. The 
Friend, June 30, 1916; Nov. 24, 1916; Dec. 
1, 1916; Jan. 12, 1917; Jan. 19, 1917; March 
23, 1917; March 30, 1917. Discuss the work 
in rebuilding villages, in agriculture, in in- 
dustry, and in medicine. 

Duryea war relief [France]. Report, 
March 31, 1917. Discusses the relief work 
started by Mrs. Nina L. Duryea at Dinard, 
France. 

•Kennan, G. War relief in Russia. Out- 









THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1917 



95 



look, 109:427-430. 1915. Outlines the civil- 
ian relief work of the zemstvos. 

*Burtt, Joseph. Friends' War Victims' Re- 
lief Committee. Relief work in Russia. 
1916. Discusses the relief work for refu- 
gees. 

Friends' War Victims' Relief Committee. 
Report from workers in Russia. The Friend, 
July 7, 1916; Jan. 12, 1917; March 16, 1917. 
Discusses the relief work for refugees. 

Friends' War Victims' Relief Committee. 
Report from workers in Holland. The 
Friend, March 9, 1917. Discusses relief 
work for refugees. 

Germany's prompt measures for war re- 
lief. Survey, 32:625-626. 1914. Tells of 
the appointment of commissioners to care for 
soldiers' families. 

•Hoffman, G. von. Social welfare in Ger- 
many and Austria-Hungary during the war. 
Survey, 33:82. 1914. Gives the amounts al- 
lowed to dependent wives and children in 
Germany and Austria-Hungary. 

*Kimm!e, Dr. Germany's Red Cross. 
American Red Cross Magazine, July, 1915, 
pp. 239-245. See pp. 243-245 for civilian 
relief work. 

•Lasker, Bruno. Germany's social organ- 
ization for civilian relief during war. Sur- 
vey, 37:687-690. March 17, 1917. Tells of 
the relief work of the imperial, state, and 
municipal governments and of the Red 
Cross. 

Organizing relief work for the Belgians. 
Survey, 33:165-166. 1914. Compares the or- 
ganizing of Belgian relief with that of dis- 
aster relief. 

*Devine, E. T. Belgian relief measures. 
Review of Reviews, 50:689-692. 1914. Dis- 
cusses the various organizations for Belgian 
relief. 

♦Rockefeller Foundation. The work of 
the Rockefeller Foundation's War Relief 
Commission. 1915. Describes its work in 
Belgium, France, Serbia, and Poland. 

•Commission for Relief in Belgium. Hand- 
book. Gives the methods of its relief work. 

*Bicknell, E. P. Helping the Belgians. 
Review of Reviews, 52:705-715. 1915. De- 
scribes the distributing machinery for food 
and clothing. Gives an excellent concrete il- 
lustration of the distribution of food over 
Belgium. 

♦Dosch, A. A day in the Belgian relief 
stations. World's Work, 29:551-557. 1915. 
Discusses the distribution of food and cloth- 
ing. 

•White, F. M. Charity's great adventure. 
Outlook, 111:914-917. 1915. Summarizes 
Belgian relief work. 

•Kellogg, Vernon. The authentic story 
of Belgian relief. World's Work, 34:169- 
176; 264-285; 405-412; 528-541. 1917. The 
official story of the Commission for Relief 
in Belgium. 

American relief in Servia. Literary Di- 
gest, 50:1538-1539. 1915. Tells of the sani- 
tary relief work. 

•Lee, P. R. The task of civilian war re- 
lief. Survey, 38:53-55; 90-92; 117-119; 
140-141; 164-165; 191-193; 221-222; 239- 
240; 270-271; 285-286. The principles and 
methods of civilian war relief are discussed 
with reference to case work. 

Child Welfare in War Time 

(Special articles) 

•Lane, W. D. The children's bit in the 
war. Survey, 37:520-526. Feb. 3, 1917. 
Tells what the first two years of the war 
have meant to the schools and school chil- 
dren of England. 

•Education of war orphans in Great Brit- 
ain. School and Society, 4:775-776. 1916. 

Cotton, recruiting and the school age. 
New Statesman, 7:31-32. 1916. Argues 
against the lowering of the school age in 
Great Britain. 



Fox, Mildred. Saving the babies [Great 
Britain]. Nation (London), 20:529. 1917. 
Tells of the Schools for Mothers. 

American relief for English and German 
girls. Nation, 100:590-591. 1915. Describes 
the work of the International Women's Re- 
lief Committee. 

•Saving the children for France. Literary 
Digest, 52:644-645. 1916. Describes the work 
of the Orphelinat des Armees. 

•Orphans of French soldiers. Outlook, 
114:402. 1916. Tells of the organizations 
which are helping them. 

♦Orphans of Italian soldiers. Outlook, 
114: 484-485. 1916. Describes the work of 
the Opera Nazionale per gli Orfani dei Con- 
tadini morti in Guerra. 

Neville, Edith. Some suggestions for the 
care of widows and their children. Charity 
Organization Review, 39:242-248. 1916. 
With special reference to war widows and 
their children. 

Children's Bureau, United States Depart- 
ment of Labor. Children in war time. Is- 
sued April 10, April 30, May 26, June and 
Sept. 16, 1917. Special articles on the extra 
need of caring for children in war time. 

•Lane, Winthrop D. Making the war safe 
for childhood. Survey, 38:381-391; 418-420; 
451-454. 1917. Gives surveys of child wel- 
fare in war time. 

•Meigs, Dr. Grace L. Infant welfare 
work in war time. Paper read at the Na- 
tional Conference of Charities and Correc- 
tion, June 9, 1917. Gives the special features 
of the work in the different countries. 

Industrial Adjustment in War Time 

Industrial Work and Supervision 

Courtney, Janet E. The war and women's 
employment. Fortnightly Review, 103:239- 
248. 1915. Discusses the various oppor- 
tunities for women in the professions and 
other occupations. 

•Hutchins, B. L. Women in modern in- 
dustry. 1915. See pp. 239-265 for the ef- 
fects of the war on the employment of 
women in Great Britain. 

Kinloch-Cooke, C. Women and the re- 
construction of industry [Great Britain]. 
Nineteenth Century, 78:1396-1416. 1915. 

Workingwomen and the war [Great Brit- 
ain]. New Statesman, 5:275-276. 1915. In- 
sists that they should become organized. 

Importance of the employment of women 
in industry in Great Britain during the war. 
Board of Trade Labor Gazette, March, 1916, 
p. 83. 

•Blatch, H. S. English and French 
women and the war. Outlook, 113:483-490. 
1916. Discusses the fitting of women into 
the industrial scheme. 

•Ashford, E. B. Women in distributive 
trades. Displacement study. Women's In- 
dustrial News, April, 1916, pp. 9-14. Dis- 
cusses some of the new employments open 
to English women since the war. 

•British War Office. Women's war work 
in maintaining the industries and export 
trade of the United Kingdom. Sept., 1916. 
Gives the trades and processes in which 
women are employed in Great Britain. 

Hand of militarism in industry — English- 
women at men's posts. Survey, 37:464-466. 
Jan. 20, 1917. 

Alec-Tweede, Mrs. The woman's army. 
English Review, 24:39-48. Jan., 1917. Dis- 
cusses the industrial work of women in 
Great Britain. 

•Extension of employment of women in 
Great Britain. Monthly Review of the 
United S*ates Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
June, 1917, pp. 879-882. 

•Pott, Gladys. Women in agriculture. 
Women's Industrial News, July, 1916, pp. 
27-35. Describes the conditions and open- 
ings in England for "war service of women 
on the land." 



•Training of women in agriculture, Great 
Britain. Board of Trade Labor Gazette, 
Dec, 1916, p. 448. 

•British women entering agriculture. Sur- 
vey, 38:526-527. Sept. 15, 1917. 

•Women's work in war time. Literary 
Digest, 50:1533. 1915. Discusses the em- 
ployment of women in railway work in 
Great Britain. 

New work for women created by the war. 
Scientific American Supplement, 83:200. 
March 31, 1917. Discusses the employment 
of women in mechanical work. 

•United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Bulletin No. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health 
in British munition factories. 1917. Bulle- 
tin No. 223. Emplovment of women and 
juveniles in Great Britain. 1917. Include 
reprints of the memoranda of the Health of 
Munition Workers' Committee, British Min- 
istry of Munitions, together with other re- 
lated material concerning Great Britain, 
France, and Italy. 2 

Walter, Henriette H. Munition workers 
in England and France. Russell Sage 
Foundation. 1917. Summarizes the reports 
issued by the British Ministry of Munitions. 

War, women, wages and munitions. Sur- 
vey, 3 5:692-693. 1916. Discusses the ef- 
fectiveness of the rules formulated by the 
Munitions Labor Supply Committee and the 
recommendations of the Health of Munition 
Workers' Committee, Great Britain. 

•Questions in Parliament, women in mu- 
nition works, wages, hours; women in the 
civil service. Women's Trade Union Re- 
view, Oct., 1916, pp. 13-28. 

•Women's wages in munition factories in 
Great Britain. Monthly Review- of the 
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
August, 1917, pp. 119-128. 

•Labor in war time in Great Britain. The 
question of compulsion. Voluntaryism tem- 
pered by compulsion in practice. Monthly 
Review of the United States Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics, June, 1917, pp. 810-827. 

•Restricted employments in specified occu- 
pations in Great Britain. Monthly Review 
of the United States Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, June, 1917, pp. 835-841. 

•New plan for labor substitution in muni- 
tion factories of Great Britain. Monthly 
Review of the United States Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics, Julv. 1917, pp. 25-28. 

*Northcott, C. H. Organization of labor 
for war. Political Science Quarterly, 32:209- 
223. June, ,1917. Reviews the dealings of 
the English government with labor prob- 
lems. 

♦Canadian women and the great war. 
Literary Digest, 54:139-144. Jan. 20, 1917. 
Discusses their industrial work. 

Requirements of factory work as to phys- 
ical strength. Report of the Ontario Com- 
mission on Unemployment, 1916, p. 173. Is 
based upon inquiries sent to experts. 

Training of women for factory work. Re- 
nort of the Ontario Commission on Unem- 
ployment, 1916, p. 172. Gives the results of 
the questioning of a number of Canadian 
manufacturers as to what they considered 
the proper training. 

•Labor conditions in Canada as affected 
by the war. Monthly Review of the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics, June, 1917, 
pp. 828-834. 

•French women as munition makers. New 
York Times Current History, 4:321-322. 

1916. Discusses the wages, hours of labor, 
and former occupations of the workers. 

•Compulsory arbitration and the mini- 
mum wage in the munition industry in 
France. Monthly Review of the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics, March, 

1917, pp. 360-364. 

* Series of pamphlets discussing the substitution 
of women in industry as regards suitability and 
conditions have been published by the Home Office 
and also by the Board of Trade. (Not available 
at the Library of Congress.) 



96 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1917 



"The labor supply of France. Monthly 
Review of the United States Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics, July, 1917, pp. 35-39. 

♦Measures of protection for working 
mothers in France. Monthly Review of the 
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
July, 1917, pp. 39-41. 

"Labor conditions in industrial and com- 
mercial establishments in France, January, 
1917. Monthly Review of the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, August, 1917, pp. 
114-119. 

"Toeplitz, Jean. German woman's work 
in war time. New York Times Current 
History, 4:315-322. 1916. Discusses the in- 
dustrial and professional work of German 
women. 

War work for American women. World's 
Work, 34:142-144. June, 1917. Tells how 
they can serve their country by increasing 
food production and in other ways. 

*Hewes, Amy. Women as munition 
workers — A study of conditions in Bridge- 
port. Survey, 37:379-385. Jan. 6, 1917. Dis- 
cusses the processes performed, hours of 
labor, and wages. 

*Hewes, Amy. Women as munition mak- 
ers — A study of conditions in Bridgeport. 
Russell Sage Foundation, May, 1917. Dis- 
cusses the women at work, hours of labor, 
wages, the women at home, and programs 
of city and state. 

Women munition workers and their pay. 
Survey, 37:665. March 10, 1917. Discusses 
the question of equal pay for equal work in 
the United States. 

•Woman in the industries, how far can 
she go, and what does her presence there 
mean? Scientific American, 116:127. Feb. 
3, 1917. Gives special reference to women 
in automobile factories in the United States. 

*Labor laws in war time. Special bulle- 
tins issued by the American Association for 
Labor Legislation, No. 1, April, 1917; No. 2, 
June, 1917. 

"A program for labor. New Republic, 
April 14, 1917, pp. 312-313. Emphasizes 
that the United States should take precau- 
tionary measures against labor deteriora- 
tion, on the basis of England's experience. 

"Protection of labor standards. Monthly 
Review of the United States Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics, May, 1917, pp. 647-661. Tells 
of the prominent organizations and individ- 
uals who have interested themselves in the 
protection of labor standards in the United 
States during war. 

"Chamberlain, Mary. Women and war 
work. Survey, 38:153-154. May 19, 1917. 
Discusses national plans to protect women 
workers in the United States from overstrain 
during war. 

"Maintenance of existing labor standards. 
Resolution adopted at meeting of Executive 
Committee of the Committee on Labor. (As 
approved by the Advisory Commission and 
Council of National Defense, April 7, 1917.) 
Monthly Review of the United States Bureau 
of Labor Statistics, June, 1917, pp. 807-809. 

"Supervision of women's war work. Sur- 
vey, 38: 292-293. June 30, 1917. Tells of 
the study of women's war work begun by the 
National League for Women's Service to 
determine the fitness of various classes of 
work for women, etc. 

Employment 

"Sackville, Margaret. Women and war. 
English Review, 23:450-457. _ 1916. See p. 
455 for the industries in which war caused 
serious unemployment in Great Britain. 

"Robins, E. War service at home. Nine- 
teenth Century, 76:1113-1122. 1914. De- 
scribes the work of the British Women's 
Emergency Corps in finding work for the 
unemployed. 

"Fawcett, M. G. War relief and war 
service. Quarterly Review, 225:111-129. 



1916. See p. 119 for the bringing of unem- 
ployed professional women of England into 
connection with societies which needed 
trained workers. 

"Darwin, Leonard. Distress among the 
professional classes. Charity Organization 
Review, 41:180-191. 1917. Gives the meth- 
ods of relief adopted by the Professional 
Classes War Relief Council, Great Britain. 

"British War Office. Women's War Work. 
Sept., 1916. See pp. 5-6; 81; 91; 93 for 
agencies to be consulted in the employment 
of women in Great Britain. 

"Work of the Board of Trade Local Ad- 
visory Committees upon Women's War Em- 
ployment — finding women for industrial 
work in Great Britain. Board of Trade 
Labor Gazette, Nov. 1916, p. 403. 

"Work of the Women's County Agricul- 
ture Committees — finding women to work on 
farms in Great Britain. Board of Trade 
Labor Gazette, Feb., 1916, p. 43; Dec, 1916, 
p. 447. 

"Women recruits for work on farms in 
Great Britain. Monthly Review of the 
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
July, 1917, pp. 28-31. Tells of the work of 
the Women's National Land Service Corps. 

"United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Bulletin No. 223. Employment of women 
and juveniles in Great Britain. 1917. See 
pp. 68-70 for the "Migration of women's 
labor through the employment exchanges in 
Great Britain." 

Functioning of employment offices in Can- 
ada. Report of the Ontario Commission on 
Unemployment, 1916, p. 173. 

"Labor exchanges for Canada. Survey, 
38:493-494. Sept. 1, 1917. 

The Problem of Disabled Soldiers 
and Sailors 

Training of the war's maimed, halt and 
blind. How the fighting nations are meet- 
ing this all-important problem. Scientific 
American, 113:401; 412-413. 1915. 

"Gilbreth Frank B. The problem of the 
crippled soldier. Scientific American Sup- 
plement, 80:402-403. 1915. Tells how his 
system of motion study may be used to put 
the crippled soldiers at jobs for which they 
are suited. 

Tompkins, Gilbert. Food growing for 
cripled workers — a suggested plan. Ameri- 
can Journal of Care for Cripples, 2:90-93. 
1915. 

"McMurtrie, Douglas C. Farm for crip- 
pled workers on the Panama Canal. Ameri- 
can Journal of Care for Cripples, 2:94-102. 
1915. Discusses the experiment being tried 
in case of workmen disabled during the con- 
struction of the Panama Canal. 

Deshon, Dr. G. D. A farm for crippled 
and disabled workers on the Panama Canal. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 2: 
168-170. 1915. 

Harper, Grace S. Two cases crippled by 
industrial accidents; a comparison of meth- 
ods of after-care. American Journal of 
Care for Cripples, 2:145-155. 1915. 

Providing for the maimed and crippled. 
Review of Reviews, 54:439-440. 1916. Dis- 
cusses various phases of the problem. 

"Bourillon, Dr. Functional readaptation 
and professional re-education of the disabled 
victims of die war. American Journal of 
Care for Cripples, 3:23-38. 1916. Discusses 
methods and principles. 

Newman, Sir George, M. D. Education 
and care of the crippled child. American 
Journal of Care for Cripples, 3:78-100. 1916. 
See pp. 99-100 for reference to the crippled 
soldier. 

Taylor, Dr. H. L. Cooperation between 
educators and physicians in classes for 
cripples. Proceedings of the National Edu- 
cation Association 54:827-828. 1916. 

"Brock, L. G. The re-education of the 



disabled. Nineteenth Century, 80:822-835. 
1916. Offers "some tentative suggestions as 
to the machinery which is required to deal 
with the training of the disabled and the 
objects to which that training should be di- 
rected." 

"McMurtrie, Douglas C. The war crip- 
ple. Columbia War Papers, Division of In- 
telligence and Publicity of Columbia Uni- 
versity, Series I, No. 17. 1917. An excel- 
lent discussion of principles for the economic 
rehabilitation of the disabled. 

*Gilbreth, Frank B. and Lillian M. The 
problem of the crippled soldier. How to put 
him on the pay roll. Scientific American 
Supplement, 83:260-261. April 28, 1917. 
Discusses the two methods of adjusting the 
cripple to work. 

Cripples in the leather trades. American 
Journal of Care for Cripples, 4:13-15. 
March, 1917. 

"Gilbreth, Frank B. and Lilliam M. The 
conservation of the world's teeth. A new 
occupation for the crippled soldiers. Scien- 
tific American Supplement, 83:357-358. June 
9, 1917. 

Work for the cripple to do. Scientific 
American, 116:638. June 30, 1917. 

McMurtrie, Douglas C. Notes on the in- 
ception of care for war cripples in England 
and France. American Journal of Care for 
Cripples, 3:86-89. 1915. 

Kimmins, Grace T. The Princess Louise 
Military Wards and "Educative Convales- 
cence" for crippled and wounded soldiers, 
in connection with the Heritage Craft 
Schools for Cripples, Chailey, Sussex, Eng- 
land. American Journal of Care for Crip- 
ples, 2:125-128. 1915. 

The development of plans for the benefit 
of disabled sailors and soldiers [Great Brit- 
ain]. Charity Organization Review, 39: 
62-75. 1916. 

The disabled soldier. Nation (London), 
3a:167-168. 1916. Argues for a special de- 
partment to deal with the problem of the 
disabled soldier in Great Britain. 

McMurtrie, Douglas C. Training for 
crippled boys and crippled soldiers. Illus- 
trations from the day's work at the Heritage 
School of Arts and Crafts, Chailey, Sussex, 
England. American Journal of Care for 
Cripples, 3:169ff. 1916. 

Training of war cripples at Roehampton, 
England. American Journal of Care for 
Cripples, 3:287-290. 1916. 

"Shairp, L. V. The re-education of dis- 
abled soldiers. Edinburgh Review, 225:119- 
138. Jan., 1917. Discusses the experience 
in Great Britain, France, and Canada. 

Furniss, H. S. The scandal of the dis- 
abled [Great Britain]. Nation (London), 
20:621. 1917. Argues for giving the dis- 
abled an insight into the industrial system as 
well as practical training. 

♦Warburg, F. S. Work for disabled sol- 
diers and sailors. Charity Organization Re- 
view, 41:26-28; 71-72; 201. 1917. Enumer- 
ates the organizations in Great Britain en- 
gaged in this problem and tells what each 
is doing. 

The disabled soldier [Great Britain]. 
New Statesman, 8:560-561. 1917. Deals 
with the problems of pension, medical treat- 
ment, vocational training, and employment. 

"Konstan, E. M. The debt to the dis- 
abled. Nineteenth Century, 81:679-688. 
March, 1917. Discusses the general prin- 
ciples and recommendations for the medical 
treatment of the disabled advocated by a 
joint committee of the Royal Colleges of 
Phvsicians and Surgeons, England. 

"Hurt, C. W., M.A., M.D. (Cantab.) 
D.P.H. (Oxon). Observations on the future 
of the crippled sailor and soldier. American 
Journal of Care for Cripples,4:123-138. June, 
1917. Refers to the situation in Great Brit- 
ain and France. 

(Continued on page 100) 






CO9290O 




&M 



ANOTHER RED LIGHT DIS- 
TRICT GONE 

THE notorious and open red light 
district of Charleston, S. C, was 
officially closed on October 5. Com- 
mercialized vice, an inheritance from the 
old buccaneering days, was wiped out 
through the combined pressure of federal 
officials, anxious to protect the many sol- 
diers and sailors who are stationed near 
Charleston, and a Baptist mayor elected 
on a reform ticket. 

When a member of the Survey staff 
visited Charleston last July [the Sur- 
VEY for August 18], Charleston was 
about as dry as dry could be, commer- 
cialized vice had been pretty well re- 
moved from the residence sections of the 
city, and soldiers in uniform were kept 
out of the red-light district. This district, 
however, adjoining the principal shop- 
ping street of the city, was open and 
unashamed. Many Charleston people 
stated that commercialized vice always 
had been there and always would be 
there ; that it was a protection to the 
women of the community; and that if 
the federal authorities didn't like it, 
they could take their soldiers and sailors 
somewhere else. Reports from Charles- 
ton now say that the district has been 
absolutely closed. Business men have 
financed for an initial period of three 
months an emergency home on King 
street, near the old district, under the 
administration of Captain D. D. 
Thomas, of the Salvation Army. A 
number of the former inmates of the 
district are staying there. They are 
not allowed out at night and the police 
are keeping men away from the vicinity. 

The city administration is under severe 
fire because of its seeming ruthlessness 
in carrying out the anti-vice program. 
Particular plaint is made because of 
the property rights of some of the pro- 
prietresses in houses in the district. The 
administration, however, is pledged to 
this program, and Charleston social 
workers say they expect to see it ad- 
hered to. It is expected to strengthen 
the efforts of the organizations which 
have been attempting to supply recre- 
ation for the soldiers and sailors. 



Charleston follows in the steps of 
San Antonio, El Paso and other cities 
which have felt the pressure from Uncle 
Sam's long arm, and of a much longer 
and earlier list of communities which 
cleaned up of their own volition. 

KEEPING UP INDUSTRIAL 
STANDARDS 

ANXIETY was felt by many Bay 
Staters when, in the closing days of 
the legislature last spring, a law was 
passed making it possible to relax Mas- 
sachusetts restrictions upon the hours 
and certain other conditions of labor. 
The administration of this law was 
placed in the hands of a board, which in- 
cludes representatives of labor as well 
as employers, and which is under the 
chairmanship of the state commissioner 
of labor and industries. The actual pol- 
icy adopted is best shown by the deci- 
sions reached on cases thus far brought 
before the board. 

Of fifty consecutive petitions for re- 
laxation of certain laws, presented dur- 
ing recent weeks by business firms, only 
a very small proportion have been 
granted. The majority of these peti- 
tions were to permit, night or overtime 
work by women or minors. Out of 
thirty-two such requests relating to 
women, only eight were granted ; the re- 
mainder were either denied or the peti- 
tioners defaulted, withdrew, or the cases 
were dismissed or postponed. Of thir- 
teen petitions asking for night or over- 
time work by minors, only one was 
granted. In every case the granting of 
petitions was for a specified period, never 
over sixty days, and usually there was 
definite limitation as to the number of 
individuals who might thus be em- 
ployed. Three requests out of five 
for overtime work on the part of men 
were granted, all of these being for con- 
struction work in connection with mili- 
tary needs. 

The hearings which are granted by 
the state board on all petitions have been 
carefully watched by labor unions and 
other interests. The facts thus far indi- 
cate that the board is not yielding un- 
duly to war-time pressure. 



MEXICAN MINERS GOING 
BACK HOME 

DECLARING that it will suspend 
operations indefinitely, the Ari- 
zona Copper Company has sealed up the 
mouths of its mines with cement. This 
is the statement of John Murray, who is 
representing the American Federation of 
Labor in the Clifton, Morenci and Met- 
calf district. As a result, representatives 
of 4,000 Mexican miners have notified 
President Wilson that they will return 
to Mexico. The telegram that went to 
the President was as follows: 

Three unions of Mexican miners in Clif- 
ton, Morenci and Metcalf, with a member- 
ship of four thousand, 90 per cent of whom 
are Mexican citizens, unanimously passed a 
resolution on October 4, 1917, after consult- 
ing with their resident Mexican consul, the 
text of which we send you by mail, but the 
gist is as follows: 

These Mexicans declare that they have 
obeyed the laws and customs of this country 
and upheld the standards of living in spite 
of the blacklists and oppressions of the 
copper companies, and that they agreed to 
abide by the decisions of your personal com- 
mission, now in Arizona, and go back to 
work pending the decisions of this commis- 
sion. 

But in view of the published declaration 
of the copper companies to close the mines 
the Mexicans have made application to the 
Mexican government to take them all back 
to Mexico. 

In Arizona there are some fourteen thou- 
sand Mexican miners. 

(Signed) R. M. Daguerre, Secy., 

Clifton Union. 
(Signed) C. A. Vargas, Secy., 

Morenci Union. 
(Signed) L. E. Soto, Secy., 

Metcalf Union. 

According to Murray, the strikers of 
this district offered to go back to work 
pending the arrvial of the President's 
commission, headed by Secretary of La- 
bor William B. Wilson, and received a 
telegram from Secretary Wilson ex- 
pressing appreciation of this decision. 
The mining companies, however, re- 
fused to accept any proposal from the 
union, insisting that the men come back 
as individuals. Consequently the strike 
is still on. 

A party of sixty-nine Mexican strik- 
ers were arrested recently on a charge of 

97 



98 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1917 



rioting, though they claimed to have 
been picketing in a legal and orderly 
way. Concerning this Mr. Murray 
writes: 

From the remarks of the justice of the 
peace before whom they were brought, they 
were anything but dangerous persons, for 
he said to them, "As soon as the strike is 
settled, you'll be turned loose." The justice 
even went a little further than this and 
added, ''If they want to go to work, I'll 
turn 'em loose now." In refusing to reduce 
their individual bail from $1,000 to $500, 
this justice said: "They're all good boys. I 
know they wouldn't run away if I let 'em 
out, but it's just as impossible for 'em to 
raise $500 as $1,000, so we'll let it go at 
that." 

AN APPEAL FROM HAITI TO 
AMERICA 

THE Board of Christianisme and 
Patriotism of Haiti, a missionary 
enterprise, in July of this year founded 
the Haitian-American Cooperating In- 
stitute with the object of spreading 
among the American people a more ac- 
curate knowledge of the needs and pos- 
sibilities of Haiti, of spreading among 
the Haitian people a correct knowledge 
of the ideals, culture, achievements and 
progress of the American people, of 
securing between the two cooperation in 
the fields of religion, education, philan- 
thropy and social service, and of pro- 
moting social intercourse among those 
interested in Haiti. 

This institute, which remains under 
the business control of the board but has 
a council of native advisory directors, 
now sends out an appeal to American 
religious and social workers, reminding 
them of the obligation assumed by this 
country by the convention of 1915 to 
advance the economic, social and moral 
condition of the Haitian people. They 
say: 

Here we wish to express with all sincerity 
our appreciation to the helping hand of the 
United States government for their first ef- 
forts of pacifying the country and establish- 
ing stable government; and we believe the 
Christian people of the United States will 
cooperate in developing in Haiti the edu- 
cated citizenship which will help to bring 
to our country elements of the highest civi- 
lization to which all good citizens do as- 
pire. 

In the October number of the Queen's 
Work, .a magazine of Catholic activities, 
a Haitian bishop and other church 
workers reply to the accusation which 
has frequently been made of late that in 
spite of every effort the Haitian people 
remain morally and socially on a low 
level, and that there is little sign of im- 
provement. 

After drawing attention to the small 
number of priests in the country — not 
one for ten thousand souls — which 
makes intensive work extremely difficult, 
the bishop of Cape Haitien writes: 

There are not ten women out of every 
hundred in Haiti who do not aspire to mar- 
riage and a life truly Christian. Still a num- 
ber live without Christian marriage. These 



women are called placees. These unions are 
not the result of 'oose morals but of preju- 
dices preserved from the sad times of slavery. 
I think that I can affirm that the majority of 
these women preserve perfect fidelity to their 
husbands. . . . 

What I have said for the morality of 
women I cannot say for the men. There are, 
indeed, some causes for this: difference. I 
wish to cite only one — our civil wars. Every 
man is a soldier, or is liable to be one from 
the age of eighteen. And then, together with 
the shortage of -priests, our great obstacle has 
been militarism. 

Under the Piatt amendment, as Prof. 
Edwin M. Borchard, of Yale, recently 
reminded the Long Beach conference on 
foreign relations, the United States not 
only exercises financial and police con- 
trol over Haiti, but has also undertaken 
to develop the natural resources of the 
island. If this economic rehabilitation 
is to be taken in hand seriously and on a 
large scale, the Haitian-American Co- 
operation Institute and the clergy con- 
tend, it must be accompanied by a great 
extension of educational and philan- 
thropic endeavor. 

The greatest need of Haiti is not merely 
economic and political reformation and ma- 
terial aid. 

SUSTENTATION FUNDS FOR 
THE MINISTRY 

AT the National Council of Congre- 
gational Churches recently held at 
Columbus, Ohio, in the church which 
Washington Gladden has served for 
many years, the bearings of the changes 
being brought about by the war upon 
Christian belief and practice were faced 
frankly and fearlessly and with every 
disposition to reinterpret and apply 
Christianity in the terms and to the 
needs of the new democracy that is 
spreading throughout the world. 

One of the most surprising results at- 
tending the social transformation of the 
churches has been the success of the 
movement to provide old age and dis- 
ability insurance or "sustentation" for 
the ministry. Up to a few years ago 
this had met with the least response of 
all appeals to church people. But coin- 
cident with the broader social views and 
activities of the churches, this appeal for 
justice and self-respect has suddenly met 
with amazing response. 

The Protestant Episcopal church has 
raised a fund of $5,000,000; the Pres- 
byterian church raised $7,000,000, 
which it proposes to increase to $10,000,- 
000; and the Congregational churches 
now inaugurate their effort to create a 
fund of $3,000,000 to serve as the basis 
of a carefully wrought out actuarial 
plan for the insurance of its ministry. 
Thus the movement to cover the risks 
and burdens in industry by workmen's 
compensation and insurance, and the leg- 
islation by which the United States gov- 
ernment will cover the risks of its sol- 
diers and sailors and their dependents, 
seem to be bearing fruit within the 



church in the substitution of justice to 
its ministry for the humiliating policy of 
making them objects of charity. As in 
the case of industrial and military serv- 
ice, it is confidently expected to secure 
a higher type of men for the ministry 
and better life work from them. 

SECURING THE BABIES 
THEIR CHANCE 

LIKE every other meeting yet heard 
from this autumn, the eighth an- 
nual gathering of the National Associa- 
tion for the Study and Prevention of In- 
fant Mortality, last week at Baltimore, 
was large and essentially a conference 
rather than a formal convention. War 
has stimulated this, as it has all branches 
of national health work. And a remark- 
ably large number of the nation's prob- 
lems are demanding a view from the spe- 
cial angle of His Majesty, the Baby. In- 
deed, the first committee appointed by 
the new president, Mrs. William Lowell 
Putnam, of Boston, was that on war 
measures for the conservation of child 
life. Vital statistics, venereal disease, 
medical and nursing practice, all came 
into this program. 

Reports indicate that thus far in this 
country more is being done in child wel- 
fare by private agencies than by the 
state. The steps taken by England and 
France were mentioned in papers by Dr. 
Mabel Belt and Dr. Ralph Pemberton, 
of the Red Cross, which will be quoted 
in a later issue of the Survey. In her 
plea for better birth registration, Etta 
R. Goodwin, of the federal Children's 
Bureau, paid tribute to the women's 
clubs of the country for their work in 
this line. More than 38,000 reports of 
births investigated by club women had 
been received at the bureau from nearly 
all the states and at least 400 cities. 
The investigators found that in one 
eastern city 80 per cent of the births 
were not registered. In addition to the 
value of official records for the child it- 
self in future years, Mrs. Goodwin 
urged the importance of registration as 
an aid to the Children's Bureau in carry- 
ing out its new work of enforcing the 
federal child labor law, which hinges on 
proof of age. 

No parents should be content, said 
Mrs. Goodwin, until they have received 
from the state an official announcement 
of the registration of their child. This 
proves that the doctor has not forgotten 
his duty and is a sure basis for future 
protection. Insistence upon this detail is 
one very important way in which the 
citizen can aid in many parts of the 
country's work — his own local or state 
department of health, the census, the 
Children's Bureau — and thereby secure 
an intelligent view of actual conditions 
in the United States. 

In the more technical development of 
its work, the association is working for 
such close cooperation in smaller cities 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1917 



99 



and in towns between obstetricians and 
pediatrists as now obtains in the larger 
teaching hospital centers. Here a new- 
born child is given into the care of the 
pediatric service. In this way the spe- 
cialist in children's diseases has a longer 
acquaintance with the child's history and 
is often able to trace some defect to 
either pre-natal causes or to some ob- 
stetrical error. 

Emphasis was laid on the immediate 
need of work in rural districts, not so 
much for new methods as for the earnest 
follow-up of work already begun to se- 
cure better obstetrical service, more 
nursing, and extending educational ef- 
fort. This session on work in rural 
communities met jointly with those on 
nursing and social work under the lead- 
ership of Dr. Grace L. Meigs of the 
Children's Bureau. 

The section on eugenics passed some 
stringent recommendations concerning 
venereal diseases and their relation to 
the infant sickness and death-rates: 
Creating public sentiment by clear pre- 
sentation of the facts of the influence of 
venereal disease on reproduction and 
upon the child; provision for adequate 
treatment in hospitals and clinics; Was- 
serman tests in every public hospital, 
prison, workhouse and institution for de- 
fectives and delinquents, also in certain 
classes of vendors and servants. 

The 1917 revision of the Wisconsin 
law was described by Dr. M. F. Guyer, 
of the University of Wisconsin. It 
reads that "any person who has ever 
been afflicted with gonorrhea or syphilis 
before marriage must present a certifi- 
cate of health from one of the state lab- 
oratories." The 1913 law was being 
applied with extreme care, Dr. Guyer 
said; about 100 inmates of the home for 
the feebleminded have thus far been 
sterilized. Of these about 60 were 
women. 

One of the most important resolutions 
adopted by the conference was that to 
formulate a course on pre-natal, ma- 
ternal, infant and child care which 
might be used in home economics divi- 
sions of schools, colleges or normal 
schools; and in such clubs as the Little 
Mothers' League, mothers' meetings, 
and other similar bodies. 

IF FRANCE IS ZONING, WHY 
NOT WE? 

"TN France, the commission for re- 
A building the devastated cities is 
working out a careful zoning system as 
the sensible basis for reconstruction. 
That little war-torn nation is zoning 
every city. If France can do it in the 
midst of war, America can do it now." 
This was the burden of the address 
at the fourth California Conference on 
City Planning, by George L. Bell, sec- 
retary of the State Commission of Im- 
migration and Housing, whose active 
cooperation he offered to the 239 cities 



and towns of the state in the formula- 
tion of zone ordinances. That zoning 
must be applied with caution, and only 
after making careful surveys of actual 
tendencies and conditions, was pointed 
out by Albert Lee Stephens, city attor- 
ney of Los Angeles, whose carrying of 
the Los Angeles zone ordinance several 
times to the United States Supreme 
Court has resulted in decisions that are 
epoch-making for city planning in 
America. 

Max Thelen, president of the State 
Railroad Commission, warned the 
twenty-two city planning commissions 
of the state that changes and readjust- 
ments in transportation lines on future 
city plans must promote greater safety 
and convenience. His commission had 
complete power, he said, to order union 
depots, the joint use of tracks by two or 
more lines and the elimination of grade 
crossings, with power to assess the cost 
to the railroads, the city or the county. 

"As transportation forms the back- 
bone of any intelligent, permanent city 
plan, the importance to our cities of 
such an expression of cooperation as 
made by Mr. Thelen is very great," 
writes Charles H. Cheney, architect and 
city planner, secretary of the conference, 
who endorses also his statement: "Pa- 
triotism precludes the possibility that 
the commission authorize any large ex- 
penditure now. However, now is the 
time to prepare for such changes in care- 
fully worked out plans for city develop- 
ment after the war." 

SOCIAL HYGIENE FOR THE 
SOLDIERS 

THE American Social Hygiene As- 
sociation commuted between Wash- 
ington and Baltimore, this year, the busi- 
ness sessions of its annual meeting being 
held with the Maryland association and 
its more public meetings in joint session 
with the American Public Health Asso- 
ciation. Therefore much of the essential 
report of this meeting is incorporated 
with the report on page 84. 

But further mention should be made 
of the extent to which infection is doubt- 
less being spread in spite of all efforts 
thus far for its control. Major E. F. 
Foster, of Reed College, saw in a Lon- 
don square more than 400 solicitations 
by prostitutes during one afternoon. 
The figures quoted by Colonel Russell 
[page 86] were discussed afterward by 
some who thought them not a correct in- 
dex of ordinary civil conditions. For, 
said Dr. Kleinschmidt, of the American 
Social Hygiene Association, "coming 
down to this very convention I heard 
men say on the train, 'Come on, boys, 
this is our last night; we'll have a time 
tonight and go to camp tomorrow.' " 

There is a difference of opinion re- 
garding the form of approach to these 
new soldiers. Is the new army adoles- 
cent or adult? That is, should the men 



be warned or frightened? Certainly, 
however, on this point there was no dis- 
agreement: The "packet" must go; arti- 
ficial prophylaxis and mere remedy must 
give way to the preventive measure, to 
what Dr. Prince" Morrow ten years ago 
called "moral prophylaxis." Education 
presenting clearly both the scientific 
facts and the moral implications is the 
surest route to the desired goal. We 
suppfess the prostitute, said Dr. D. B. 
Hooker, and only "regulate" the male 
offender. 

It was announced that a film had been 
made for the surgeon-general's office, 
primarily for the use of physicians in lec- 
tures to the profession or in camps, to 
the medical reserve. This is to be 
adapted shortly to the more general use 
of the public in a wide educational cam- 
paign. 

Dr. William H. Welch, of Johns 
Hopkins, was elected president of the 
association for the coming year. 

CANADA PADDLES HER OWN 
CANOE 

THE Canadian Conference on Pub- 
lic Welfare is the new name of the 
Canadian Conference of Charities and 
Correction decided upon at the sixteenth 
annual meeting recently held in Ottawa. 
There was adopted, also, an entirely 
new constitution which declares the ob- 
jects of the conference to be "to dis- 
cuss the problems of public welfare in 
all their relations, to secure and dis- 
seminate information and to promote 
the effectiveness of all agencies and in- 
stitutions devoted to these ends. The 
conference does not formulate plat- 
forms." 

That social workers in Canada are no 
longer content to quote social statistics 
about other countries, but are seriously 
endeavoring to obtain definite facts 
about the dominion was evident through- 
out the conference. 

The reports of the committees on im- 
migration and neighborhood work were 
especially full of illuminating statements 
regarding Canadian conditions. The lat- 
ter committee insisted upon the need 
of encouraging in neighborhood work 
"a free play of the people's own initia- 
tive" and that the social worker "must 
adhere to the practice of self-govern- 
ment" even when he feels that more 
autocratic methods would more speedily 
produce the desired result. The com- 
mittee on immigration urged the ap- 
pointment of a royal commission to 
examine and report on the whole prob- 
lem. 

Very little was said directly upon the 
war — Canada has been at war for more 
than three years, and it is not a new sub- 
ject — but it was apparent that war af- 
fected the attitude of all the speakers and 
the theme of this year's conference was 
a serious consideration of reconstruction 
after the war. 



100 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1917 



n 



JOTTINGS 



to appeal to a commission, locally appointed, 
if he considers a demand for higher rent 
unjustified. 



INSANITARY and neglected conditions of 
rural schoolhouses is credited with the fail- 
ure of 75 per cent of the men who have been 
rejected from the army upon medical ex- 
amination, according to Dr. J. A. Nydegger, 
of Baltimore. 



F. C. OXMAN, the Mooney case witness, 
has been acquitted of the charge of subor- 
nation of perjury. Immediately rearrested 
on a charge of perjury, he was released by 
Judge Griffin of the Superior Court of San 
Francisco, who held that the evidence was 
not sufficient to warrant holding him. 



THAT the call for nurse recruits is being 
heard and answered is evident from the re- 
port of the Nursing Committee of the Gen- 
eral Medical Board, Council of National 
Defense, that nursing training schools have 
increased their enrollment this year by 2,600. 



SUBJECTS for its annual prize essay con- 
test are announced by the American School 
Peace League as follows: The Teaching of 
Democracy as a Factor in a League of Na- 
tions, open to seniors in normal schools; 
How Should the World be Organized so as 
to Prevent Wars in the Future, open to 
seniors in secondary schools. The contest 
closes March 1, 1918| 

REPORTS of poliomyelitis still appear. 
Pennsylvania has a number of cases. A 
new outbreak seems to be starting in Iowa. 
Chicago is said to have had 155 cases at the 
end of September, with forty or fifty in Cook 
county outside the city. Health Commis- 
sioner Robertson said recently that fully 
50 per cent of Chicago's cases were proving 
fatal. Meetings are being held in school- 
houses at which physicians are instructing 
the people on poliomyelitis and its preven- 
tion. Enough cases are occurring in Ohio 
to postpone the opening of school in some 
of the smaller cities. 



MUNICIPAL functions, one of the volumes 
in the National Municipal League Series, re- 
viewed in the Survey for October 13. was 
written by Herman G. James and not by 
Harlean James as stated. The error was 
made in the Survey office and not by the re- 
viewer. 



RENT COURTS, used for some years with 
growing success by German cities to protect 
tenants against unjust rent increases, have 
been introduced in Switzerland as a war 
measure. Every tenant is given the right 



FRIENDS of the German Republic [the Sur- 
vey for July 7] have adopted the name of 
Friends oi German Democracy so as to in- 
clude all those working for the establish- 
ment in Germany of a government responsi- 
ble to the people. The society is in touch 
with exiled German democrats in Switzer- 
land and has succeeded in interesting groups 
of people in almost every part of the United 
States. At a conference recently held in New 
York, it was decided to carry on a more 
forceful educational campaign, especially 
among Americans of German descent, in 
order to gain support for the movement in 
Europe. 



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SOCIAL WELFARE IN 

TIME OF WAR AND 

DISASTER 









{Continued from page 96) 

*Report of the Disabled Sailors' and Sol- 
diers' Committee, Local Government Board 
of Great Britain. American Journal of 
Care for Cripples, 4:212-225. June, 1917. 

School for war cripples in France. Ameri- 
can Journal of Care for Cripples, 2:46-47. 
1915. Tells of the St. Maurice Institution on 
the Marne. 

McMurtrie, Douglas C. An industrial 
school for crippled soldiers at Lyons, France. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 2: 
156-158. 1915. 

*Holt, Winifred. The lighthouse for 
blinded soldiers. Survey, 37:43-44. 1916. 
Tells of the school at Bordeaux for the train- 
ing of French blinded soldiers. 

The trade education of maimed soldiers. 
School and Society, 4:147. 1916. Gives an 
account of the re-education at Bordeaux. 

The trade education of maimed soldiers. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 4: 
251-252. June, 1917. Describes the work at 
Bordeaux. 

*Amar, Jules. Organization of vocational 
training for war cripples. American Jour- 
nal of Care for Cripples, 3:176-183. 1916. 
Gives the principles which govern his 
method of re-education. 

Amar, Jules. The care of the wounded 
in France. Methods and instruments for 
aiding men who have lost hands or arms. 
Scientific American Supplement, 82:348-350. 
1916. 

France's crippled soldiers. Outlook, 113: 
299-300. 1916. Tells of the work of the 
American Committee for Training in Suit- 
able Trades the Maimed Soldiers of France. 

*Hannan, Thomas. Technical schools for 
maimed soldiers: L'Ecole Joffre. Contem- 
porary Review, 110:105-112. 1916. De- 
scribes the French system of technical 
schools. 

Re-educating the wounded. Literary Di- 
gest, 54:468-469. Feb. 24, 1917. Tells of the 
exhibition held at the Musee Galliera show- 
ing articles made by re-educated men. 

McMurtrie, Douglas C. Industrial train- 
ing for war cripples. Illustrations of edu- 
cational work in France and Germany. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 4: 
16ff. March, 1917. 

*Lasker, Bruno. Rebuilt men. New trades 
and fresh courage for French war cripples. 
Survey, 38:11-14. April 7, 1917. 

*Helys, M. The re-education and place- 
ment of war cripples. American Journal of 
Care for Cripples, 4:168-178. June, 1917. 
Describes the work in France. 

Posts for crippled soldiers [ France! . 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 4: 
362-363. June, .1917. 

*Alden, Percy. What France is doing for 
her disabled soldiers and sailors. Monthly 
Review of the United States Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics, June, 1917, pp. 851-867. Gives 
an excellent account of the work. 

*How France returns her soldiers to civil- 
ian life. Monthly Review of the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics, August, 
1917, pp. 105-110. 

Kessler, Cora Parsons. Eugene Brieux 
tells what we can do for the soldier blind. 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, Aug. 12, 1917. 
"Gives some advice to Americans based on 
the results attained in France." 

♦McMurtrie, Douglas C. German care 
for war cripples; a preliminary report. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 
2:39-40. 1915. Tells how Germany inau- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 27, 1917 



101 



gurated her extensive system of fitting war 
cripples for work. 

♦McMurtrie, Douglas C. Measures for 
the care of war cripples in Germany; plans 
for economic rehabilitation. American Jour- 
nal of Care of Cripples, 2:129-138. 1915. 

Gradenwitz, Alfred. Educating invalid 
soldiers. How war cripples are taught to do 
without hands and feet [Germany]. Scien- 
tific American, 113:229. 1915. 

Lasker, Bruno. German war monuments 
of tomorrow; garden cities planned for the 
crippled men from the European battle- 
fields. Survey, 36:27-30. 1916. 

Silberstein, Adolf, M.D. The Royal Or- 
thopedic Reserve Hospital at Nurnberg, Ger- 
many. American fournal of Care for Crip- 
ples, 4:188-192. June, 1917. 

Valentin, Bruno, M.D. The workshops at 
the Royal Orthopedic Hospital at Nurnberg. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 4: 
192-196. June, 1917. 

Bernhard, L. I. Business organization of 
the workshops connected with the Royal Or- 
thopedic Reserve Hospital at Nurnberg. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 4: 
197-200. June, 1917. 

Employment of German cripples. Amer- 
ican Journal of Care for Cripples, 4:365. 
June, 1917. 

*Austrian provision for war cripples. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 
2:47-48. 1915. Tells of the training school 
at Vienna. 

*Finding work for men crippled in war. 
Review of Reviews, 53:226-228. 1916. Tells 
of the work of the employment bureaus for 
war invalids in Austria. 

*War cripples in Austria and Germany. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 4: 
244-250. June, 1917. 

*Sudek, Richard, M.D. An employment 
bureau for crippled soldiers. American 
Journal of Care for Cripples, 4:269-275. 
June, 1917. Describes the work of the Lands- 
stella, Vienna. 

*Military Hospitals Commission, Canada. 
The provision of employment for members 
of the Canadian Expeditionary Force on 
their return to Canada, and the re-education 
of those who are unable to follow their 
previous occupations because of disability. 
Ottawa, 1915. 

Re-education of wounded soldiers in Can- 
ada. Manual Training, 18:389-390. May, 
1917. 

♦Vocational training for disabled soldiers 
in Canada. The Military Hospitals Com- 
mission. Monthly Review of the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics, June, 1917, 
pp. 867-874. 

♦Kellogg, Paul U. A Canadian city in 
war time. The battleground for wounded 
men. Survey, 38:1-10. April 7, 1917. Tells 
of the work for the disabled at Montreal. 

♦Jarrott, Thomas L. The problem of the 
disabled soldier. American Journal of Care 
for Cripples, 4:226-243. June, 1917. De- 
scribes the work in Canada. 

Scammell, E. H. (Secretary, Military Hos- 
pitals Commission). The treatment of dis- 
abled soldiers. Paper read at the National 
Conference of Charities and Correction, 
June 8, 1917. 

•McMurtrie, Douglas C. A Russian in- 
dustrial training school for cripples [in St. 
Petersburg]. American Journal of Care for 
Cripples, 3:184-189. 1916. 

War cripples in Naples, Italy. American 
Journal of Care for Cripples, 4:363-365. 
June, 1917. 

Care for crippled soldiers in Rome. Amer- 
ican Journal of Care for Cripples, 4:368- 
371. June, 1917. 

•Lauwick, Marcel. The Belgian Military 
Institute for trade training of the war crip- 
ple. American Journal of Care for Crip- 
ples, 4:179-187. June, 1917. 



Training school for crippled Belgians. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 4: 
367-368. June, 1917. 

•Devine, E. T. Preparation for war crip- 
ples [United States]. Survey, 38:291; 297. 
June 30, 1917. 

♦Institute for crippled soldiers [New York 
City]. Survey, 38:297. June 30, 1917. 

McMurtrie, Douglas C. Directory of 
American institutions for cripples. Ameri- 
can Journal of Care for Cripples, 3:65-69. 
1916. 

♦Massachusetts Board of Education. Spe- 
cial report (with bibliography). Training 
for injured nersons. Feb., 1917. Discusses 
the facilities for training the disabled in the 
United States and in foreign countries. Pro- 
poses a new bureau for Massachusetts. 

♦McMurtrie, Douglas C. Placement of 
the crippled and handicapped by the Penn- 
sylvania State Bureau of Employment. 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 4: 
253-264. June, 1917. 

Selection of the above references was 
aided by the receipt of the following bibli- 
ographies: 

References on the work of the American Red 
Cross in the European war, Library of 
Congress, April 2, 1917. 
References on the relief of dependent families 
of soldiers and sailors, Library of Con- 
gress, May 11, 1917. 
References on social service in war time, 
Chicago School of Civics and Philan- 
thropy, May, 1917. 
References on the war occupations of women, 
Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union, May, 1917. 
References on the training and re-educating 
of injured and diseased industrial workers 
and soldiers, War Emergency Unit of 
Philadelphia, Sept., 1917, (which practic- 
ally constitute the last section of the above 
bibliography). 

COMING MEETINGS 

{Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month.'] 

The annual meeting of Survey Associates, Inc., 
will be held on Monday, October 29, at 4 p.m. in 
the Survey offices, twelfth floor, 112 East 19 
street, New York city. Four members of the 
Board of Directors will be elected to succeed Ed- 
ward T. Devine, V. Everit Macy, Simon N. Pat- 
ten and Nathan A. Smyth, whose terms of office 
expire; and to transact such other business as 
may come before the meeting. All members of 
Survey Associates, Inc. — life members and co- 
operating subscribers who have paid $10 or more 
since October 1, 1916, toward the maintenance 
of the Survey — are entitled to vote at this year's 
annual meeting. 

PERIODICALS 

Fifty cents a line per month; four weekly inser 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month 

A. L. A. Book List; monthly; $1; annotated mag- 
azine on book selection; valuable guide to best 
hooks: American Library Association, 78 East 
Washington St., Chicago. 

American Red Cross Magazine; monthly; $2 a 
vear; Doubleday, Page It Co., publishers, New 
York. 

American Journal of Public Health; monthly; $3 
a year; 3 months' trial (4 months to Survey 
readers), 50 cents; American Public Health As- 
sociation, 126 Massachusetts Ave., Boston. 

A Voice in the Wilderness ; $1 a year. A magazine 
of sane radicalism. At present deals particu- 
larly with our autocratic suppression of free 
speech, free press and peaceable assembly. An 
indispensable magazine to the lover of liberty. 
12 Mount Morris Park. New York City. 

Better Films Movement: Bulletin of Affiliated 
Committees; monthly; $1; ten cents an issue. 
Information about successful methods. Ad- 
dress National Committee for Better Films, or 
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, 
70 Fifth Ave.. New York. 

The Child Labor Bulletin; quarterly; $2 a year: 
National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22 
street. New York 

The Club Worker: monthly; 30 cents a year; Na 
tional League of Women Workers, 35 East 30 
St., New York. 



The Cooperative Consumer; monthly; 50 cts. per 
year. Co-operative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

The Crisis; monthly; $1; National Association foi 
the Advancement of Colored People, publisher 
70 Fifth Ave.. New York. 

The Critic and Guide; monthly; $1 • year. De- 
voted to medical sociology, rational sexology, 
birth control, etc. Wm. J. Robinson, M.D., 
Editor. 12 Mount Morris Park, New York City 

The Dial; fortnightly; $3 a year; five months' 
trial to Survey readers $1. Constructive articles 
on social aspects, war and peace, by H. M. 
Kallen, of Committee on Labor, Advisory Com- 
mission, Council National Defense, starts Oc- 
tober 11. The Dial, 608 So. Dearborn St., 
Chicago. 

The Journal of Home Economics; monthly; $2 
a year; foreign postage, 35c. extra; Canadian 
20c; American Home Economics Association. 
1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

The Journal of Negro History; quarterly; $1 a 
year; foreign subscriptions 25 cents extra; con 
cerned with facts not with opinions; Association 
for Studv of Negro Life and History, 1216 You 
St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Life and Labor; $1 a year; a spirited record of 
the organized struggle of women, by women, for 
women in the economic world. Published by 
The National Women's Trade Union League. 
Room 703, 139 North Clark street, Chicago. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; National 
Committee for Mental Hygiene, 50 Union 
Square, New York. 

National Municipal Review; monthly; $5 a year; 
authoritative, public spirited, constructive; Na- 
tional Municipal League; North American Bldg., 
Philadelphia 

The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
pices of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala.; an 
annual; 35c. postpaid; permanent record of cur- 
rent events. An encyclopedia of 450 pages of 
historical and sociological facts relating to the 
Negro. General and special bibliographies; full 
index. 

The Playground Magazine; monthly; $2; Recrea 
tion in Industries and Vocational Recreatioi 
are discussed in the August Playground. Proli 
lems involved in laying out playgrounds an 
taken up in detail by A. E. MetzdorL of Spring 
field, Mass. Price of this issue $.50. Play 
ground and Recreation Association of America 
1 Madison Ave., New York. 

Proportional Representation Review; quarterly ; 
40 cents a year. American Proportional Repre 
sentation League, 802 Franklin Bank Bldg.. 
Philadelphia. 

Public Health Nurse Quarterly, $1 a year; na 
tional organ for Public Health Nursing, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York. 

Social Hygiene; a quarterly magazine; $2 pet 
year; The Social Hygiene Bulletin; monthly. 
$.25 per year; both free to members; pub 
lished by the American Social Hygiene Asso 
ciation, 105 W. 40 St., New York. 

Southern Workman; monthly; illustrated; folk 
song, and corn club, and the great tidal move 
ments of racial progress; all in a very human 
vein; $1 a year; Hampton Institute, Hampton. 
Va. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

[Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser 
tions, copy unchanged throughout the month.] 
Order pamphlets from publishers. 

American Plan for Keeping the Bible in Pub- 
lic Schools; 32 pp., 6 cents postpaid, and A 
Primer of the Science of Internationalism; 
96 pp., 15 cents postpaid. Published by Inter 
national Reform Bureau, 206 Pennsylvania Ave., 
S. E., Washington, D. C. 

Buying Clubs. Published by the Co-operative 
League of America, 70 Fifth avenue, New 
York. 5 cents. 

Co-operation in the Unitep States. C. W. 
Perky, Co-operative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

The Gary Plan in New York City Schools. 
Peter J. Brady, 823-4 World Building, New York. 

Inheritance of Stature. By Charles B. Daven- 
port. Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 18, 
Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y. 40 cents. 

Law Concerning Chiloren Born Out of Wed- 
lock (so-called Castberg law). Adopted by the 
Norwegian Storthing, April 10, 1915. 10 cents 
from chairman of committee on Castberg Law, 
679 Lincoln Parkway, Chicago. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

The Reconstruction of Religion for Humanity. 
Baccalaureate sermon preached by Rabbi Eman- 
uel Sternheim, Sioux City, Iowa, at Nebraska 
State Normal School. 5 cents. 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



SURVEY 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed ; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply) and 
pamphlets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Americanization, Nlil. 

Better Films Movement, Nc»r. 

Birth Registration, Aaspim. 

Blindness, Ncpb. 

Cancer, Ascc. 

Central Councils, Aaoc. 

Charities, Ncsw. 

CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Amer. Assn. for Org. Charity. 

Russell Sage Fdn.. Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Nml, Sbo. 
CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Exhibit Assn. 

Natl. Com. for Better Filma. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Nspie, Praa. 
CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

(Episcopal) Jt. Com. on Soc. Ser., Pec. 

(Federal) Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

(Unitarian) Dept. of Soc. and Pub. Ser., Aua. 
CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Natl. Municipal League. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Civilian Relief, Arc 
Clinics, Industrial, Ncl. 
Commission Government, Nml, Sbo. 
Community Organization, Aiss. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 

Coordination Social Agencies, Aadc, Aiss. 
Correction. Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 
COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca, Arc. 

County Ywca. 
Crime, Sa. 

Disfranchisement. Naacp. 
EDUCATION 

Amer. Library Assn. 

Cooperative League of America. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Natl. Soc. for Prom, of Ind. Ed. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Efficiency Work. Bmh. 
Electoral Reform, Nml, Ti, Apkl. 
Eugenics, Er. 
Exhibits, - Aaspim, Ncpb, Nvshs. 



Fatigue, Ncl. 
Feeblemindedness, Cpfm, Ncmh. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation 
Franchises, Nml. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Pub. Health Assn. 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Com. of One Hund. on Natl. Health. 

Com. on Prov. for Feebleminded. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Natl. Soc. Hygiene Assn. 

New York Social Hygiene Society, 

Ncsw, Ncwea, 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
History, Asnlh. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work, Ncl, Nclc. 
Hospitals, Naspt. 

Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca. 
Idiocy, Cpfm. 
Imbecility, Cpfm. 

IMMIGRATION 

Council of Jewish Worn., Dept. Im. Aid. 
International Institute for Foreign-bora W*men 
of the Ywca. 

Natl. Lib. Im. League, Nfs, Ntas, Tas. 
Industrial hygiene, Apha. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Consumers League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn.. Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Nspie. 
Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 
Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Natl. Woman's Peace Party. 

Labor Laws, Aall, Ncl, Nclc 

Legislative Reform, Aprl. 

Liquor, Nml. 

LIBRARIES 

American Library Assn. 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 
Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 
Military Relief, Arc. 
Minimum Wage, Ncl. 
Mountain Whites, Rsf. 
Municipal Government, Aprl. Nfs, Nml. 
National Service, Aiss. 
Negro Training, Asnlh, Hi, Ti. 
Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha. Arc. Nophs 
Open Air Schools, Naspt. 

PEACE 

National Woman's Peace Party 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 
Physical Training, Praa. 
Police, Nml. 

Protection Women Workers, Ncl, Ntas. 
Prostitution, Asha. 
Public Health, Apha. Cohnh, Nophs. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Assn. for Study Negro Life and Hist. 

Hampton Institute. 

Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 

Russell Sage Fdn.. South Highland Div. 

Tuskegee Institute. 

Alil, Er. 
Reconstruction. Ncsw. 
Regulation of Motion Pictures, Ncbf. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 

Ncbp. Ywca. 
REMEDIAL IOANS 

Russell Sage Fdn.. Div. of Rem. Loans. 
Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Self-Govemment, Nlww. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Natl. Fed. of Settlements. 
Sex Education, Asha. Nyshs. 
Schools Ahea. Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot. Sbo. 
Short Working Hours. NcL. 
Social Agencies, Surveys of, Aaoc. 
Social Hygiene, Asha, Nyshs. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Amer. Inst, of Soc. Service. 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 



Dept. of Soc. and Public Service, Aoa. 
Joint Com. on Soc. Service, Ptc. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 

Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 

Ncmh, Praa, Ncwea, Nspie. 
Taxation, Nml. 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers' Aid Society. 

Travelers Aid Society. 

Cjw. 
Tuberculosis, Naspt. 
Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 
Unemployment, Aall. 
WAR RELIEF 

Am. Red Cross. 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Ywca. 
WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 

Natl. Consumers' League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Working Girls, Cjw, Ntas, Tass, Nlww, Tas. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOE LABOR LEGIS 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. Workmen's compensation; health in- 
surance; industrial hygiene; unemployment; one 
day-rest-in-seven; administration of labor laws. 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ORGANIZING 
CHARITY— Mrs. W. H. Lothrop, ch'n; Francis 
H. McLean, gen sec'y; 130 E. 22 St., New York. 
Correspondence and active field work in the or- 
ganization, and solution of problems confronting, 
charity organization societies and councils of 
social agencies; surveys of social agencies; plans 
for proper coordination of effort between different 
social agencies. 

AMERICAN ASSOC. FOR STUDY AND PRE 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature on request. Traveling exhibit. 
Urges prenatal instruction; adequate obstetrical 
care; birth registration; maternal nursing; infant 
welfare consultations 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA 
HON— Mrs. Alice P. Norton, sec'y; 1326 E. 
58 St., Chicago. Information supplied on any- 
thing that pertains to food, shelter, clothing or 
management in school, institution or home. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SERV 
ICE — Founded by Dr. Josiah Strong. Nathaniel 
M. Pratt, gen. sec'y. Edward W. Bemis, Robert 

A. Woods, dept. directors, Bible House, Astor 
Place, New York. Welcomes inquiries as to al' 
matters of community organization and progress. 
Members of its staff glad to enter into consulta 
tion by correspondence about given conditions 
or particular projects. Assists in bringing to in 
dividual new undertakings the combined results 
and lessons of the best productive achievement 
Ready to aid in securing publications, speakers, 
temporary or permanent leadership. Particular 
attention given to requests from communities in 
which all such effort is at an early stage. Seeks 
to bring about better cooperation among special- 
ized national organizations, toward securing the 
more comprehensive local application of their 
types of service. Promotes the fullest extension 
of principles and methods which on a limited 
scale have conclusively shown their power for the 
upbuilding of the nation. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION— George 

B. Utley. exec, sec'y; 78 E. Washington St., Chi 
cago. Furnishes information about organizing 
libraries, planning library buildings, training 
librarians, cataloging libraries, etc. List of publi- 
cations on request. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE— C. G. Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives 
Literature free. Membership $1. 

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION 
— Dr. W. A. Evans, pres., Chicago; A. W. Hed- 
rich, acting sec'y; 1039 Boylston St., Boston. Ob- 
ject: to promote public and personal health. Health 
Employment Bureau lists health officers, public 
health nurses, industrial hygienists, etc. 

AMERICAN RED CROSS — National officers: 
Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, 
president; Robert W. DeForest, vice-president; 
John Skelton Williams, treasurer; John W. Davis, 
counselor; Charles L. Magee, secretary; Hon 
William Howard Taft, chairman central commit- 
tee; Eliot Wadsworth, vice-chairman; Harvey D. 
Gibson, general manager. 

Central Committee, appointed by the President 
of the United States: William Howard Taft, chair- 
man; Eliot Wadsworth, vice-chairman; Robert 
Lansing, Secretary of State; John Skelton Wil- 
liams, Controller of the Currency; Major-General 
William C Gorgas, Surgeon-General, U. S. A.; 






THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



Rear-Admiral William C. Braisted, Surgeon-Gen- 
eral, U. S. N.; John W. Davis, Solicitor-General. 

War Council, appointed by the Preaident of the 1 
United State*: Henry P. Davison, chairman; 
Charles D. Norton, Grayson M.-P. Murphy, John 
D. Ryan, Cornelius N. Bliss, Jr.; William Howard 
Taft, ex-officio; Eliot Wadsworth, ex -officio. 

Major Grayson M.-P. Murphy, U. S. A., Com- 
missioner to Europe. 

Department of Military Relief: John D. Ryan, 
director-general; Gen. Winfred Smith, assistant di- 
rector-general. 

Department of Civilian Relief: W. Frank Per- 
sons, director-general. 

Bureau of Medical Service: Lieutenant-Colonel 
H. C. Connor. 

Nursing Service: National Committee, Miss 
Jane Delano, chairman; Bureau of Nursing Serv- 
ice, Miss Clara Noyes, director; Bureau of Town 
and County Nursing Service, Miss Fanny F. 
Clement, director. 

Woman's Bureau : Miss Florence Marshall, di- 
rector. 

Supply Service: Frank B. Gifford, director. 
THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO 
CIATION— William F. Snow, M. D., gen. sec'y; 
105 W. 40 St., New York. For the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases. 
and the promotion of sound sex education; pam- 
phlets upon request; membership $5; sustaining 
$10. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Curtis E. Lakeman, exec, sec'y; 
25 W. 45 St., New York. To disseminate knowl 
edge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment 
and prevention. Publications free on request. 
Annual membership dues $5. 

ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF NEGRO 
LIFE AND HISTORY— Carter G. Woodson, di 
rector of research; 1216 You St., N. W., Wash 
ington, D. C. To popularize the Negro and his 
contributions to civilization that he may not 
become a negligible factor in the thought of the 
world. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH— 261 
Broadway, New York. Specialists in surveys of 
all kinds; also installs efficiency systems. Twelve 
years successful work throughout United States 
and Canada; estimates furnished. 
COMMITTEE OF ONE HUNDRED ON NA- 
TIONAL HEALTH — E. F. Robbins, exec, sec'y; 
203 E. 27 St., New Yerk. To unite all govern 
ment health agencies inte a National Department 
of Health to inform the people how to prevent 
disease. 

COMMITTEE ON PROTISION FOR THE 
FEEBLEMINDED — Joseph P. Byers, ex. sec'y; 
Empire Bldg., Phila. Object to spread knowledge 
concerning extent and menace of feebleminded- 
ness; initiate methods for control and eradication. 

CO-OPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York City. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice on all phases of consumers' 
co-operation, foreign and American. Annual mem- 
bership, $1, includes monthly, Co-Operative Con- 
sumer. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN (NATIONAL) 
— Department of Immigrant Aid, with headquar 
ters, 242 E. Broadway, New York. Miss Helen 
Winkler, ch'n; gives friendly aid to immigrant 
girls; meets, visits, advises, guides; has interna- 
tional system of safeguarding. Invites member- 
ship. 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY SERVICE, 
AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION— El- 
mer S. Forbes, sec'y; 25 Beacon St., Boston. 
Makes community studies; suggests social work; 
publishes bulletins. 

EUGENICS' REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich 
Board of Registration: Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. 
Irving Fisher, Dr. Chas. B. Davenport, Luther 
Burbank, Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. A pub- 
lic service conducted by the Race Betterment 
Foundation and Eugenics' Record Office for 
knowledge about human inheritance and eugenics. 
Literature free. Registration blanks for those 
who desire an inventory, and wherever possible, 
ah estimate of their hereditary possibilities. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
genl. sec'y; 105 E. 22 St.. New York. 

Commission on tne Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Rev. 
Clyde F. Armitage, asso. sec'y; Herbert M. 
Shenton, special sec'y; Miss Grace M. Sims, 
office sec'y. 
Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 
Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 

Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 
Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev. 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Campaign for the Conservation of Human Life; 
Charles Stelzle, sec'y. 
HAMPTON INSTITUTE— G. P. Phenix, vice- 
prin. ; F. K. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y; 
Hampton, Va. "Hampton is a war measure" (H. B 
Frissell). Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither 



a State nor a Government school. Supported by 
voluntary contributions. Free literature on race 
adjustment, Hampton aims and methods. 
JOINT COMMISSION ON SOCIAL SERVICE OF 
THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH— 
Address Rev. F. M. Crouch, exec, sec'y; Church 
Missions House, 281 Fourth Ave., New York. 
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Pres., 
Moorefield Storey; chairman, Board of Directors, 
Dr. J. E. Spingarn; treas., Oswald Garrison Vil- 
lard; dir. of pub. and research. Dr. W. E. B. 
Du Bois; act'g sec'y, James Welden Johnson; 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. Membership 8,500 
with 90 branches. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY 
AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS— 
Charles J. Hatfield, M. D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph.D., ass't sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational method*. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 

Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York. 35 state branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration; education; mothers' pensions; juvenile 
delinquency; health; recreation; children's codes. 
Publishes quarterly Child Labor Bulletin. Photo- 
graph, slides, and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION. 
— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Cooperates with hundreds of social 
agencies. Headquarters for child welfare material 
and information, exhibits, posters, charts, lantern 
slides, pamphlets, bulletins, lecturers. Inquiries, 
invited. Publications free to members. Dues: ac- 
tive, $10; associate, $5. Will you help us build 
a better generation? 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR BETTER FILMI 

— Department of National Board of Review of 
Motion Pictures. O. G. Cocks, sec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. Promotion of better fam- 
ily and young people's films. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Write for pamphlets on mental hy- 
giene, prevention of insanity and mental deficiency, 
care of insane and feebleminded, surveys, social 
service in mental hygiene, state societies for men 
tal hygiene. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
man. dir.; Gordon L. Berry, fid. sec'y; Mrs. Wini- 
fred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E. 22 St, New York. 
Objects: To furnish information for associations, 
commissions and persons working to conserve 
vision; to publish literature of movement; to fur- 
nish exhibits, lantern slides, lectures. Printed 
matter: samples free; quantities at cost. Invites 
membership. Field, United States. Includes 
N. Y. State Com. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 
Robert A. Woods, pres., Boston; William T. Cross, 
gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. Gen- 
eral organization to discuss principles of humani- 
tarian effort and increase efficiency of agencies. 
Publishes proceedings annual meetings, monthly 
bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information bureau. 
Membership, $3. 45th annual meeting Kansas 
City, May 15-22, 1918. Main divisions and chair- 
men: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Mrs. Jessie D. 
Hodder. 

Health, Haven Emerson, M.D. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 
Johnstone. 

The Family, Gertrude Vaile. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 
Florence Kelley. 

The Local Community, Charles C. Cooper. 

Mental Hygiene, Frankwood E. Williams. 

Organization of Social Forces, Allen T. Burns. 

Social Problems of the War and Reconstruction, 
V. Everit Macy. 

NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE— Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley, gen. sec'y; 289 Fourth Ave., New 
York. 87 branch leagues. 15,000 members. War 
program: To help our industrial army by pro- 
moting clinics for treatment of new diseases (in- 
cident to munitions work and to fatigue and 
strain); reasonable working hours; safe and sani- 
tary working conditions; decent standards of liv- 
ing; safeguards for women taking men's places in 
industry; protection for children. Minimum mem- 
bership, $2. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
— Robert A. Woods, sec'y, 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Develops broad forms of comparativp 
study and concerted action in city, state, and na- 
tion, for meeting the fundamental problems dis- 
closed by settlement work; seeks the higher and 
more democratic organization of neighborhood life 

NATIONAL KINDERGARTEN ASSOCIATION 

—250 Madison Ave., New_ York. Object: To 
have the kindergarten established in every public 
school. Four million children in the United States 
are now without this training. Furnishes hul 



letins, exhibits, lecturers, advice and information. 
In cooperation with United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation, works for adequate legislation and for a 
wider interest in this method of increasing intelli- 
gence and reducing crime. Supported by volun- 
tary contributions. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS 
—Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New 
York. Evening clubs for girls; recreation and 
instruction in self-governing and supporting groups 
for girls over working age. 

NATIONAL LIBERAL IMMIGRATION LEAGUE 

— Address Educational Dept., Sun Bldg., N. Y 
Advocates selection, distribution and Americam 
zation and opposes indiscriminate restriction. Sum 
marized arguments and catalog of publications on 
request. Minimum membership ($1) includes all 
available pamphlets and current publications. 

NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE — Lawson 
Purdy, pres.; Clinton Rogers Woodruff, sec'y; 
North American Bldg., Phila.; charters; commis- 
iion government; taxation; police; liquor; elec- 
toral reform; finances; accounting; efficiency; 
civic education; franchises; school extension. 
NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall. 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 600 Lexington Ave., New 
York. Object: To stimulate the extension of 
public health nursing; to develop standards of 
technique; to maintain a central bureau of in 
formation. Bulletins sent to members. 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION 

OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION— May Allinsom, 
asst. sec'y; 140 W. 42 St., New York. Promotion 
of legislation for federal and state-aided voca- 
tional education; organization of industrial scbeob 
and classes; surveys, publications, conferences. 
NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of 
travelers, especially women and girls. Non-see. 
tarian. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S PEACE PARTY. Section 
for the United States of the International Com- 
mittee of Women for Permanent Peace — Mrs. 
Eleanor Daggett Karsten, office sec'y ; Jane Addams, 
ch'n; 116 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago. The purpose 
of this organization is to enlist all American wom- 
en in arousing the nations to respect the sacred- 
ness of human life and to abolish war. 
NATIONAL WOMAN'S TRADE UNIO> 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N 
Clark St. [room 703], Chicago. Stands for self 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labor 
NEW YORK SOCIAL HYGIENE SOCIETY 
(Formerly ■ Society of Sanitary and Moral 
Prophylaxis)— Dr. James Pederson, sec'y; 105 W 
40 St., New York. Seven educational pamphlets. 
10c. each. Four reprints, 5c. each. Dues — Ac 
five, $2; Contributing, $5; sustaining, $10. Mem 
bership includes current and subsequent literature; 
selected bibliographies. Maintains lecture bureau 
and health exhibit. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASS'N OF 
AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison At., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 
RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
Dir., 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, South- 
ern Highland Division. 

SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION — Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. National clearing 
house for information on short ballot and com- 
mission government, city manager plan, county 
government. Pamphlets free. 

TRAVELERS' AID SOCIETY— Orin C. Baker, 
gen'l sec'y; 465 Lexington Ave., New York. Pro 
vides advice, guidance and protection to travelers, 
especially women and girls, who need assistance 
It is non-sectarian and its services are free ir- 
respective of race, creed, class or sex. 
TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the 
training of Negro youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases »f the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

— Miss Mabel Cratty, general sec'y; 600 Lexington 
Ave., New York. To advance the physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county Associa 
tions; hygiene and physical education; gymna 
siums, swimming-pools and summer camps; rest- 
rooms, lunch-rooms and cafeterias; educational 
and business classes; employment bureaus; Bible 
study and vesper services; holiday homes; na- 
tional training school for secretaries; foreign 
work; war emergency work. 



— «»» — rovers run, kiw von 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St, New York City. 



I™ ' '"'"''»"""""""""' I < 1 Mil , IN IIHIHMII , „„ ,„,„„,„ Ulllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll , ,,„„„„„,„„„£ 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



EXECUTIVE, Initiative, Efficiency, Or- 
ganizer. School of Philanthropy and uni- 
versity graduate. Thorough training and 
experience in Research, Charities, Recrea- 
tion, Industrial Welfare. Address 2614 
Survey. 



WOMAN secretary seeks position in so- 
cial center or welfare work. Ten years' 
business experience, three years in social 
work. Salary moderate if opportunity is 
large. Address 2629 Survey. 



COLLEGE graduate, experienced in care 
of children would like position as matron 
of child-caring institution or convalescent 
home. Address 2619 Survey. 



HOUSEMOTHER, experienced teacher 
of music, desires position child-caring in- 
stitution. East preferred. Address 2631 
Survey. 



KINDERGARTNER, experienced, di- 
rectress girls' clubs, desires evening or late 
afternoon work. Address 2632 Survey. 



HOUSE-MOTHER (undergraduate 
nurse) desires position child caring insti- 
tution. Experienced child helping work; 
housekeeping. Address 2633 Survey. 

M. A. School of Philanthropy graduate, 
experienced in settlement, educational and 
children's work desires position. Address 
2634 Survey. 

WANTED — Position in Jewish social 
work by experienced School of Philan- 
thropy graduate. Address 2635 Survey. 



EXECUTIVE or first assistant position 
in progressive organization wanted by 
trained experienced worker. Address 2636 
Survey. 



HELP WANTED 



WANTED— Superintendent for Settle- 
ment house in a Pennsylvania town of 
25,000 population. Address 2626 Survey. 

RESIDENT woman physician, institu- 
tion for girls ; salary $1500 to $1800 a year 
and maintenance ; must have New York 
State license ; must have had one year's 
hospital experience or three years' experi- 
ence in general practice of medicine; state 
age, medical school experience, etc. Ad- 
dress 2630 Survey. 

FAMILY visitor and resident settlement 
worker in interesting scattered country 
community of Italians and Americans. Ad- 
dress Mrs. Bursch, Riverside, Conn. 



New Fall Styles 
Women's Wear 



at 





Rig. Trade Mark 



An unusually attractive stock of smart Gowns, 
Frocks, Dinner and Evening Gowns, Wraps 
and Motor Coats, Suits, Blouses and Skirts. 

Plain Tailored Suits of Broadcloth. 
Colors: Navy, Black, Brown and Purple, 
also Oxford, $36.00. = 

Handsome Suit of Suede Velour trimmed 
with Seal Fur, $59.50. 

Coat of Velour Burella, collar edge band 
of Seal Fur, warmly interlined, $38.75. 
Double-Breasted Trench Coat in mix- 
tures of Tan, Gray, Green and Brown $27.75. 
Coats of Black Silk Velour, dyed Opossum 
I Fur Collar, richly lined, $47.50. 

Smart Dress in a combination of Serge 
and Georgette. Lace collar. Colors: Navy, 
Brown and Black, $23.95. 

Smart Street Dress of Serge in two dis- 
tinctivemodels. Satin sleeves and smartly 
1 braid-trimmed, $25.00. 

Blouses 

Blouse of Washable Satin and Georgette 
1 Crepe, $6.95. 

Blouse in a combination of Satin and 
Georgette with a convertible collar. Colors : 
Black, Navy, Brown or Plum, $9.75. 
Sport Blouse of Striped Flannel, light 
I shades, $5.75. 1 

Orders by Mail Given Special Attention \ 

James McCutcheon & Co. 

Fifth Ave., 34th & 33d Streets, N. Y. 

Tl ' iiimiiiiimii 1 minium 1 mi 1 nullum „„ , , luiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiii ,„„ , raill l 



MAKING A MAN WHOLE 

CRUTCHES and canes may put a crippled soldier on his feet again. But 
the great task is to fit him for industry, so to train him that he can 
make good in the job eagerly offered him at the hospital door. Alberta, in 
the Canadian Northwest, has worked out re-education and the fine points 
of where the discipline of army officers ends and that of shop foremen 
begins. First hand experience, for three years, is ready for those who 
must shortly adopt a program for the United States. The story of it in 

THE SURVEY NEXT WEEK 



NEWTON) D. BAKER, Secretary of War, Speaking on War-Camp Community-Recreation Service at the 
National Conference at Washington, October 23, Outlined the Need for the Service in the Following Words : 

"The attitude of the community has got to be continuous and growing in its hospitality and in its conscientious recognition of the 
right way of solving the problem of the soldier. These boys are going to France; they are going to face conditions that we do not like 
to talk about, that we do not like to think about. They are going into a heroic enterprise, and heroic enterprises involve sacrifices. I 
want them armed; I want them adequately armed and clothed by their Government; but I want them to have invisible armor to take 
with them. I want them to have an armor made up of a set of social habits replacing those of their homes and communities, a set of 
social habits and a state of social mind born in the training camps, a new soldier state of mind, so that when they get overseas and are 
removed from the reach of our comforting and restraining and helpful hand, they will have gotten such a state- of habits as will constitute 
a moral and intellectual armor for their protection overseas. You are the makers of that armor." 



The Hand of 
Friendship 











You are asked to contribute to the War Camp Community Recreation Fund 
because broad, national support is necessary to the success of the undertaking. 
You are really contributing hours of sunshine and recreative pleasure to the boys 
who are enroute to battlefield trenches. It is a very satisfying feeling to know that 
you, personally, have been instrumental in keeping these brave lads safer from moral harm 
than an army has ever been before. Your contribution buys the brighter side of warfare — 
dances in private homes, fellowship in clubs, athletic tournaments, choruses. It means that 
there will always be a SAFE place for that boy to go. Let there be material help in the out- 
stretched hand of friendship. 

National Headquarters of the War Camp Community Recreation Fund, 1210 G Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. Contri- 
butions should be made payable to the order of the National Treasurer of the Fund, Mr. Charles H. Sabin, president of the 
Guaranty Trust Co., New York City. 



104 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



The High Cost of Good Literature 

AMERICANS abroad invariably express their astonish- The success of the series was immediate. Letters poured 

L ment at the low price of books in Europe as corn- into their office. Some marvelled that they could publish 

pared with prices in the United States. l:i EnglsnJ, such attractive books at such moderate prices. Others 

France, Germany, Russia, they find low-priced editions <if wrote to give encouragement to the new venture. Literary 

practically every author who has achieved literary prom- critics hailed The Modern Library as "The most important 

nence. Innumerable "libraries" are published in Enghnd publishing event of 1917." 

and on the Continent to retail (according to the binding Clifford Smyth, literary editor of the New York Times, 

and quality of the book) at seventy-five cents and less. wrote: "If real merit in typography, binding, convenience, 

These series contain not merely popular reprints of popular and — best of all — subject-matter, counts for anything, these 

fiction, but the masterpieces of Str ndberg. Nietzsche, Ana- looks are certainly deserving of a fine measure of success, 

tole France, Oscar Wilde, Shaw, Maeterlinck. Dostoyevsky, They fill a need that is not quite covered, so far as I have 

Turgenev, and others. Books by these authors retail in observed, by any other publication in the field just now." 

the United States in ordinary cloth binding from $1.25 to William Marion Reedy, J. B. Kerfoot, H. L. Mencken, 

$1.75. American publishers, asked to explain this situation, W. H. Wright, and a hundred other critics in periodicals 

have said there was not in the United States a sufficiently throughout the country, joined in praise of The Modern 

large demand to justify the publication of low-priced Library, 

editions. In the summer six new titles were added to the series, 

Two young men planning to enter the publishing busi- each an example of the finest literary achievement. Among 
ness did not accept this estimate as correct. They asked them a collection of the best Russian short stories, edited 
themselves what had contributed to the success of these b y Thomas Seltzer, and so arranged as to give the historical 
libraries abroad and why nothing similar had been done development of the short story in Russia. This volume in- 
here eludes nineteen Russian masterpieces, many of which have 

This was the situation as they analyzed it: Books to "7 e . r aPP ea c red in English before Also "The Way of All 

retail at low prices must be manufactured in large quanti- F J esh > ^ Samu ^ Butler, which Arnold Bennett has called 

ties and without speculative risk. the greatest novel of the nineteenth .century 

_ , , , , , , ,. ,. , . , Ihere are now thirty-five titles in 1 he Modern Library 

For the last twenty years the book publishing business of and nQne that cuhured man can afford tQ be without> 

the Un.ted States has been in the thrall of the best sellers. £ach book j g beautifull and subs tantially bound in limp 

The commercial possibilities of popular fiction proved a Croftleath is inted clear l y n good paper, and many 

temptation too strong for American publishers to resist. containi an iii um i natin g introduction by either Arthur 

Literary standards were swept aside in the attempt to issue g Ernest Rh p adraic Qq1 wr WrJ h R 

what the public wanted. Publishers became caterers to L Mencken, Joyce Kilmer or Lafcadio Hearn. And they 

popular taste, and the energy of authors was diverted to are on , gi cents 

supply soothing syrup literature for tired business men and 

bonbon fiction for ladies of leisure. The honey of literature We give herewith a complete list of titles now ready: 

was neglected for the saccharine of commercialism, The ] [■ 9 scar Wi ' de - ■,-.■ Dorian Gray 

te . , . iii-i 1 2 - August Strindberg Married 

short story, the novel, drama, poetry, each had its day and 3. Rudyard Kipling Soldiers Three 

its fashion. The successful publisher had to be awake to \\ |. fc ^b?. .?;;/;/////////////////^//////.^-^^^^ 

the public mood of the moment. , „ .. ■ _ , With a New Preface 

r 6. Henrik Ibsen A Dolls House, Ghosts, An Enemy of the People 

But in the matter of public taste there is no certainty. 7 - Anatole France ............ The Red Lily 

_. , .... , . . 8. De Maupassant Mademoiselle Fin and 12 Other Stories 

Catering tO the public IS a Speculation and every SUCCeSS 9. Friedrich Nietzsche Thus Spake Zarathustra 

involves a dozen failures. Just so long as the business of 10 - Fiodor Dos ^Z^Hon 'by ^oomas seltzer P °° r Pe ° ple 

book publishing remains speculative the book buyer must 11. Maurice Maeterlinck A Miracle of St. Antony and 5 Other Plays 

. . r 1 1 1 12. Arthur .Schopenhauer Studies in Pessimism 

pay the losses of bad speculation. introduction by t. b. saunders 

m , . Mi, ,,. ,13. Samuel Butler The Way of All Flesh 

1 O the tWO prospective publishers good literature seemed 14. George Meredith Diana of the Crossways 

pre-eminently non-speculative. But they still had to learn 15 . George j^J^S*^. * A *™ u * ™35ftj—dd Socialist 

whether it could be Sold in Sufficiently large quantity to !$■ George Moore Confessions of a Young Man 

, , ^, . j ? a • Introduction by FLOYD DELL 

manufacture at lowest COSt. 1 he judgment OT American 17. Thomas Hardy The Mayor of Casterbridge 

publishers was adverse, but these two men were idealists 18 . Edited by nJ^^T..^^. 1 ^ Russian Short stories 

and optimists. They were cqnvinced that American appre- 19. Oscar Wilde Poems 

f 1 iv 11 1 1 .1 a t .1 20. Friedrich Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil 

ciation of good literature would be no less than that 01 the introduction by willard H. wright 

peoples of Europe. General and widespread appreciation of 21 - Turgenev. . . . „ . „ . . . . .„. . „ -—omas SELTZER**™ a " d S ° nS 

good literature they felt had been thwarted in the United 22. Anatole France The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard 

cL , u .u u- u £ J U 1 Preface by LAFCADIO HEARN 

States by the high COSt Of good books. 23. Swinburne Poems 

rr^i 1 j ■ • f 1 1 ^1 Introduction by ERNEST RHYS 

1 hese tWO young men planned a Series Of books that Was 25. Wm. Dean Howells Hazard of New Fortunes 

to be attractively made_ and_ that would give Americans 26 . w . s . ^J** *™*™ * .^.^.^"u^Io^d Other Plays 

everything that foreign libraries gave the people of Europe. introduction by clarence day, J*- 

They started The Modern Library in the Spring of 1917 2s! Flaubert. f... v.".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'"".' .'.'.'.'.'.' .'.'.'.' .".'.Madame Bovary 

with twelve titles by such representative modern authors as 30. James sterns. . . . . . ........ ----- •;.- ■-■-•■ fc£ 

H. G. Wells, Anatole France, Maeterlinck, Strindberg, 32. Arthur Schnitzler Anatole and Other Plays 

Oscar Wilde, Kipling, Dostoyevsky, de Maupassant, etc. 34. Lor" DmSanyV. '.'. '.'. '. V. '.'. ". V. '.'. '.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. A ' breame*™ 6 Tales 

These books were bound in a beautiful limp Croft leather 35 G K c^J^^fr.^.^^^M^V^o Was Thursday 

with title Stamped in gold, printed on good quality paper in 36. Henrik Ibsen Hedda Gabler, Pillars of Society, 

j j fe ' f -i r • 7 \ 1 The Master Builder 

large t} r pe and made tO retail IOr Sixty Cents per volume. 37. Haeckel, Thompson, Weismann, etc.... Evolution in Modern Thought 

Hand bound, limp croftleather, at all book-stores, 60c a volume. By mail 6c extra. 

BONI & LIVERIGHT, Dept. A, 109 West 40th Street, New York. 




1 Y\ 




Crutches into Plowshares 

A Lesson for the United States in the 
Reconstruction of Canadian War Cripples 

By Doug/as C. McMurtrie 

ACTING DIRECTOR RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED SOLDIERS AND SAILORS 



MILES from any settlement, plowing up virgin 
prairie with powerful gasoline tractors and gang 
plows — this was my first view of the training for 
disabled Canadian soldiers in the Province of 
Alberta. There was no need to ask if the work were practical. 
The "boys," as the returned soldiers are popularly known in 
the dominion, were out on the land doing a full day's work, 
with almost no assistance from the instructor who was with 
them, and under conditions fully as difficult as they would 
encounter in actual labor on a farm. 

This was the class in "gas engineering, with special 
attention to tractor practice." The average course in this 
subject is about nine months in length, during which time the 
men learn both the theory and operation of a gasoline engine. 
They start on the floor of the shop with a stationary machine, 
which they take apart and put together again; which the 
instructor puts out of gear, for the men to locate the trouble 
and make the indicated repairs or adjustments. At the same 
time the men are receiving instruction in such simple features 
of mathematics and engineering drafting as will be of help 
to them. 

But this is one of the last stages in the preparation of the 
disabled soldier for return to civilian life. There are many 
others that go before. 

When the men of the Canadian forces, crippled in action, 
began to return from the front, it was decided that the nation 
owed them a duty which could not be discharged by mere 
pension award. The Military Hospitals Commission was 
created to provide for these soldiers such convalescent care 
as would put them in as good physical condition as possible, 
and such vocational training as would fit them again to become 
productive members of the community [see the Survey for 
April 7, 1917]. This was a new theory of governmental 
responsibility to the ex-soldier, and, in common with the other 
belligerent countries, Canada had to do pioneer work in the 
development of the system. Progress has very naturally been 
slow; in fact, in some parts of the dominion the complete or- 
ganization of the work has not yet been effected. 

The Survey, November 3, 1917, Volume 39, 



The clearest conception of the Canadian plan can be gained 
from a study of its working in some specific district, and the 
most favorable for this purpose is the Province of Alberta. It 
seems that many of the first enlistments in the Canadian ex- 
peditionary force came from the West, and many of the earlier 
returns were in consequence first received there. 

The injured men receive their early surgical treatment in 
the base hospitals in France and England, but as soon as prac- 
tical, the more serious cases are invalided home. The hospital 
ships and transports usually disembark at an immense dis- 
charge depot in Quebec. Here the men are classified into spe- 
cific medical categories, and, so far as possible, those of no 
further military usefulness are distributed to their own home 
districts. There is granted at once a furlough of from one to 
two weeks to enable the soldier to visit his family; he then 
returns to the convalescent center to which he has been 
assigned. 

A soldier who enlisted in southern Alberta is assigned to 
the Ogden Military Convalescent Hospital at Ogden, a 
suburb of Calgary. The building utilized by this institution 
was formerly a hotel which, due to miscalculations regarding 
the direction of real estate development, was not being used 
at the time the war opened. There is also an annex, a store 
building made over into dormitories. 

The main building contains the administration offices, small 
wards and private rooms, quarters for massage, electrical work, 
and other medical treatment, general dining-room and kitchen, 
diet kitchen, bowling alley, library, a lobby of generous dimen- 
sion, and three classrooms. In the annex there is also a car- 
penter shop, in addition to dormitories and rooms. Cases re- 
quiring more or less active medical treatment are housed in 
the main building; men in an advanced stage of convalescence 
live in the annex across the street. 

The institution is military in organization and discipline. 
Though the Military Hospitals Commission is a civilian body 
and a separate department of the government, it was thought 
wise arbitrarily to attach to it a military auxiliary known as 
the Military Hospitals Commission Command, charged with 
No. 5. ,112 East 19 street, New York city 105 



106 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3 , 1 9 1 7 



mmwMhm %m<immr m Mmkmmm 




A GREAT CHANGE FROM DIGGING TRENCHES 



the exercise of military authority over the soldiers, not yet dis- 
charged, but under the care of the commission. As the men 
are convalescent from serious injuries, the disciplinary admin- 
istration is not exacting, but in cases of serious misbehavior 
there is available all the machinery of courts-martial. 

The medical treatment and the military routine take but 
little of the men's time. Most of the day is free for good use 
or ill. Here appears the new feature in providing for the 
disabled soldier. The commission provides occupation in 
various classes and shops for the men who are willing to par- 
ticipate. This work has a double purpose. 

First, it acts as occupational therapy; it benefits the mental 
condition of the men by giving them something to think about 
beside their own troubles ; it is an advantage to their physical 
condition in that it brings into play — involuntarily on the 
man's part — disused and semi-paralyzed functions. To many 
men who have given up hope of ever again doing useful work, 
one simple operation mastered leads to the attempt at still 
another. Thus is ambition kindled once more. 

Second, the work in the shops and classes has a direct prac- 
tical value to most of the men. There is evident advantage to 
adult men on the verge of return to civilian life in "brushing 



up" the subjects they learned in school. A farmer taking even 
a short commercial course will be better able to keep accounts 
of his business transactions; the householder learning at the 
bench to make simple articles of furniture will find this facility 
very useful, in doing odd jobs around his place. 

Occupational therapy is thus the first category of vocational 
work, which is undertaken rather casually during the period 
of physical convalescence. Such activity would terminate with 
completion of the medical treatment. The second category — 
and the one of by far the greatest economic consequence — 
is known as vocational re-education. This is intended for 
men whose permanent disability debars them from returning 
to their former occupation yet who would profit from retrain- 
ing in some subject within practical limits of instruction. This 
category embraces the serious and thorough preparation of the 
war cripple for self-support. 

The administration of the vocational work is in the hands 
of the vocational branch of the commission, directed by T. B. 
Kidner. The local work in the province of Alberta is in the 
hands of Dr. James C. Miller, hard-headed and practical in 
spite of his scholarly attainments, a man who, as director of 
vocational education for the province, has licen accustomed 




THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 19 17 



107 



CREWS OF WAR CRIPPLES FOR TRACTOR PLOWS 




to relating educational plans to the practical requirements of 
the industries. 

Education is a provincial function in the dominion, and by 
reason of differences as to language and religion, the preroga- 
tive has been jealously guarded. In some provinces this has 
led to embarrassment. In Ontario, for instance, there has 
been built up a local organization for vocational training of 
disabled soldiers. The local and detail direction is provincial, 
the financial direction federal. This division of authority 
does not make for efficiency. Though the national commission 
may provide funds for a certain facility, the provincial officials 
may delay indefinitely in providing it. Though the instruction 
authorities may wish to put some plan into operation, the 
national officials may thwart it by refusal to grant the neces- 
sary funds. 

In Alberta there has been worked out a more logical 
arrangement. The provincial director of vocational education 
is employed on half-time by the Military Hospitals Commis- 
sion and is thus responsible to the commission for the positive 
aspects of the work, which is conducted to all intents and pur- 
poses as a national activity. In a negative way, he is respon- 
sible to the province to see that nothing is done prejudicial to 
Albertan interests. Controlling both the national activity and 
the provincial agencies of technical education, he has no diffi- 
culty in bringing about desirable cooperation between the two. 

At the Ogden hospital, the convalescent soldier is urged, 
as soon as he is able, to attend one of the classes which are 
there in progress. The decision to do so is voluntary, but the 
vocational officer and his assistants have so stimulated interest 
among the men that requests are received from them when 
still in bed to save places for them until they can get about. 

There is a general commercial course within the general 
limits of which the pupils specialize in bookkeeping or in 
stenography and typewriting. The minimum length of the 
course is six months, and, whenever desirable, the period is 



extended. Here is opportunity for men of quite severe 
physical handicap, even for cases of arm amputation, provided 
there is reasonable mental capacity upon which to build. Men 
of varied experience can adapt themselves to the work. In the 
bookkeeping section one man had been a steam-fitter, another 
a clerk in a hardware store, a third had been a restaurant 
employee. The effort is not to turn out expert accountants, but 
rather men so trained that they can keep books of a retail store 
or do work of similar caliber. 

Another class is for teaching the English language to 
disabled soldiers of allied nationality — foreigners who had 
enlisted for service in the Canadian forces. The objective 
method of instruction is used, the men being taught the Eng- 
lish words for specific objects, and later shown how to con- 
struct sentences to express their simple wants. This makes 
it unnecessary for the instructor to know the native language 
of the pupil, and it is possible to have in a single class men 
of varied tongues. 

A third class is in preparation for civil service examinations, 
with a view to employment in the postal or revenue depart- 
ments. This is especially appropriate, as returned soldiers are 
given preference in appointment to civil service positions. 
Arithmetic, spelling, composition and commercial geography 
are the principal subjects of instruction. 

Outdoor Work Especially Helpful 

In the woodworking shop the men can have elementary 
training in carpentry. They make simple articles of furniture, 
which they are permitted to take home when leaving the 
hospital. There is also training in mechanical drafting. 

For the men whose disabilities made it important for them 
to be out of doors, a garden club and a poultry club were 
formed. Gardening and care of chickens proved the most 
valuable of all the occupations in the way of beneficial exer- 
cise. The men's appetites became more normal and their 
sleep less fitful; the exercise was especially beneficial to the 
men who had suffered from gas poisoning. There are eight or 
ten chicken houses for the men taking poultry work. Each 
of the garden workers has a plot one-twenty-fourth of an 
acre in extent, the product of which he is free to dispose of. 
Several of the men took prizes on their products at the 
agricultural fair. 

All the work so far described comes within the category 
of occupational therapy, which may be entered upon infor- 



108 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 




THE MOTOR CLASS 

mally by any man resident at the convalescent hospital, but 
which would cease when the medical officer declared treat- 
ment completed and discharged the man from the institution. 

But it has been provided that any man debarred by disability 
incurred in the war from resuming his former employment, 
yet capable with special training of becoming self-supporting in 
some new trade, may be "re-educated" at the expense of the 
Military Hospitals Commission. As early as possible in the 
man's convalescence he is interviewed and put through a "vo- 
cational survey," in order to determine what is the wise course 
for him to pursue. The soldier is informed regarding the 
possibilities and, after his confidence has been gained, he is 
advised by the vocational officer. It is necessary, however, that 
the final choice be made by the man himself. He then comes 
before the Disabled Soldiers Training Board, made up of the 
district vocational officer, the medical officer, and a represen- 
tative of the local employment organization dealing with 
placement of returned men. This board reviews the program 
for the man's training, approves it if satisfactory, determines 
the place and method of instruction, estimates the length of 
the course and the cost and recommends the proposal to the 
authorities of the commission at Ottawa. If there is no ob- 
jection, the district vocational officer is instructed to carry out 
the plan suggested. 

If the crippled soldier enters on the determined course of 
training and decides he made a mistake in his choice, he is 
given an opportunity to change by going again through the 
same process. If he does not make as rapid progress as expected, 
his period of training may be extended. 

The man approved for re-education may thus be discharged 
from the army without prejudice to his educational work. As 
his military pay ceases, his pension and vocational allowance 
begin. The separation allowance to his wife is also continued. 
The net total of these various payments is about equivalent to 
what he received while still in the service. He may thus 
pursue his training without the burden of financial worry. 

The informal occupational work frequently dovetails with 
the re-educational instruction. Thus a man who casually 
enters a commercial class and finds he likes the work, may con- 
tinue at bookkeeping under the re-educational category. The 
simple shop work of the invalid often helps to disclose a 
mechanical talent along one line or another. 

The choice of trades in which war cripples may wisely be 
trained is of primary importance. In addition to considering 
whether men with certain types of physical disability can 



engage in a given trade, its present and prospective employ- 
ment possibilities must be taken into account. If it is a sea- 
sonal trade, if the number of workers in any locality is so 
small as to make difficult the absorption of many newly trained 
men, or if the industry is on the wane rather than enjoying a 
healthy growth, the indications are negative. The ideal trade 
is one in which the wage standards are high, the employment 
steady, and the demand for labor constantly increasing. In 
picking trades, the present boom conditions are discounted. It 
is also necessary to relate the choice very intimately to condi- 
tions of the local labor market. 

In this particular connection, Alberta was in an unusually 
favorable situation. Just prior to the war there had been 
planned a vocational survey of the province, the results of 
which were to determine the lines in which additional trained 
workers were required, and thus to indicate the subjects in 
which vocational education should be provided. The find- 
ings of this survey came in very usefully in dealing with dis- 
abled soldiers, because the jobs for which employers needed 
more trained men were just those for which the disabled 
soldiers might most profitably be prepared. 

Within the limits of choice industrially imposed, a wise 
determination must be based on past experience. A competent 
journeyman bricklayer who has lost an arm may be prepared 
by a suitable course in architectural drafting and the interpre- 
tation of plans, to take a position as construction foreman of 
a bricklaying gang. It were idle to give such a man a course 
in telegraphy. But a train hand who has been all his life 
familiar with railroad work may most wisely be trained as a 
telegraphic operator, with a little commercial instruction on 
the side. This man will then be fitted to obtain employment 
as station agent at some minor point on the road. There is 
an additional advantage in instances such as the two men- 
tioned in that the former employer will be willing to engage 
again a man with whose record and character he is familiar 
— once there is assured his competence in the new capacity. 

This rule applies, however, only to men who were, previous 
to their enlistment, operatives in the skilled trades. Their 
problems are the simplest of solution. But in the present war, 
when not only professional soldiers but whole nations are in 
arms, there will return disabled many young men who had not 
yet attained a permanent industrial status. Some will have 
entered the army direct from high school or college; others 
will have been migratory workers, who had not yet found a 
permanent niche and whose experience has been too varied to 




LEARNING INDOOR TRADES 



THE S U R V E Y TOR NOVEMBER 3, 1 9 1 7 



109 



be of much value; still others will have been drawn from un- 
skilled and ill-paid occupations which hold little future oppor- 
tunity for the able-bodied worker, and almost none for the 
physically handicapped. Among the latter will be found those 
who have been forced to leave school and go to work at too 
early an age, and to whom society has not given a fair chance. 
When they now return from the front, crippled for life and 
having made a great patriotic sacrifice, it is surely the duty 
of the state to repair so far as practicable the former inequality 
of opportunity and provide for them the best possible training. 
It would be a cause for national pride if, in the future, such 
men could date their economic success from the amputation 
of their limb, lost in their country's service. And this is 
entirely within the realm of probability. 

All the re-educational work of an industrial character is 
provided at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, 
at Calgary. The pupils as civilians live with their families, 
board where they please, or, if they desire, live at a military 
depot. They attend the institute as day pupils. This Provin- 
cial Institute of Technology and Art had been organized as 
a link in the general system of public education in Alberta. 
Its plan was most practical; in the words of the director, "it 
was to perform the same service to trade and commerce as do 
the universities to the professions." When the returned sol- 
diers began to arrive home, it was decided to defer its opening 
to regular pupils and turn it over temporarily to the use of 
war cripples. 

Here a variety of trades are taught most capably ; they 
cannot all be described in detail. There are courses in machine- 
shop practice, gas engine operation (stationary or tractor), 
automobile mechanics (operation and repair), electric power 
station practice, railroad or commercial telegraphy, surveying, 
architectural drafting, and the manufacture and repair of 
artificial limbs. 

One interesting activity is the preparation of men to serve as 
sanitary inspectors. The course is intended especially for men 
who have in the past been plumbers, steamfitters or carpenters, 
or who have had elementary medical training. To undertake 
this work successfully, it is considered that the man must have 
superior address and personality. Graduates of this course 
take examinations for the certificate of the Royal Sanitary 
Institute, the possession of which enables them to qualify any- 
where as to fitness. The men are employed by municipal 
health authorities, in food plants, abattoirs and the like. 

At the institute there are classes in mathematics, in which 





THE WOOD-WORKING SHOP 



LEARNING TO BE DRAUGHTSMEN 

the men work out problems arising in their mechanical work, 
and classes in English in which they write reports of their 
technical activities. There is also elementary instruction in 
chemistry for men taking up any line where this would prove 
helpful. 

In principle, the Military Hospitals Commission expects 
to meet the expense of such training. But the Province of 
Alberta has been more than generous in the division of 
financial responsibility. All capital expenditures, except a 
specific sum for some motor equipment, have been met from 
the provincial treasury, together with about half the total of 
teachers' salaries. The other half of the salary expense has 
been nationally defrayed. 

Men who have educational attainments of a certain grade 
may be trained in the normal schools of the province to be 
public school teachers, manual arts teachers, or instructors in 
commercial subjects. These opportunities are especially good. 
In such instances the province meets every expense except for 
the maintenance of the pupil and his dependents and the books 
and supplies which he may individually require. 

Agricultural instruction is provided in the farming schools 
of the province under similar terms. 

To complete a description of the facilities for disabled sol- 
diers in Alberta, it should be added that in Edmonton, the 
large city in the northern section of the province, there is a 
convalescent hospital with accommodation for 250 men, and 
exactly comparable with the Ogden institution already 
described. Here are maintained classes in commercial sub- 
jects and occupational work in gardening and woodworking. 
Men at any point in Alberta, approved for industrial courses, 
come to Calgary for instruction. 

At Frank, in the southern part of the province, is a hospital 
for tubercular cases accommodating 55 patients. One teacher 
gives instruction in commercial subjects. 

So much for an objective description of the re-educational 
facilities in the Province of Alberta. Yet with all the equip- 
ment and organization, the results might be extremely poor. 
Since they are, however, unusually successful, the reasons may 
be disclosed by a critical consideration. What conclusions 
evolved by practical experience will afford guidance in the 
organization of similar work in the United States? 

One of the first reasons for success is the caliber of the men 
directing it. This requires no analysis or elaboration. It 
should not require comment. 

Another factor making for the quality of the results of the 



110 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



plan is its treatment as industrial rather than as manual 
training. Every effort is made to approximate the conditions 
of the men's instruction in difficulty and character to the 
conditions of employment which they will enter. 

The teachers are skilled operatives of wide practical experi- 
ence, rather than pedagogues. The first effort is to find a 
competent man who has seen military services overseas. The 
second choice is a physically handicapped civilian; the third a 
civilian not eligible for military service. It is an inflexible 
rule, however, that no instructors shall be in uniform. Even 
men taken from the military service perform their instruc- 
tional work as civilians. 

The relations of the vocational officers with the representa- 
tives of organized labor are most intimate and cordial. There 
is frequent conference with the Provincial Trades and Labor 
Council and its local branches. All the unions allow the 
period of training to count toward apprenticeship time re- 
quired in any trade. The labor men have been helpful further 
in advising as to essential features of instruction and in in- 
sisting upon the importance of thorough training — that courses 
should be too long rather than too short, as the natural ten- 
dency would be. 

The most important feature of all — one on which success 
or failure depends — is the character of personal relation be- 
tween the educational officers and the individual men. It is 
to the perfection of this relation in the Alberta organization 
that must be ascribed the major share of credit for the results 
obtained. The situation throws much light also on the dis- 
cussion as to whether men under re-education should, in the 
American plan, be retained under military discipline. 

It has already been said that the decision on the part of the 
soldier to undertake training must be voluntary. The neces- 
sity for this is almost self-evident, for, though a man under 
military discipline can be ordered to a classroom, he cannot be 
made receptive or enthusiastic. The unwilling pupil will 
learn little indeed. But the voluntary choice can be stimu- 
lated and inspired. 

Before urging the convalescent soldier to take up some line 
of occupational work, the vocational officers in Alberta make 
an earnest effort to become personally acquainted with him and 
to gain his confidence and friendship. They address a man as 
"Mr. Jackson" — a small point, but noticeable after visiting 
other training schools for disabled men. They treat him in 
every way as an equal, no more and no less. In dealing with 
a civilian, the returned man is entirely at ease and talks con- 
fidentially over all aspects of his present situation and future 
prospects. In this relation it is easy to persuade him to under- 
take some activity instead of passing in leisure long hours of 
tedium ; particularly is this true when the class work is inter- 
esting and the results useful. It should be recalled, however, 
that the relation described is not easy of establishment between 
a private in the service — worn out and discouraged — and a 
superior officer. In the presence of a major the average pri- 
vate is more or less awed and not in a position to discuss 
freely personal and intimate details. 

So the vocational officers establish over the men an influence 
more effective than cold and formal discipline. It is estab- 
lished by painstaking individual attention, tact, an under- 
standing sympathy, and personal force. Its establishment is 
costly in that the number of soldiers under such "discipline" 
by a given man is limited, and in that the strength of char- 
acter and general caliber of the vocational official must be 
well above the average. Lacking in these qualifications, the 
adviser must be a failure in his job, and the quicker he is 
weeded out the better for his pupil veterans. 



When one of the soldiers, a foreigner who spoke English 
with difficulty, returned home — after an absence at the front 
of nearly two years — to find his wife on the point of delivering 
a baby, he came in his trouble not to the military officer resi- 
dent at the institution, but to "his friend," one of the voca- 
tional officials. 

Let us now consider the fitness of the military officer in 
dealing with the economic rehabilitation of disabled men. 
With armies recruited from civilian populations, as has been 
the rule with the democratic peoples in the present war, organ- 
izations have been effected almost over night and promotions 
have been spectacular and rapid. It does not follow, however, 
that the man who makes an effective fighting officer in the 
trenches will be apt in dealing with matters of social and 
economic character. The officer, who enlisted as a civilian for 
overseas service and has returned disabled and of no further 
military value, would ordinarily desire his discharge from the 
army at as early a date as possible so as to return to his former 
occupation. The man who wishes to remain on the strength, 
considering it a good job, will probably be of the least 
desirable type for the work in hand. And a regular army 
officer would be quite out of touch with industrial require- 
ments. 

If it is argued, however, that line officers should not be 
utilized in dealing with the returned man, but that civilians 
specially fitted by past experience to deal with the physically 
handicapped should be commissioned for this purpose, it may 
be observed that the men who have done duty abroad seem 
to have no respect whatever for the officer who has not seen 
similar active service and been exposed to the same dangers 
as have they themselves. It has been found in Canada an 
administrative necessity to put in charge of institutions for 
returned men, officers who have themselves been invalided 
home from France. They regard the uniform as a badge of 
military honor, to be won in actual battle experience and, 
although they have entire respect for a civilian expert in some 
particular line, they would not have the same respect for the 
same civilian if they considered him masquerading as a mili- 
tary officer when not actually a military man. If expert 
civilians are to be used for this purpose there is still another 
reason against commissioning them and putting them in uni- 
form. This consists in the natural breach between the officer 
and the private, to which reference has already been made. 

An example of the cooperation of educational authorities 
and pupils may be seen in the students' council at the Institute 
of Technology and Art. This council has limited powers of 
self-government. It works out the social and recreational 
program and recently voted for an increase in the daily hours 
of work. The school management asked the council for 
advice on the content of some of the courses. The answers 
were seriously considered, and many of the recommendations 
were adopted and incorporated into the curriculum. Such a 
relation discounts the agitation of the "sorehead." The men 
have particularly requested that they be thoroughly prepared 
for the employment to which they will go, even if studies 
must be made harder. 

That the men appreciate the value of training has been evi- 
denced in several ways. Some graduates of the course in 
moving-picture operating who were already at work in regular 
jobs asked if there could not be organized for them a morning 
course in optics, so that they might be enabled to make further 
progress in their field. Needless to say this was gladly 
done. 

The work in Alberta is still in its infancy, but its service 
already to the war cripple is well worthy of imitation. 



Social Christianity Pays Honor to 

Its Pioneers 



By Graham Taylor 



IT is a far cry from the time — a generation ago — when 
Washington Gladden's messages rang from Springfield, 
Mass., as a voice in the wilderness, to the day — a fort- 
night since — when the thousand delegates of the National 
Congregational Council instinctively rose to their feet to greet 
him as he rose to endorse the report of its Social Service Com- 
mission. The clamor, suspicion and rancor which for many 
years had challenged his demand for the application of the 
common faith to the social conditions of the common life, had 
long since lapsed into silence. Here, bearing lightly the weight 
of his eighty years, he stood in his own church to receive this 
impressive token of the affectionate homage of the whole con- 
gregational fellowship. 

And well did he deserve it, and sure was he to win it. 
For his vision of the future was never out of sight of either 
the present or the past; his steady, measured tread forward 
never put him out of sight of those who were facing in the 
same direction; his mental poise was such as ever maintained 
the sense of spiritual proportion and historical perspective ; his 
balance between the passion for progress that brooks no need- 
less delay and the patience of the "geologist's time sense" that 
let him dare to fail while waiting to win, assured his reaching 
the goal. While under the continuous fire of criticism through 
all these years, which not seldom degenerated into misrepre- 
sentation, unwarranted suspicion and even bitter ostracism, 
his Christian spirit and his loyalty to the church, his brethren 
in the ministry and the great human cause never flinched nor 
failed. At once nestor and contemporary, leader and com- 
rade, pioneer and conservator, civic soldier and "sweet singer" 
of Christian hymns, leading writer and first citizen of his 
city, minister, and more than all, manliest Christian man, the 
signs of the times that now are and are coming to be salute 
Washington Gladden. 

Other voices accompanied or followed his in the initial ef- 
forts to proclaim and propagate the new evangel of social 
Christianity. Oscar McCulloch, from his congregational 
pulpit in Indianapolis and by his leadership of the humani- 
tarian advance in his city, state and the middle West, trans- 
lated the old gospel in terms of modern scientific charity, and 
applied it through the state's reformatory, restorative and 
preventive efforts for the dependent, defective and delinquent 
classes. Prof. Francis G. Peabody led the way at Harvard 
for the social training of the church's ministry and laity by 
his practical and scholarly courses on social ethics. Pres. 
William J. Tucker, at Dartmouth College and Andover The- 
ological Seminary, took the same initiative and wielded pow- 
erful influence at these two institutions. David Allen Reed, 
at Springfield, Mass., through long years of heroic, self-sac- 
rificing struggle against indifference, ridicule and the with- 
holding of financial support, succeeded in establishing train- 
ing schools for the laity to fit young men for the new profes- 
sion of the Young Men's Christian Association service, and 
young men and women for the teaching and superintend- 
ence of Sunday schools. Chief among the initiators of the 
modern Christian social movement, these men stood to rally 
followers who now are everywhere at work in city and rural 



socialization, in pulpit and press propaganda, on the far- 
flung missionary frontier abroad and across the frontier in the 
rear at home, "clearing" and directing their efforts through 
social service commissions in every church fellowship and 
through that of the federal council of practically all Protes- 
tant denominations. 

Similar initiative and fast-pervading organizations are re- 
sulting in the varied social work of the Roman Catholic par- 
ishes, sodalities, Knights of Columbus and federations of 
Catholic charities and other social agencies. Jewish chari- 
ties and popular educational and agitational effort for social 
progress have all along been in the vanguard of progressive 
movements. 

Thus the churches are not only responding to the advancing 
spirit of the age, but have prompted and led it to a degree not 
always fairly recognized, possibly because not commensurate 
with the obligation, resources, and opportunities which are 
recognized as the advantage and assets of the church in the 
social movement. 




WASHINGTON GLADDEN 

Dean of the social movement in the churches 



111 



The Drink Problem in France 

Conditions Facing Our Soldiers 
By Elizabeth Tilton 



In the light of this war France has become convinced that alcoholism 
is a danger as serious as Germany itself. . . . Without a decisive 
victory over Germany, France would lose its position as an inde- 
pendent nation. Without a victory over alcoholism, she would be 
doomed to a slow but hopeless decadence. — Jean Finot, president 
of the Alarm (preface to L'Alcool Contre la France, Maurevert). 

TWO things the American people should do and do 
soon : One is to learn for themselves the conditions in 
France into which a million of the very flower of the 
land will be injected, and second, to act on this 
knowledge. Gallant France! Submerged as she is with mis- 
ery, it may be hard to protest against anything she does, but if 
silence should mean, not today perhaps but tomorrow, barren 
women, blinded children, tuberculosis, insanity, disease un- 
speakable, then it were cowardly not to speak and speak now. 

And it is good to know that in asking protection for our 
boys in France, thousands of French hearts will be with us. 
Says the editor of the Revue, Paris, August, 1917: "The 
'Teddies' who arrive from the United States total or partial 
prohibitionists are exposed to multiple dangers and tempta- 
tions. Let us take care! We shall commit a great wrong 
if we allow the boys of America to be exposed not only to the 
dangers of being slain at the front but to the still greater 
danger of being slain by alcohol at the rear." 

France is the only great country where there are more 
deaths than births. She faces depopulation. In 1911, for ex- 
ample, (in every 10,000) there were 187 births to 196 deaths, 
a loss of 9 persons, while Germany gained 113. This disease, 
depopulation, was brought home to France by the fact that 
owing to it and to the increasing number of men who did not 
measure up to the required standards of service, France was 
obliged to demand three instead of two years' military service 
in order to keep her army large enough. Some acts "stab 
the spirit broad awake," and this event stabbed France into 
thinking about the reasons for her depopulation. 

To what does France lay it? Various reasons are given. 
Lapouge {Selection Sociale, p. 188) sums up current explana- 
tions thus: the demand of the civil code, love of wealth, las- 
civious tastes, aristocratic pride in being an idler, and, Lapouge 
himself adds, the substitution of the Christian ideal of duty 
towards God in place of the savage ideal of duty towards the 
race ; but principally the crossing of races in France which he 
thinks leads to infecundity. In recent years, however, another 
cause has been added — alcoholism. 

France is the most alcoholized of all the countries, her 
consumption in terms of pure alcohol (as far as figures are 
available) being 22 liters per capita, against Germany, 7.47 
and United States, 6.89. As for distilled liquors, we find 
this wine-drinking land using 8.8 liters per capita, Germany 
7.29, United States 5.51 liters (1906-10). (Drink Con- 
sumption in the Different Lands, J. Gabrielssohn, Paris, 
1915.) 

Says Dr. Colombier (thesis 1912) : "It is alcoholic poison- 
ing that is responsible for this terrible evil, depopulation, ren- 
dering our men incapable of producing healthy offspring." 

In truth, the drinking of liquor and the ever-ready oppor- 
tunities afforded for drink in France are unbelievable, accord- 
112 



ing to George Maurevert (L'Alcool Contre la France, 1915, 
p. 33). One drinkshop there is in France to every 83 persons; 
in Boston, Mass., about one to every 750 persons (and we 
think this very excessive) ; in the state outside, one to every 
1,000 is allowed. We read that between 1811 and 1891 there 
were 70,000 new drink shops in France, and "the increase con- 
tinues." Again and again up to 1914 did France try to get 
limitation of her saloons, but in vain. The capital in alcohol 
was too strong, nearly one-half of the active adult males in 
France being connected with the business (Louis Jacquet, 
Alcool, p. 892). And so the scourge of alcohol depopulates a 
nation that Gambetta called "the most moral person, France." 
We hear how the first act of M. Raymond Poincare, 
(Maurevert, p. 57) when he became president of France, was 
to visit the unfortunate. At a great hospital, Dr. Jacquet, 
physician in charge, showed him the following figures which 
he himself had collected at the hospital in 1912: 

Alcoholics in hospital, 1912: Of these 

111 moderate drinkers had lost 66 children 
80 heavier drinkers had lost 73 children 
117 very heavy drinkers had lost 220 children 

Alcoholics breed, Dr. Jacquet explained, but their offspring 
die off quickly, and thus France succumbs to depopulation. 
Much moved, President Poincare turned to the reporters and 
begged them to give the widest possible publicity to the facts. 

Alcohol and Depopulation 
Indeed France fairly bristles today with investigations of 
the reasons for depopulation, and oftener than not the trouble 
connects itself with alcohol. In France every year over 
100,000 persons die of tuberculosis (Chebasse, 'p. 19), and 
an investigation by M. Merman, director of public hygiene, 
in his report to the minister of the interior on the public health 
of France, 1906-10, brings out an exact correspondence be- 
tween the districts that drink the most and those where 
they die the most from tuberculosis. Indeed, doctor after 
doctor, investigating for himself, has become convinced that, 
as Professor Landouzy says: "Alcoholism is making the bed 
for tuberculosis." For example, Dr. Cailler found that out 
of 95 tuberculous patients, 90 per cent were, if not out and 
out alcoholics, at least excessive drinkers of alcohol. Dr. 
Letulle says: "The Parisian workman is alcoholic before 
becoming tuberculous; out of 717 men that had tuberculosis 
I found 80 per cent who were alcoholized." Dr. Bausiwen, 
after a series of personal investigations, said: "The best 
preventive medicine for tuberculosis is to wage war on alco- 
hol." Dr. Courmont, of the Lyons hospitals, examining 1,000 
patients, found 442 alcoholics. Of these 200 had tuberculosis, 
although out of 588 others only 41 were tuberculous. (Che- 
basse, pp. 21-22.) "Reader," says M. Chebasse, "one has to 
confess that these figures speak out loud !" 

Still more telling are the figures of those two learned men, 
Drs. Baudran and Brouardrel, giving a comparison of 
deaths due to tuberculosis in relation to the amount of alcohol 
consumed per capita and per annum (Chebasse, p. 23): 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



113 



Deaths (tuberculosis) per 10,000 
of inhabitants 

From 30 to 40 deaths 

From 40 to 50 deaths 

From 50 to 60 deaths 

From 60 to 70 deaths 

From 70 to 80 deaths 

From 80 to 90 deaths 



Liters of alcohol 
consumed 
12.47 
13.21 
14.75 
16.86 
17.16 
17.80 



Coming to insanity, we find the same alarming tale — 
alcoholism is a main source of this terrible scourge that rav- 
ages France. Dr. LeGrain, chief physician of the asylums of 
the Seine said, 1897: "There are confined in France 80,000 
insane; one-fourth, or about 20,000, owe their malady to 
alcohol." As a matter of fact, he tells us, the curve of insanity 
and the curve of drink in France run parallel, and a careful 
investigation ordered by the minister of the interior showed 
that the districts where the people drank the most were the 
ones where the number of insane is generally high and that, 
as was to be expected, the proportion of alcoholic insane is 
higher than in the districts with low consumption. (Econo- 
miste Francais, 1907, Vol. II, p. 943; see Chebasse, p. 27.) 

It seems amazing when one knows the facts that anyone 
can say, "No drunkenness in wine-drinking countries." The 
people on the spot do not say it. Says Dr. Hercod, editor of 
the Internationale Monatsschr>ft, in French Switzerland: "I 
laughed aloud as I read the passage where good Dr. Sborboro 
says that intoxication is practically unknown in Switzerland. 
According to official statistics, drink with us is an operating 
factor in 10 per cent of deaths of men over twenty years. 
Twenty per cent of our mental disease, 40 per cent of our 
crime and our alcoholism, come from fermented drinks, wine 
and beer. In Italy 28.3 per cent of lunatics in asylums are 
there because of drink." 

Says a rich French lady reporting to M. Jean Finot on 
conditions in the agricultural regions of France during the 
war: "I have had to give up working my fields, for whereas 
before the war my men got drunk only once a week, they now 
get drunk three times a week." (France and Alcoholism in 
War-Time, Jean Finot, Translation, American Issue Publish- 
ing Company, Westerville, Ohio.) 

M. George Berry, deputy from Paris, speaking in the 
French Chamber, January, 21, 1913, (Maurevert, p. 62) 
said : "My portfolio is full of letters from commercial trav- 
elers telling of the terrible conditions in the provinces of 
France." He then gave the following specimen: 

I have traveled for twenty years for the wine trade in Brittany 
and Normandy; it is sickening to witness daily such scenes as I do. 
I have seen parents give calvados [brandy] to children of three 
years. I have seen young fellows of sixteen at breakfast with a 
little quart of calvados to every two of them. I have seen groups of 
women and children lying dead drunk in the road and in the ditches. 
I have seen a little girl of three or four years weeping bitter tears 
because her mother was not giving her quickly enough her drink 
of brandy. 

Can anybody really think that this means less drunkenness 
than we have in the United States? 

The fact is, our boys will meet in France a curious mental 
attitude towards drunkenness, and we may as well get to 
know this attitude and then meet it as well as we can. Up 
to 1863-70, France was principally a wine-drinker. Then 
came the phylloxera, a disease that destroyed her vines. In 
this period France greatly increased her production of distilled 
liquors from grain, beets, etc., and rapidly became almost 
insane for ever stronger and stronger beverages, until the 
deadly absinthe and the appetizers came to their present 
(1914) enormous proportions. Absinthe is said to be made 
of four deadly drugs and five deadly poisons. 



Now there are two schools. One, the half way school, 
would prohibit absinthe and distilled liquors but allow wine 
and beer. Some members of this school declare that wine and 
beer are wholesome drinks. Others say they are not whole- 
some, but the wine interests of France are so powerful, the 
vineyards such an enormous industry, that there is no hope 
of erasing them; the thing to do is to get what you can, that 
is, prohibit absinthe and distilled liquors. This is one school. 
The society called the Alarm, of which M. Jean Finot is 
president, belongs to this school. 

This school predominates. Many of them affirm that, of 
course, wine makes drunkenness but drunkenness is an un- 
avoidable evil. Drunkenness is simply taking too much at 
one time. Alcoholism is constant imbibing, till one is dis- 
eased, dies prematurely of tuberculosis, epilepsy or madness, 
leaving, in turn, offspring that die off easily. This alcoholism 
they fight and they affirm that France had drunkenness before 
she took to absinthe but did not have alcoholism. 

Against this school are the abstinents. They affirm that 
an anti-alcohol movement that grants wine, beer and drunken- 
ness as necessary evils will never stop the depopulation of 
France from alcoholism. Total abstinence is the only efficient 
method. They show that tuberculosis and insanity from too 
much alcohol connects itself with the heavy wine-drinking 
that goes on as well as with absinthe, and that France had 
these troubles before the days of absinthe. Thus as far back 
as the wine drinking days of 1767, the celebrated Lieutaud 
(Chebasse, p. 20) wrote: "Tuberculosis comes from immod- 

Courtesy Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 



dlx! CJuand 

suppzimeza-t-oa 

taCcooC? 




Inscuvezoous a 

C Union fa Fiancaise s Contie L'QCcooC 

28.Rue des Saints-Peres. de2 Seuresa5heures 






FROM A FRENCH ANTI-ALCOHOL POSTER 



114 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



erate use of wine and liquors." In 1831, Becquerel wrote: 
"Diseases from drunkenness are the following — tuberculosis," 
etc. Again they cite various investigations showing that wine 
is not only augmenting the craving for the stronger drinks 
but a cause of trouble in itself. Thus Dr. Lancereaux in his 
report on Tuberculosis at the Congress of 1905 (Chebasse, 
p. 24), shows the drinks used by 1,229 cases of tuberculosis: 

Drinks with essences (like absinthe) 259 

Drinks — essences with spirits 254 

Drinks — spirits alone 91 

Drinks — spirits and wine 93 

Drinks — wine 144 

Drinks — mixed spirits, wine and essence 388 

There wine is certainly contributing its share. Coming 
to figures of wine and insanity, an official investigation made 
in 1907, comprising 9,932 cases, showed the following degree 
of responsibility for each drink (survey ordered by minister 
of interior, 1907, Chebasse, p. 29) : 



Men 

Absinthe 1 .372 

Brandy 1,911 

Beer or cider 453 

Wine 1,275 

Appetizers (aperitives) 2,051 

7,062 



Women 


Total 


165 


1,537 


720 


2,631 


211 


664 


480 


1,755 


1,294 


3,345 



2,870 



9,932 



There wine is again an operating factor in insanity. The 
fact is that men tend to drink so much of these lighter drinks 
that the amount of pure alcohol consumed often equals that 
taken by the drinker of distilled liquors. Dr. E. Q. Millett, 
of Berne, found that as the consumption of distilled liquor 
declined in Switzerland and the consumption of wine in- 
creased, the actual per capita consumption in terms of pure 
alcohol rose 10 per cent (years compared 1880-1884 with 
1893-1902). 

Dr. Forel, of the Asylum Ellikon, found in a period of eight 
years, that out of 500 alcoholics received, 450 were alcoholized 
by wine and beer (report of Brussels Anti-Alcoholic Con- 
gress, Vol. II, p. 7). 

The facts, really, are on the side of the abstinents. You 
can not have a successful anti-alcohol movement that prohibits 
absinthe and spirits only but accepts wine and beer as whole- 
some drinks and drunkenness as a necessary evil. 

The plain truth is that our boys are going to a land where 
wine-interests conscript much of the scientific thinking on 
the alcohol question, so powerful are they; a land where, for 
their sake, wine and beer are allowed to run like water and 
where prostitution runs like water too. 

Up to the beginning of the war, France had practically 
done nothing, though her parliament had been importuned 
again and again. They "seesawed," we read. When bills were 
up against home-distilling, the deputies would say: "If it 
were for limiting the number of saloons, we might listen" ; and 
when the bill was for limiting the saloons, they would say: 
"Now if it were for abolishing home distilling, that would be 
different." 

Home distilling does greatly complicate the problem. This 
privilege of the bouiller de cru is given to men who raise 
grapes, apples, pears, and the like. They may distill wine 
made from their own fruits into brandies. These wine- 
brandies are always being made behind the door of a country 
home. The trickling goes on all day long, and it means con- 
stant sipping — the baby, the children, mother and father. But 
the thing that makes the custom so hard to remove is this: 
Though the sale of these home-made brandies is forbidden 
they are sold, the selling is winked at, and thousands of francs 



thus trickle yearly into the farmers' homes from the trickle 
behind the door. In some districts laborers are paid in brandy. 
All this is pernicious, but the custom is so common that it seems 
few districts, if any, where it obtains, will send a man to 
parliament who would vote away this source of profit. One 
argument often advanced in parliament was that the abolition 
of this privilege would alienate from the newly formed republic 
important royalist districts which had with difficulty been 
won to it. 

In short, the whole liquor situation is so deep with diffi- 
culties, that though the intellectuals understand the condi- 
tions and have instituted a fight against them, not until the 
Germans were marching on her soil did France act. Condi- 
tions at that time were terrible. An artillery officer writing 
to M. Jean Finot, edition of La Revue, said: 

On August 2 and the following day I was present in Brittany at 
the departure of trainloads of mobilized men, all intoxicated to such 
a point that the guards were ordered to lock the compartments. 
Although this was done, arrived at Brest these marines continually 
found means of getting too much to drink. And as they were more 
embarrassing than useful, the naval officer in charge of the district 
sent them back home. (France and Alcoholism, p. 2.) 

The first to act was then the governor-general of Nice. 
He forbade the sale of absinthe on August 8, 1914 — called 
"the victory of the Marne of anti-alcoholism." On August 16, 
the minister of the interior ordered the prefects of all the 
provinces to stop the sale of absinthe and similar drinks 
(Maurevert, pp. 293-295). 

On March 17, 1915, absinthe was permanently prohibited 
by the French government, but distilled liquors, wine and 
beer are still for sale, though some few restrictions have 
been introduced, distilled liquors (over 23 per cent alcohol) 
must be sold with food and so on. According to information 
given by a French officer at Harvard University, the soldiers 
themselves have for a ration one-half liter of wine or a liter of 
beer or cider, or one-sixteenth of a liter of rum. (A liter is a 
little more than a quart.) 

A great fight is on to stop the sale of distilled liquors, but 
as yet it has not succeeded. Pictures of conditions are given 
in a little booklet (L'Union Sacre Contre L'Alcoolism by 
Jean Finot, translated in part under the title of France and 
Alcoholism in War-Time by Cora F. Stoddard, 36 Bromfield 
street, Boston). I quote extracts: 

May 17, the L'Ouest Eclair writes: 

"From 5 to 9 o'clock in the evening, the stations, which are over- 
flowing with troops (young recruits and old reservists), turn loose 
in the city bands of men away from home, having nothing to do, who, 
during these four hours, go from cabaret to cabaret, cramming them- 
selves into low dog-holes black with smoke, where the air seems un- 
breathable. After these long stops, many of them go out staggering 
to return to the barracks. 

"What can our generals be thinking of this preparation for the 
fatigues of a campaign, and how can one conceive of the intensive 
training of our young soldiers under such conditions? 

"Thus, well before the departure for the front, the result of this 
state of affairs shows itself by the daily admission to the hospitals 
of numerous sick — so numerous that it has been necessary to find an 
annex to receive them. 

"Grippe, pneumonia, or some other infection that would not be 
dangerous to a healthy organism carries these men off in two or 
three days, owing to complications due solely to alcohol. The mor- 
tality among these men is frightful. All the physicians now attached 
to military hospitals could testify to the fact that France thus loses 
every day hundreds of soldiers. At a time when so many are suffer- 
ing from this war, is it not extremely painful to see those upon whom 
we count for deliverance waste their feeble resources and abuse and 
destroy themselves by alcohol when the whole strength of the nation 
should be straining toward a single end — victory?" 

Mr. Hayeux, editor of La Pensee Ouvriire, writes: 

"In a city on the western front,, six soldiers whose wounds were 
nearly healed had permission to leave the hospital for a few hours 
in charge of a sergeant also convalescent. They went to a little 
village, stopping at the smoking-room of the place, and asked for a 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 191 7 115 

Courtesy Everybody's Maijazine 







"Food Made into Drink Is the Most Dramatic Phase of Waste in This Country. Ft Fs Waste of the Blood of Our Soldiers. 



drink. When evening came, only one was in condition to get up and 
start for the hospital. The five others and the sergeant were under 
the table. In going through the streets, this one made himself so 
conspicuous that he was arrested by two gendarmes and taken back 
to the hospital, where he arrived so ill that he had to be placed under 
medical care again. His five comrades and the officer did not re- 
turn until the next morning, and then in what condition ! 

"The military authorities, shocked by this spree, had all seven 
sent to prison. The sergeant, who had served so heroically at the 
front that he had received mention in the order of the day, and in 
recognition of his exploits was going to be promoted, will be de- 
graded. The soldiers, who had fought courageously and were to 
have fifteen days' convalescence leave of absence at home, having 
done their prison terms will return to the front without having been 
able to embrace their families." 

In a document which came from St. Lunaire early in December, a 
lady well known in Paris wrote, among other things, the following: 

"Our little community has about 550 wounded who, when hardly 
fit to go out, spend their time in the drink-shops. Unfortunate 
Algerians, Arabs, Moroccans or Senegalese are tempted by their 
French comrades, and the drunkenness produced in these children of 
distant lands has frightful results. They become a veritable plague 
to the population, to say nothing of the danger they have to run 
as to their own health." 

"Before caring for the wounded," a lady of great intelligence and 
sympathy writes to M. Finot, "I had no idea to what extent the love 
of drink can possess certain men. The soldiers who come from the 
people, especially, only live to get out to go to the drink-shop. In 
one sitting they destroy the results of long treatment and watchful 
care. This is what happened to me in the case of a sick wounded 
soldier attacked by albuminuria who, hardly out of bed, went out to 
get abominably intoxicated." 

Speaking of alcohol and the wounded, M. Jean Finot again writes: 

"I am told that several shelters for wounded soldiers established 
in the outskirts of Paris by philanthropic women are on the point of 
being closed. The unfortunate convalescents, unable to resist the 
temptation of alcohol, often return home dead drunk and provoke 
scandals which frighten and discourage the ladies at the head of 
these institutions. 

"For reasons easy to understand, we cannot publish the names 
of several ladies who have lately sent me their grievances on this 
subject. It would be superfluous to multiply examples. 

"Mme. Z., who directs an ambulance for convalescents, told me she 
had to call on the police at least three times a week to have soldiers 



taken away who came back dead drunk. One enterprising con- 
valescent having a few francs at his disposal is sufficient to lead off 
a dozen others into a debauch. 

"The evil thus increases daily. I have recently visited some 
twenty hospitals and ambulances, and everywhere the directresses 
have said the same thing: 'Alcoholism does irreparable harm to the 
wounded and the sick. Why is it that the government takes no action 
to save our poor soldiers?' 

"In addition to the press of Paris, which is helping our efforts, 
all the regional newspapers are doing the same. There are pub- 
lished in them from time to time such revolting facts that one would 
think them impossible if the local censorship in permitting their 
publication did not thus guarantee their authenticity. 

"Here, for example, is what we read in L'Ouest-Eclair of May 17: 

" 'All physicians and surgeons who have had the care of the 
wounded since the beginning of the war will tell you the enormous 
difference there is in the rapidity (or even possibility) of recovery 
in two wounded men according to whether they are alcoholic or not. 

"'The most terrible mutilations heal with a rapidity that seems 
miraculous in a young and healthy organism; on the contrary, the 
alcoholics either die more quickly of super-acute complications, or 
cumber the hospitals for months with interminable wounds. 

" 'When, finally, we have them almost cured, can you realize how 
heart-breaking it is for us doctors, as happened to me today, to see 
one of those whom, after many dangers, we had almost pulled 
through, make use of his first leave to enter one after another the 
three saloons close by the hospital, and, come back drunk in the 
evening? 

" 'I have had occasion to confer with a considerable number of 
physicians who care for the military wounded. One ought to hear 
them relate the difficulties in certain garrisons caused by former and 
recent alcoholism, for the patients, barely recovered, go to the taverns 
for consolation and amusement' " 

OF course, these conditions are, as the thoughtful people of 
France say, deplorable. Why is nothing done? Why 
was nothing done in the long years before the war? The 
French tell us again and again that with nearly one-half of the 
active adult male population of France vitally interested in the 
liquor business, the alcohol question becomes an electoral one. 
To retain his seat in Parliament, a deputy must vote in favor 



116 



THE SURFEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 19 17 



of the money in liquor. Says Jean Finot, president of the 
Alarm (Maurevert, preface): 

The best among the representatives of the people do not take up 
arms in this struggle. Their patriotic vision makes them easily 
understand all the harm that alcoholism does the country, but the 
desire to keep their popularity prevents them from acting. The 
representative spirits of the Third Republic almost always agree 
with those who combat the evil, but only when they are not in power. 
Once masters of our destinies, they retreat before the parliamentary 
majority which is in the power of the drink trade. 

Says M. Franc. Nohain : "Our legislators like other mon- 
strosities are preserved by alcohol" {Echo de Paris, February 
7, 1912). 

Indeed, it has been charged that the French government is 
elected to save the wine industry and to push it. For example, 
the French government told the Czar that if he acceded to Fin- 
land's demand for national prohibition, it would not loan 
Russia money. Again when Sweden had to borrow, France 
demanded that the duty on French wines be lowered by almost 
one-half (Hercod, Internationale Monatsschrift, March 1909, 
p. 98). 

In short, that worst of things has happened in France : A 
private interest has become so vast, so welded among the 
people, that it is greater than public interest in protecting 
the welfare of the race. 

But we must not feel superior to our gallant ally. To un- 
derstand all is to pardon all. Our South, our West, that 
did not have a very strong moneyed interest in liquor, have 
achieved prohibition. But our East, where there is great 
money in the liquor business, abounds in congressmen who 
fight precisely like a French deputy for retaining the business 
— for example, Senators Lodge of Massachusetts and Penrose 
of Pennsylvania. Where there is great money in liquor we 
behave precisely as France does and, of course, it is delicate 
asking France to do anything outside the camps, for though 
we tried for war prohibition here at home, up to now we 
have got very little. 



Still we have taken liquor out of our camps and where 
possible, we have removed saloons from their vicinity, and thus 
we are trying to train the cleanest army ever raised. We 
read, however, that once in France our boys will have the 
French liquor ration. The following is from the Boston 
Transcript of August 6, 1917: 

James Duncan Miller, Liberal member from northeast Lancashire, 
asked in the House of Commons whether representations had been 
received from the military authorities regarding the character of 
the canteens for American troops here and in France and whether 
any beverages other than non-alcoholic were provided. In reply 
James Ian McPherson, parliamentary secretary of the War Office, 
said the canteens were similar" to those open to the British troops. 
No objections had been raised by the American military authorities, 
he added, to similar arrangements in France. 

It certainly seems absurd to have a sober army here and 
a drinking army at the front. It seems more than absurd, it 
seems dangerous, when one realizes that according to Dr. 
Haven Emerson, commissioner of health of New York city, 
(letter to E. Tilton, June, 1917) figures point to the fact 
that 75 per cent of venereal disease is contracted under the 
influence of alcohol, and that beer and wine are as good 
procurers as whiskey — they let down the bars of control. 

Raymond B. Fosdick, chairman of the Army Committee 
on Training Camp Activities, says that every effort will be 
made abroad to keep the prostitutes away from our camps. 
Can anything be done at the same time to keep alcohol away, 
for orice alcohol is admitted, the problem of venereal disease 
rises enormously? 

Delicate and difficult as the whole problem is, it must 
be met. What we need is a government investigation of the 
whole situation. The French intellectuals do understand 
the danger and, perhaps, we can, if the right people approach 
the problem, work hand in hand with our brave ally, to keep 
both French and Americans and all soldiers from being "slain 
by alcohol at the rear." At least we can ask for a "dry ration" 
for our boys. 



THE PARK 

By Paul Lyman Benjamin 

IS this the park, 
This gap between the tenements, 
This lolling tongue of the city 
Lapping into the water 
That swirls by in an endless fret and fury? 

Is this the park, 

Where little children play in the grime of the roadway 

Building their dreams, 

Dreams of dust, 

Where mothers, drab and gray, 

Bowed with the age-old burden of maternity, 

Bent with the age-old burden of the race, 

Squat on the benches? 

Is this the park, 
This bit of fenced-in green, 
This bit of walled-in blue, 
This bit of shut-in childhood, 
Is this the park? 



The Eternal Masculine 

By Cecilia Razovski 



IN her book Woman and Labor, Olive Schreiner makes 
mention of the fact that one can judge the degree of 
civilization which a nation has attained by the status 
of the women of that nation. 

We who are 'interested in the advancement of women in 
this country have been supinely content to accept as true the 
statements made by Europeans visiting our land, that the 
American woman is above all other women of all other 
nations, the most pampered, the most educated, the most in- 
dependent, etc., etc. We nod our heads in calm assent when 
a cultivated Japanese informs us that "America is a woman's 
country; she it is who has the most advantages here." We 
forget the thousands of foreign women who have come to us, 
for the most part ignorant, illiterate and without any training 
whatsoever, doing what their mothers and grandmothers did 
before them. We forget that there are thousands upon thou- 
sands of European men in our midst thoroughly imbued with 
the old continental standards regarding women. Yet these 
old standards must be changed if we are sincere in our desire 
to attain a higher form of civilization and progress. These 
strangers from across the water must be taught to discard 
un-American habits and conventions; to accept new ideals. 

No one understands the difficulty of reforming alien 
standards better than the teacher in the evening school. No one 
again, is so well aware of the fact that the only way of 
reaching the foreign woman in the home is through the hus- 
band and brother at the school, since the "mamma" (as they 
call her) is far too busy being a "mamma" to spare any time 
for school. And, as in the eyes of the husband or brother, the 
"mamma" is not at all important, nor worthy of much con- 
sideration except to see that she performs her manifold 
duties promptly, cheaply and without much annoyance to her 
lord and master, teacher's task is rather a delicate one. 

Thus soliloquizes an instructor of English to foreigners in a 
big city night school, as she hastens to her duties, after having 
participated in a suffrage parade and demonstration that 
afternoon, in the meantime endeavoring to think up a new 
lesson which will at once be diverting, instructive and civic, 
and will contain a feminist moral wrapped up in words of one 
syllable — simply but subtly. 

The class has assembled. The effects of the suffrage parade 
still lingering, teacher asks one of the pupils what important 
event had transpired that afternoon. "I bought a new suit, 
teacher," he makes reply, which is sufficient to dampen the 
ardor of a suffragist for the time being, and teacher opens 
her book. 

The lesson in the book is about a woman sewing with 
needle and thread. Pasquale begins to read. Explanations 
are made; the various pupils spell the words in the lesson 
and write sentences on the blackboard. "Now, Mr. Contilli," 
says teacher briskly, "give me a sentence with the word 
'button'." 

Mr. Contilli: "I make my wife sew a button on my coat." 
Teacher, who is still under the influence of the parade, is in 
no mood to accept the word "make," and proceeds thereupon 
to explain : "You do not 'make' your wife sew the button on 
your coat, Mr. Contilli. You ask her. You say 'please sew 
my button on my coat,' and if she is too busy with the baby, 
you sew it on yourself." 

Immediately there is a buzz of interest and amazement 



throughout the class. "What," says Mr. Contilli in outraged 
tones, "my wife she no sew button on my coat, I beat her." 

"But that cannot be, Mr. Contilli," patiently continues 
teacher, realizing with horror that she is dealing with seven- 
teenth-century minds so far as women are concerned ; "in 
America, men do not whip their wives if they do not do as 
they are told." And teacher glances at the other men, some 
of whom have been in this country for a much longer period 
of time, trusting to receive sympathy and assistance in her 
effort to free her enslaved sisters. 

But no; all the men are interested, all the men are desirous 
of taking part in the conversation, but not one of them 
agrees with teacher. A woman's place is in the home, with 
her kitchen and her babies — the lives and training of Ameri- 
can girls are dreadful mistakes — even teacher, asserts one 
man in his broken English (and with due apologies for any 
possible lack of respect) is not fulfilling her destiny. She 
should "getta da husban' " as soon as possible. 

Teacher sees her opportunity and seizes it. In the simplest 
of English she gives these men their first lesson in the history 
of the woman movement — the old, old story of the industrial 
revolution which forced women out of the homes and into 
public work, winding up in an eloquent eulogy of the men of 
America, who were big and broad and noble in their opinions, 
who permitted women to be educated as men are, and to de- 
velop themselves in all fields even as their brothers. 

Just as teacher finishes this primer lesson in woman's suf- 
frage, in walks the principal with a gentleman. "Miss R, 
may I present Mr. James?" (Usual business of being de- 
lighted.) "Mr. James is connected with the naturalization 
office here and is desirous of addressing these men on the sub- 
ject of citizenship. He has blanks, so that possibly some of the 
men may be willing to fill out their first papers after the mat- 
ter is explained to them." 

Mr. James makes a very business-like talk on the advantages 
and benefits of naturalization in words of not less than three 
syllables, and the men listen politely, if not intelligently, to his 
speech. However, seeing that he has not made himself clear, 
Mr. James asks the teacher to explain to the men just what 
the purpose of his visit is, and sits down to await the result. 

"Mr. Zatlovic," says teacher, "tell me in your own words 
what Mr. James has said to you." But Mr. Zatlovic, mur- 
muring that "he talk too dam big words," informs teacher 
that he cannot. So teacher, after many attempts to start the 
ball a-rolling, repeats in A, B, C language the gist of Mr. 
James's talk and encourages the men to take out their "first 
papers" and become citizens of this great free land. "You 
may vote after you are a citizen, you know. You have the 
right to help select the men who govern this country." 

Here Mr. Contilli, the eternal masculine in him still har- 
boring slight resentment because teacher has attempted to 
place women on the same plane with men, suddenly awakens 
to a staggering realization. 

"Teacher," shouts Mr. Contilli, "you say American men — 
they treat ladies just like men?" "Yes," says teacher, "they — " 
Mr. Contilli interrupts, grim determination in his eye: 
"Teacher, if I take out papers, I can vote?" "Yes," says 
teacher, still not sensing his drift. "Teacher," bawls Mr. 
Contilli, loudly and triumphantly, standing up in his desk, 
"if American men so good, why we can vote, and you can't ?" 

117 







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' 



r. 












.. 



VOTES fol ill 

T> ABIES have becoiA 
*-* campaigns. Cam(^ 
about taxes and pub* 
dares to gainsay thai 
children. In a seriel pi 
trated by Balfour Ke] b 
Committee of New \ 
Mayor Mitchel's adm 
plished for children I 
baby welfare station.'] v. . 
ing institutions and 1* •: 
grounds. The series ■.fci' 
candidates in the preswv 
to show their prog» 
childhood. 







119 




ABIES 

issue in political 
s may squabble 
ilities, but none 
is champion of 
pamphlets illus- 
Public Welfare 
ity depicts what 
tion has accom- 
h Gary schools, 
roved child-car- 
parks and play- 
allenge to other 
ayoralty contest 
|for conserving 





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w 



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Prison Walls without a Prison 

A Plan for Restraining and Re- 
forming Offenders in Farm Villages 

By JVilliam R. George 



IN 1899, four years after the first George Junior Re- 
public had been started at Freeville, N. Y., I worked 
out in my mind a plan for dealing with law-breakers. 
When I discussed this plan with my co-workers only a 
few took it seriously. Many were skeptical and a few laughed 
outright. Since the republic idea itself had been laughed at 
four years earlier, I was not much annoyed at this reception. 
At that time, however, I did not have an opportunity to put 
the plan into effect (though it has since been tried out on a 
small scale at Freeville), and I am now putting it before the 
public in somewhat complete outline because I believe the 
time is ripe for a full and sympathetic trial of its main features. 
The plan is based on many things I have learned in my 
republic experience. Though possessing perhaps a novel form 
and exterior, it is in reality little more than an extension to 
adults of principles already successfully applied to young 
persons. The Junior Republic and its methods have become 
very generally understood. A brief reference to Freeville 
will, however, demonstrate two or three of the principles that 
I desire to point out before coming to the larger scheme that 
I wish to propose for dealing with all law-breakers. 

The republic is known to be a village, very much like other 
villages, where boys and girls of varying degrees of wayward- 
ness and mostly of minor age live under conditions that they 
themselves create and largely control. Some of those who 
become its citizens have been guilty of crime and have been 
duly sentenced by the courts; others have previously served 
convictions in correctional institutions; some have only been 
unmanageable and have been sent to the republic for the train- 
ing and discipline their parents could not give them ; a few of 
the young citizens have never been bad at all. Not all arc 
under twenty-one, for some do not tell the truth about their 
ages, being anxious to secure admission to the republic rather 
than to be sent to another place of correction. We have had 
them all ages up to twenty-five. 

Many of the young outlaws who have come to the republic- 
have been proud of their lawlessness. They had gained pop- 
ularity with their comrades and notoriety with officials in the 
cities where they had lived. Their names had been printed in 
the newspapers; they were persons of distinction and, in 
their own eyes, of honor. What a change they found when 
they brought this spirit to the republic! Here their depreda- 
tions against property and persons injured the very people 
who had formerly made much of them — their own com- 
panions. Property in the republic belongs to the citizens, and 
the citizens have their own laws, courts and machinery of 
justice, so that when the newcomer committed offenses that 
had formerly brought him applause, he suddenly found him- 
self arrested by republic officials. He was tried by a court 
of his own companions, held guilty by a jury of his peers, and 
ultimately sent to the republic prison in the custody of Ms 
own pals. Wrongdoing lost its romance. The result was 
that his conception of his own relation to society was changed 
in short order. If he possessed a strong instinct for leadership, 
the only way he could exercise that instinct was by working 

120 



with, not against, the group in which he lived. As he was 
likely to acquire property himself, he soon came to have a 
hearty dislike for thieves who could not let what belonged to 
others alone. 

One of the rules at the republic, made by the citizens them- 
selves, is that a person who does no work cannot eat. The 
magic effect of putting squarely up to a boy or girl (and 
some of our citizens, be it remembered, have been really men 
and women) the alternative of working or starving, has been 
demonstrated over and over again. Industry is a habit, and 
one way of forming that habit in a person competent to work, 
but either lazy or ignorant, is to make him understand that 
no food shall pass his lips until he shows a desire to be in- 
dustrious. 

For a while in the development of the republic, it was the 
custom of those who wanted our methods to be put to the test 
to send us the worst young characters they could lay their 
hands. Friends did this, as well as enemies. How well we 
stood the test is now known. It is not necessary in this day 
to argue that the republic method of reformation, involving 
self-government and most of the prerogatives of citizenship, 
has proved successful. The results speak for themselves. It 
is enough to point to the six other republics now in operation 
in this country and to the one in England. 

One of my co-workers who laughed, in 1899, at the idea of 
extending the republic system to older offenders was Thomas 
Mott Osborne. Mr. Osborne was then a member of the 
board of trustees of the Freeville republic. He quickly came 
to have a different view, however, and said, in his introduction 
to my book, The Junior Republic: 

Then Mr. George opened my mind to the possibilities of the same 
principles being used as a basis for an intelligent and reforming 
prison system — a system which should be social sanitary drainage — 
not merely a moral cesspool. At first I laughed at the idea; then 
I saw the truth. 

Mr. Osborne discussed my plan frequently with me after 
that. We agreed that there were two ways in which it 
might be tried out experimentally. One of these was to test 
the self-government features in an existing prison or reforma- 
tory and among the better class of prisoners ; the other was to 
try it out more modestly on a farm adjacent to the Freeville 
republic. Mr. Osborne strongly favored the first method, I 
the latter. I was on the point several times of trying the plan 
out in the republic itself, but the citizen body seemed wedded 
to the established methods. (Of course I could have put the 
plan into operation arbitrarily, but that would hardly have 
been, as we say at Freeville, "republicy.") Finally, disagree- 
ments broke out among those connected with the management 
of the republic, and my idea of prison reform was forced for 
the time being into the background. When this internal 
warfare was over, Mr. Osborne, my closest friend for a num- 
ber of years, and I were destined to continue our labors in 
different fields. 

The plan that I have referred to, and that I have come 
to call in my own mind the "social sanitarium," contemplates 






THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



121 



the substitution of a single and unique institution for all the 
prisons, reformatories and penitentiaries now within the bor- 
ders of a state. Before the state abolishes these, however, it 
would obtain a large section of land and establish on this a 
series of enclosures, each several thousand acres in size. These 
enclosures would adjoin one another. Each would contain a 
good-sized village, resembling any village of the usual sort. 
There would be enough land in each enclosure for a limited 
amount of farming. 

The outside boundaries of the whole section would be 
amply guarded. This may be done by a stockade or by 
guards patrolling. 

Any person found guilty of a criminal offense would be sent 
by the judge committing him to the first of these enclosures. 
(Persons convicted of first degree murder, and possibly of 
second degree, also, may be exceptions to this procedure. For 
such offenders there could still be capital punishment, or — 
since the feeling against capital punishment is increasing — a 
special enclosure farm for life imprisonment.) In this first 
enclosure the individual would live until he had proved himself 
fit to re-enter society. A group of expert penologists or "social 
doctors," somewhat resembling parole boards at the present 
tiftie, but more highly trained for their tasks, would spend a 
large part of their time in the enclosure and determine when 
a person is fit to be released. This involves no new principle of 
penology and is not unlike the idea that has been described 
by others as the "court of rehabilitation." 

In the first enclosure the individual would find himself 
part of a typical village life. The size of the population 
would be determined by the number of persons committed 
by the courts and, of course, vary in different states and 
at different moments, depending partly upon considerations 
that I shall mention presently. The population might be one 
thousand or it might be ten. The same freedom of action 
that the resident of any village enjoys in the world outside 
would be allowed here within the enclosure. People would 
dress and act in the ordinary way, they would be subject to 
the laws of the state and conduct their own local government. 



They would earn their living by their own work. There 
would be trades to follow and professions to enter. Friends 
and relatives would be allowed to visit them, and possibly a 
prisoner's family might reside with him if it desired. That 
would be a question to be determined later by state authori- 
ties. At any rate, every moral force that would benefit the 
men residing in the enclosure should be permissible. It might 
be that all money possessed by prisoners would be taken away 
from them when they entered, to be restored when they left. 
They would be allowed to acquire property in the enclosure 
itself, with the exception of land. Individuals might lease 
small lots of land, but the title would remain in the hands of 
the state. If those sent to the enclosure had business interests 
on the outside, they might keep in touch with their associates, 
though it might be desirable to deprive them of the right to 
receive income from such sources. They would retain the 
rights of citizens in matters of government relating solely to 
the enclosure, but they could not, probably, be allowed to vote 
on affairs connected with life outside. 

The chief disabilities under which persons sent to this en- 
closure would suffer are four: They would be required to be 
self-supporting — that is, to work or starve ; they would have to 
support, if possible, their families and others dependent upon 
them; they would be compelled to make restitution, if possible, 
in whole or in part, to the persons they had injured by their 
crimes ; and they could not leave until the board of penologists 
— or "social doctors," as I prefer to call them — allowed 
them to do so. 

Now some persons among this community would commit 
offenses against the laws of the enclosure and against the laws 
of the state operative there. Such individuals would be tried 
by their fellow-citizens in courts presided over by a judge 
chosen from their own number. If the offense committed 
were a misdemeanor, they would be sent to the jail or 
village guard house, corresponding to a similar institution on 
the outside, and if the offense were a felony they would be 
banished to the second enclosure. 

In this second enclosure the delinquents would find condi- 



Diagram of Social Sanitarium 

Outside Boundary , Guarded by Society 





Guard 1 — 1 For Misde- 
House ' — ' meanants 






Guard 1 — 1 For Misde- 
House ' — ' meanants 






Guard 1 — 1 For Misde- 
House ' — ' meanants 






Guard I — I For Misde- 
House ' — ' meanants 






Controlled by 




















Sympathetic State 




























Officials 










Contains 






Contains 






Contains 
















Law-breakers from 






Law-breakers from 






Law-breakers from 






Contains 


5 


Contains 






first enclosure 






second enclosure 






third enclosure 






Law-breakers from 


CD 

'5 


Law-breakers com- 


A 






CO 






CO 






CO 




fourth and, therefore 




en 


mitted by courts. 








41 

a 






2 

eg 






41 




all enclosures 


>> 




a 






a 






a 






a 






-a 


Characterized by: 


a 
1— i 


t> 




a 
1— 1 


41 
3 

CO 




a 
— 


4) 
3 

CO 




a 
i— 1 


4) 
3 

CO 




-a 

4) 


Typical village life 


>> 


1 




>> 




;*, 




>> 


Privilege and 


T3 




— 


J> 




.a 


"0 




-Q 






-Q 


"0 


liberty curtailed 


a 
3 
O 


Self-government 


-a 
-0 




a 




-T3 

4) 

-13 


d 

W 




-a 
u 

-0 


a 
H 




13 
41 
-T3 


a 




CO 
T3 

a 
3 


m 


Agriculture chief 
industry 

Trades and other 


CO 
3 
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T3 


4-> 
CO 

.3. 




H 

es 

3 
O 

>» 

u 
CO 

~0 


-a 
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41 
CO 

O 




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3 


b 

03 
T3 


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cS 

3 
O 

b 

CO 

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*T3 


occupations 










3 
O 






3 







3 








"co 




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m 






« 






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3 


Inhabitants returned 


























O 


to society by 
social doctors 

First Enclosure 






Second Enclosure 






Third Enclosure 






Fourth Enclosure 






Last Enclosure 



Outside Boundary Guarded by Society 



122 



THE SURVEY TOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



tions the same as in the first. There would be the same or 
similar opportunity for work and for normal existence. The 
only added disability would be that they would be much 
further removed from the outside world. Restoration to 
society could come only by passing back through the first en- 
closure and living their lives there over again. 

The method of returning to the first enclosure would not 
be by satisfying a board of social doctors with their conduct, 
but by satisfying the inhabitants of the first enclosure, or a 
committee of them, that they would not commit further of- 
fenses or again become undesirable citizens. In other words, 
they must satisfy the community they had wronged that they 
are regenerative. The boundaries between the first enclosure 
and the second would be guarded by the inhabitants of the first. 

Crimes committed in the second enclosure would be pun- 
ished by confinement in the guard-house in that enclosure, or 
by banishment to the third, and so on. An individual might 
return from the third to the second enclosure only by vote of 
the inhabitants of the second, and he must remain there until 
the inhabitants of the first are willing to have him. Thus 
each remove from one enclosure to another puts him farther 
from society. This process would continue, if his offenses 
continued, until he reached the last enclosure. Here, it is 
safe to assume, only the most incorrigible members of society 
would arrive. The whole process would be a sifting one, and 
it might be that it would be best to keep those who filter 
through to the last enclosure confined there for the rest of 
their lives. 

These people would probably constitute, in part at least, 
the defectives and all mentally irresponsible, the degenerate 
and hardened criminal. What should be done with them, 
whether they should be drawn off and sent to other custodial 
institutions, or be allowed to live on in the last enclosure in 
the most comfortable condition possible, is a question that 
could best be determined after the plan had been in operation 
and the number to reach this final stage of ostracism observed. 
Under no circumstances would I give them the same liberty 
and privilege of self-government as the inmates of other en- 
closures, but would prefer to see them controlled and directed 
by sympathetic state officials chosen for the purpose. 

The definitely feebleminded would in all probability have 
been discovered long before they reached the final enclosure ; 
indeed, a method for discovering them might well form part 
of the earlier mechanism of the plan. Whatever is done with 
them, they should be safely away from the society they seem 
destined to injure. I should never want to see all hope shut 
off from them, but should prefer that some provision were 
always made for letting such of them as gave indications of 
recovery appeal to the citizens of the adjoining enclosure, or 
to a body appointed for the purpose, for the privilege of trying 
once more to live in the society of their fellows. Perhaps it 
would be desirable to have a second group of social doctors, 
provided by the state, to control all conditions arising in a 
special community for the feebleminded. 

The life of the village would create its own demand for 
business and industry. Economic needs would have to be met, 
just as they have to be met in other communities, and while 
the industrial and commercial life might have to be simpler 
because it would be more self-centered, yet the inhabitants 
could sell their produce and manufactures to the outside world, 
so that variety would be given to the pursuits, as well as added 
demand for labor. Trades would be followed very much 
as anywhere else. Work ought, of course, to be as edu- 
cative as possible. Every opportunity ought to be given to a 
man to follow the trade, if any, that he followed on the out- 



side. If he had none, then he ought to be allowed to learn one 
that would enable him to be self-supporting upon release. 
Agriculture ought to constitute one of the chief industries, 
because in the wholesome, outdoor work and life of the farm 
lies one of the chief reformative influences. 

Private manufacturers might be induced, if it seemed wise, 
to locate in the first enclosure, for the sake of the labor supply 
they would find already existing there. This they could do in 
the second enclosure also, if the population were large enough 
to sustain them. 

Labor unions could not object to the selling of products in 
the outside world, provided the inhabitants did not sell below 
prevailing market rates. Rate-cutting would, indeed, be diffi- 
cult, if not impossible, because the inhabitants would be sub- 
ject to the same competitive conditions as any outside worker. 
They would not be given free board and lodging, free plant 
and tools, as convict labor in prisons is today. Nor could the 
competition be justly resented by labor unions, as they now 
rightly oppose the unfair competition of convict contract labor, 
because, in the first place, it would not be unfair competition, 
and in the second place it would not be convict labor. It 
would be the labor of men who would be none the less citizens, 
though confined within definite boundaries. 

Finally, even if a normal village industry, like that of 
villages on the outside, proved impracticable, the state could 
itself erect and operate a system of enclosure industries just as 
it now operates prison industries. This would have the advan- 
tage of having a larger labor supply than prison plants have 
today, because the law-breaking population of a state is now 
divided among several penitentiaries. 

Critics may say at this point: What a fearful state of 
anarchy there would be in a community inhabited exclusively 
by law-breakers! Were the conditions similar to those in 
prisons, this might be true. With a property basis, however, 
there is no more likelihood of anarchy in such a community 
than in any other. Whatever the ethical standards of the 
inhabitants, those possessing property inside the enclosure 
would have the same selfish motives for upholding law as 
property owners outside have. The law-breaker is just as 
quick to defend his person and his possessions as an individual 
of the most exalted virtue. Moreover, if disturbances should 
break out, the authorities could call in troops from the outside, 
just as do the authorities now in any town where an outbreak 
occurs. 

One advantage of this method of handling law-breakers, if 
it became general, would, I believe, be far-reaching. It is 
common knowledge that today many law-breakers are never 
caught. The ratio of the caught to the uncaught is sometimes 
put as high as 1 to 20. Part of the reason for this is that 
people know today that when a man is imprisoned the chances 
are that he is forever ruined — ruined in purse, mind, body and 
soul. Unless the crime is of a nature to arouse a fury of 
revenge, few decent people are willing to aid officers of the 
law in accomplishing his ruin. The average good-natured, 
kind-hearted citizen is much more apt to help the hunted 
fugitive than to help his pursuer. 

But if conviction for a crime meant not life in a cell-block 
under a regime of brutality and repression, but life in an open 
village with every chance for improvement, both in health and 
habits, and at the same time the social patient be self-support- 
ing, completely or approximately, would not the average citi- 
zen feel very differently about the matter? If he knew that 
the law-breaker, when caught, would be given every chance 
to develop his best self, and that the door of hope would 
be forever open before him, would he not aid, in a way that he 



1 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 



i 9 17 



123 



has never done before, the detection and punishment of 
crime? I believe that under such conditions the representa- 
tives of the law could reasonably count upon the cooperation 
of a large percentage of respectable citizens who now wash 
their hands of what they regard as a sordid and unpleasant 
business. This would mean that more crimes would be 
punished than ever before, and since certainty of punishment 
is a much greater deterrent than severity of punishment, it 
would mean that society would be better protected and that 
anti-social acts would diminish. All this is in addition, of 
course, to the diminution that would come from the regenera- 
tive effect that the plan would have upon the individual who 
had already been caught in the law's toils. 

If modern penology has taught one thing, it is that respon- 
sibility brought home to the mentally competent law-breaker 
is one of the surest means of reformation. Men and women 
who break society's laws must be trained in self-discipline and 
in the responsibilities of citizenship before they can again be 



allowed to mingle freely with their fellows. Life in these 
enclosures would constitute just such a centering of respon- 
sibility. Every individual there would want to regain his 
liberty above all things else. To do this he would have to 
learn to lead a measurably blameless life. In a community of 
five or ten thousand persons he could not commit offenses and 
escape; detection would be certain. Nor, be it remembered, 
could he regain his liberty by act of his fellows alone, for the 
board of social doctors would stand between him and society 
and protect the world outside against the final release of all 
who are unfit. 

This plan would leave untouched and still operative the 
regenerative principles of probation and suspended sentence. 
It would combine at once the great principle of the indetermi- 
nate sentence, now widely established, and a rational 
method of life for the lawbreaker. Through it I am con- 
vinced that the way lies open for true and progressive prison 
reform. 



Keeping Mothers and Babies Together 



By Elizabeth S. fValsh 

-ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUPERVISORS OF THE CITY CHARITIES, BALTIMORE 






IN the winter of 1916 the report of the Vice Commission 
of Baltimore [the Survey, May 6, 1916, 157] awa- 
kened the general public to the situation of the aban- 
doned child in that city. The best hospitals, for some 
years, had insisted that the mother and infant be kept to- 
gether during the woman's confinement and that she leave the 
hospital with the child. It was always possible, however, by 
the payment of a moderate sum, to place the child afterwards 
in an infant asylum, the mother thus relieving herself of its 
care, and this resulted in the death of the infant in nine 
cases out of ten. 

This "traffic-in-babies" aroused the public to such an extent 
that Maryland has the honor of having passed the first law 
forbidding the separation of a mother and infant under six 
months; except when it is necessary for the physical good of 
mother or such child that they be separated, this requiring two 
doctors' certificates or an order from a court of competent 
jurisdiction or the written consent of the Board of State Aid 
and Charities. The penalty for violation is a fine of not more 
than $100 or imprisonment in jail for not more than 100 days 
or both ; not only for the mother but for any person or institu- 
tion participating in the separation or a physician who know- 
ingly makes a false certificate. 

One of the arguments brought against the law was that 
it would result in the wholesale abandonment of infants. The 
statistics do not seem to bear this out. There are no figures 
available for the state at large, but the Supervisors of City 
Charities find that the abandoned children received from 
June, 1915, to June, 1916, numbered 25, and from June, 
1916, to June, 1917, but 18. A copy of the law, with a 
letter asking for their cooperation, was mailed to all of the 
hospitals, infant asylums, maternities and midwives through- 
out the state. Shortly after, when a midwife was arrested, 
charged with violation of the law (she had advertised an 
infant for adoption), she vehemently urged ignorance as her 
excuse but, when searched, a copy of it and the letter were 
found on her person. Needless to say "madam's" feathers 
fell. Prosecution for violation of the law is carried on through 
the state's attorney's office. In the case of a good-hearted, 



kindly, but ignorant, colored or white foster-mother no war- 
rant is issued but she is summoned to this office, the law is 
read and explained to her, and she is warned that a second 
offense will mean prosecution. 

The law has been in effect since June, 1916, and the insti- 
tutions feel that it is a good one and have in every instance 
stood by it loyally. Whenever possible, they have offered a 
home to the mother with the child. A comparison of the 
number of children at the infant asylums in the years before 
and after the law went into effect may be interesting and is 
as follows : 

Infants received at asylums from June, 1915, to June, 1916 167 

Infants died at asylums from June, 1915, to June, 1916 113 

Infants received at asylums from June, 1916, to June, 1917 82 

Infants died at asylums from June, 1916, to June, 1917 31 

The mortality was thus reduced from 68 per cent to 38 
per cent. 

The State Board of Charities, since the law went into effect, 
have authorized the separation of 12 infants from their 
mothers; the majority of these upon two doctors certifying 
to the mothers' mental or physical unfitness. A more rigid 
investigation of these applications is much to be desired. In 
one instance, one of our most reliable agencies refused to be 
a party to the separation and yet another social worker carried 
the matter through, getting the required doctor's certificates 
without any difficulty. Another separation was authorized 
because the mother was being held on the charge of abandoning 
her child and might possibly be sent to the House of Correc- 
tion ; and yet in a parallel case to this, handled by the Super- 
visors of City Charities, the mother was paroled with her 
infant and put in the way of supporting herself and child, of 
which she has since become very fond. 

The Supervisors of City Charities say in their report for 
1916: 

Beginning January 1, 1916, a new method for handling white 
foundlings and abandoned infants was inaugurated, which marks a 
notable advance in the care of this class of dependents. Up to this 
time, foundlings, both white and colored, had been placed by the 
Supervisors of City Charities in institutions for the care of infants 
with which the city had contracts. Very general attention has been 
called to the enormous mortality, amounting in some years to prac- 



124 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



tically 100 per cent, infants under six months placed in such institu- 
tions. After numerous unsatisfactory attempts had been made by this 
department to improve the method of handling foundlings, an ar- 
rangement was finally entered into with the Florence Crittenton 
Mission. 

The infants, unless seriously ill, are taken at once to the mission 
and are given a thorough medical examination by a specialist in 
children's diseases, including a blood examination to determine 
whether the infant is infected with any form of communicable dis- 
ease. The infants are kept in a sanitary nursery under the charge 
of skilled nurses. They are fed with mothers' milk, obtained by a 
breast pump from the inmates of the institution. They remain at 
the mission until they are at least one year old, or longer if this is 
deemed advisable by the physician in charge. If seriously ill when 
received by the department, they are sent at once to the Harriet Lane 
Hospital and treated there until they can be sent with safety to the 
mission. 

The efficient way in which the infants are cared for is shown by 
the striking results — f he lives of 94 per cent having been saved. 

Long Distance 

By Renee 

OUR usual idea of a social worker is a person who 
meets applicants for aid, personally investigates 
conditions and then does his best to alleviate them. 
But always we have that idea of personal inter- 
view. Yet there are in this country dozens of social workers 
who each day help many individuals and community groups 
to work out their own salvation — without ever meeting those 
they aid. They are seldom classified as social workers by 
themselves or by others. We can class them all under one 
name, for by the general public they are addressed as Dear 
Editor. 

If for a moment you doubt that editors and their assist- 
ants are social-service workers, take a glance at a day's mail 
that comes to one of them. Questions of law, dietetics, child 
training, abnormal psychology, charity methods and medicine, 
all come pouring in. Frequent consultations with experts in 
these lines are maintained. A year ago one of the popular 
women's magazines listed over twenty-five hundred different 
topics that had been treated by letter, an astonishingly large 
percentage of which took up serious life problems, and but 
a minor representation begged aid of beauty specialists or 
wanted recipes for fudge. 

At first glance we wonder why all these letters are sent 
to a stranger. There in the word "stranger" lies half the 
answer. No danger of leakage to family or community when 
your confidante lives at a distance. Who seems so wise, safe 
and sympathetic as the editor of your favorite journal? 

Just what do these confidential letters ask? Here is one 
from a farmer's daughter, asking where and how she can get 
nurse's training. We inquire about her previous education, 
health and ability to afford time and money for a thorough 
course, and after a couple of letters have her settled in the 
right school. Next comes a mother asking how she can edu- 
cate her gentle little subnormal daughter. They live in one 
of our largest cities, but are ignorant of the excellent public 
school classes for subnormal children maintained by their 
board of education, and are pitifully grateful for information 
most people would have expected an intelligent mother to 
find for herself. Then there is the boy, fearful lest he has 
contracted a disease he is ashamed to tell the local doctor about, 
who is referred to the medical adviser of the magazine and 
either helped directly or given courage to see his own physi- 
cian. Women's clubs ask aid in their program-making or 
methods of aiding their city ; others ask how to organize play- 
grounds, pageants, civic leagues, little mothers' leagues. A 
constant flow of letters comes from mothers wanting advice 



It should be remarked in passing that the one infant which died was 
born prematurely and was in a dying condition when received. It 
is questionable whether any other city in the United States has a 
better record as regards the proportion of foundlings saved than has 
Baltimore during the year just closed. 

In summing up the situation, we might say that broadly 
the law has been educational in recognizing the rights of the 
child to a mother's care and love and, therefore, giving it a 
fighting chance for life, and as a moral tonic to the woman in 
deepening her sense of responsibility and duty towards her 
infant. In the large majority of cases this thought has never 
before been presented to the unfortunate girl and when it has 
been done by a sympathetic social worker, it is not unusual 
for the mother willingly and cheerfully to accept the situation 
and keep the child with her permanently. 

Social Service 

B. Stern 

on care of their children : diet ; breaking of thumb-sucking, 
stuttering and other bad habits ; club work for boys and girls ; 
books for various ages; handling the adolescent, the defective 
and immoral ; development of attention, concentration, obe- 
dience; control of lying, stealing and temper — this list might 
continue indefinitely. 

Pitiful letters from women, asking how to get mother's 
pensions or earn money to keep the family together are one 
of the daily tragedies, for many of these women are barred 
from pension for some reason and are little fitted to wage- 
earning. Sometimes, after exchange of half a dozen letters, 
some money-making idea bears fruit or the woman is per- 
suaded to seek the aid of local agencies of which she did not 
even know until informed by the distant editor. 

Questions about marital relations form a goodly propor- 
tion of the queries from young married women who, in the 
process of adjustment in their first married years, feel alone 
and helpless. Money matters, rights of woman to her own 
person, drunkenness, cruelty in many aspects and, not infre- 
quently, disagreement over punishment of children, cause 
these breaches in happiness. The long-distance worker is no 
more able to help all cases than is the charity worker on the 
spot, but she frequently gets a frank statement of details that 
shame would hide in a face-to-face interview, even at times 
eliciting the reluctant confession that a new love threatens 
the old. Yes, even that can sometimes be adjusted at long-dis- 
tance by sympathy, tempered with a bit of common sense advice 
showing how the new love will in its turn become the old, 
or call affection for the children to give pause in hasty de- 
cision. 

As concrete example of results obtained: One magazine 
in Illinois is responsible for installation of drinking fountains 
in a Texas town, the gift of the women's clubs; a group of 
Alaskan women are studying the latest educational theories for 
the sake of their children ; a playground was started in one 
western town and a pageant given in a North Carolina vil- 
lage; one woman found a child to adopt and another, with a 
big country home and love of children, was put in touch with 
placing-out agencies who loan her sick babies to cure. 

So it goes, and Dear Editor answers them all, sometimes 
with aid of lawyer, doctor or minister, but never neglecting 
a letter, always treating seriously the problems that appear 
serious to the writer, even unto the boy who wants to change 
the color of his red hair. When you make up the next social 
service register, candidly, don't you think that Dear Editor 
deserves a place therein? 



C0929SO 




m^y- is if 

■1 ~ 




SELF-GOVERNMENT IN A 
COUNTY PRISON 

it T N reply to our great President's 

A hopeful prayer: 'Let the world be 
made safe for democracy,' I say: De- 
mocracy is safe in East View, N. Y." 

It is not important that the speaker 
of these words was not a citizen in a 
legal sense. Neither is it important 
that he was a native of Germany. The 
important thing is that he had just been 
elected first president of the first self- 
government organization to be estab- 
lished in a county penitentiary in this 
country. 

Weeks ago, Calvin Derrick, warden 
of the Westchester County Penitentiary 
at East View, told the inmates of that 
prison that they could form a limited 
self-government league if they wanted 
to and if they themselves could work 
out the scheme of organization. Leaders 
among the prisoners immediately began 
to agitate the subject. They found dif- 
ferent views among their fellows and 
decided to conduct an educational cam- 
paign. Mass meetings were held at 
which the arguments for self-govern- 
ment were presented and opinion was 
finally crystallized in favor of it. A 
committee of prisoners was thereupon 
chosen to draw up a constitution. After 
some parleying, a draft was finally 
reached that satisfied both inmates and 
warden. 

This constitution differs in one im- 
portant respect from both the Sing Sing 
and the lone, Cal., plans — the prisoners' 
court has no punitive powers. This ar- 
rangement was the desire of the men 
themselves. The court is called the In- 
mates Court for the Establishment of 
Good Relationship and consists of the 
judge, who presides, and is elected by 
all the members for a period of four 
months, and of two jurors. The jurors 
are the vice-president and a delegate 
chosen by his fellow delegates for this 
purpose. The court tries all offenders 
who are members of the league. A ver- 
dict is rendered in the form of "guilty 
of having broken good relationship with 
the league," and it then becomes the 



duty of the court to try to establish good 
relationship by "counsel, advice and rep- 
rimand." 

If good relationship cannot be estab- 
lished, or if the offense is so serious that 
it does not warrant the "expectation of 
establishment of good relationship," the 
offender may be expelled from the league 
indefinitely. This means that he comes 
under the control of the county and that 
Warden Derrick becomes his disciplin- 
arian. An inmate twice expelled can 
never again be a member of the league. 
Applications for reinstatement of a mem- 
ber may come from the warden only. 

The name of the league is the Effort 
League, signifying "struggle for better 
citizenship, nobler character and higher 
morals." Each incoming prisoner who 
takes a simple pledge to uphold the rules 
of the institution becomes a member au- 
tomatically. It has been agreed, infor- 
mally, however, that insane persons shall 
not be allowed to be members, and five 
prisoners are debarred on this ground 
at present. The officers — president, 
vice-president, judge, secretary, sergeant- 
at-arms and public defender — constitute 
the cabinet and are subject to recall 
when impeachment proceedings have 
shown their unfitness for office. Each 
tier elects a delegate who sits on the 
board of delegates. The public defend- 
er, elected by the whole body of prison- 
ers, must defend all cases brought before 
the court. The warden is an honorary 
president of the league and is invested 
with vetoing and pardoning powers. 



November 3, 1917 Vol. 39, No. 5 

THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street. New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 

U. Kellogg, editor; Arthur P. Kellogg, 

secretary; Frank Tucker, treasurer. 

25 cents a copy; $3 a year; foreign 

postage $1.50, Canadian 75 cents. 

Copyright, 1917, by Survey Associates, 

Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 

25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 

N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



TRAINING FOR THE THREE 
H'S IN EUROPE 

WHEN former Governor Glynn 
declared several years ago, at the 
inauguration of John H. Finley as com- 
missioner of education for New York 
state, that the cultivation of the three 
R's in American education ought to be 
supplanted by the cultivation of the 
three H's — head, heart and hand — he 
was only foretelling apparently a devel- 
opment that was destined to receive 
great impetus as a result of the Euro- 
pean war. The demand for vocational 
and industrial education has grown tre- 
mendously in nearly all European coun- 
tries. The United States Bureau of 
Education has just brought together in- 
formation concerning this movement in 
a small bulletin. 

As the bulletin was going to press, a 
cablegram from England announced 
that the bill promised by the president 
of the Board of Education had been 
presented to the House of Commons and 
would be taken up in October. This 
measure embodies the broadest concep- 
tion of popular education ever presented 
for the approval of Parliament. If it 
becomes law, school attendance will be 
compulsory for all children up to the age 
of fourteen years and all exemptions will 
be abolished. Local education authori- 
ties will be obliged to provide suitable 
continuation classes for children up to 
sixteen or seventeen years, children not 
otherwise in school will be required to 
attend these classes for a specified num- 
ber of hours, and employers will be 
obliged to make it possible for them to 
do so. The report of the government 
committee on continuation schools, 
which foreshadowed this legislation, was 
summarized on page 384 of the Survey 
for August 4. 

France and England seem to have 
reached about the same stage of progress 
toward a national system of continued 
education. At present the opportunities 
offered by private societies in France are 
such that only the most ambitious work- 
ing people, and these not until the pres- 
sure of daily labor has aroused them to 

125 



126 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 




SOCIAL PUBLICITY 

nr HE cover of an announcement of a regional conference of the 
■*■ National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tubercu- 
losis, carried out similarly for the other districts. The outlines of 
the state, the star for the conference city, the name of the state and 
the calendar are in dark blue, the remainder in a bright, splashy red. 
Information about the conference and the program are on the 
inside. Folded thrice for mailing, the dimensions are 9 by A inches. 



efforts to improve their condition, can 
take advantage of them. A bill is now 
pending before the Chamber of Depu- 
ties, sponsored by M. Viviani, former 
minister of public instruction, which es- 
tablishes the principle of compulsory ed- 
ucation in continuation schools at public 
expense. It applies to boys who do not 
attend the secondary schools up to the 
age of twenty years, and to girls up to 
the age of eighteen or until they are 
married. 

The term of compulsory education for 
adolescents is divided by this bill into 
two periods. The first extends to the 
age of seventeen for boys and sixteen 
for girls. During this period physical 
training, French language, history and 
geography, and lessons in the sciences ap- 



plied to agricultural industry, com- 
merce, navigation, or domestic economy 
are obligatory. The minimum duration 
of these courses is 50 hours a year for 
general education, 150 hours for tech- 
nical training, and 100 hours for physi- 
cal training. 

The second period covers the ages of 
seventeen to twenty for boys and six- 
teen to eighteen for girls. The obliga- 
tory subjects are: for boys — lessons in 
the French language, history, geography, 
civics, common low and political econ- 
omy, and gymnastics, military exercises 
and rifle firing; for girls — French lan- 
guage, history, geography and domestic 
economy, and manual work and practi- 
cal exercises in hygiene and care of the 
sick and of infants. The minimum dura- 



ECONOMY 

EFFICIENCY 

CO-OPERATION 



32 t'tUSHING AVENUE BRODKi.TN. N V 



The Survey, 


m 


112 E. 19th St., 


New York City. 





PLEASE HURRY YOUR ANSWER 



SOCIAL PUBLICITY 

TD RINTED in dark blue, this envelope for the appeals of the 
■* Brooklyn Federation of Jewish Charities has much the appear- 
ance and something of the urgency of a telegram. It is reported a 
success. 



tion of the instruction in this period is 
100 hours a year. 

Regarding Russia, the bulletin says 
there are many indications that the edu- 
cation of the masses for intelligent citi- 
zenship and industrial efficiency will be 
the chief concern of local and central 
authorities as soon as normal conditions 
are restored. In Poland, the prospect of 
national independence has at once led to 
a great revival in educational enthu- 
siasm. The bulletin mentions that in 
the temporary lull of military events in 
1915 the citizens of Warsaw established 
forty-nine industrial continuation schools. 

Nothing is given in the bulletin con- 
cerning recent developments in Ger- 
many. The highly developed system of 
continuation schools in that country has, 
of course, been severely criticized as be- 
ing too narrowly industrial. Attendance 
upon these schools is now compulsory in 
fourteen of the twenty-six states of the 
German empire. It may be compulsory 
according to local option in ten others 
and the four remaining states, declares 
the bulletin, are ready to adopt the prin- 
ciple. 

MAKING GARDENS SAFE 
FOR VEGETABLES 

LAST spring Massachusetts social 
workers were anxious lest the in- 
crease in home gardens, all over the 
state, should incite a flood of mischief 
or petty thievery, and perhaps provoke 
severe treatment of juvenile offenders 
by the courts, or even a crop of legisla- 
tion antagonistic to the juvenile court 
and probation system. As a preventive 
measure, representations were made to 
the State Committee on Public Safety, 
which promptly appointed a special Com- 
mittee on Garden Protection. A cam- 
paign to make respect for gardens a mark 
of war-time loyalty was at once under- 
taken. Posters and newspaper articles 
distributed the message widely, supple- 
mented by talks in the public schools 
and by the efforts of boys' clubs and the 
boy scouts. 

At the end of the garden and fruit 
season, the Massachusetts committee 
now reports that the injury to gardens, 
both mischievous and malicious, has been 
extremely small. Through local safety 
committees, probation officers, special 
correspondents and newspaper clippings, 
the committee has sought to be informed 
of every instance of depredation and has 
followed up reported cases for full in- 
formation. The total damage is almost 
negligible and the number of even an- 
noying instances is extremely small. 

Credit is given the effort of the schools 
to impress upon children the duty of 
respect for property, the general patriot- 
ic appeal and the efforts of the police 
to bring every offense to the attention 
of the courts. With greatly increased 
numbers of gardens and their exposure 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1017 



127 



to possible harm, there is believed to 
have been a positive decline in the ex- 
tent of miscreancy. Extreme or unusual 
penalties have been used by very few 
courts. The facts are believed by the 
committee to offer no warrant for varia- 
tion from the policy of dealing with of- 
fenders, particularly with juveniles, by 
probation and instruction rather than 
by severity of punishment. 

SOCIAL HYGIENE SOCIETY 
FOR TEXAS 

FOLLOWING the clearing of red 
light districts in the Texas towns and 
cities near the army camps and the great 
public interest in social hygiene aroused 
by the new situation, a conference of 
delegates from the principal cities of 
Texas at Dallas last week formed a state 
social hygiene association. The convener 
of the meeting, Dr. A. I. Folsom, chair- 
man of an organization committee from 
the State Medical Association, was 
elected president. 

Several of the speakers presented facts 
showing the grave danger of the social 
disease to the health of the state. The 
medical profession especially showed it- 
self fully aroused to the need of action. 
According to Dr. E. H. Cary, president 
of the medical association, the presence, 
soon, of some 200,000 soldiers in Texas 
will provide a unique opportunity for 
the different authorities and organiza- 
tions interested to stamp out venereal 
diseases by joint endeavor. 

Col. George A. Skinner, in charge 
of the base hospital at Fort Sam Hous- 
ton, said that of 800 patients now in the 
hospital under his control, 300 were 
acute cases of venereal disease. "It is 
all right to educate people," he said, 
"but immediate action is necessary. You 
talk of protecting the boys at the front, 
but don't forget the girls at home. The 
work of this organization is immediately 
and seriously necessary in Texas — the 
problem of the boys at the front comes 
later." 

PUBLIC RECREATION AND 

TRAINING CAMPS 
««' I ^HE soldiers complain of extor- 
A tionate prices on the part of the 
townspeople, and the civil population 
is irritated by the misconduct of 
soldiers," a correspondent reports. But 
already grievance or adjustment com- 
mittees have been organized where such 
abuses occurred to straighten them out. 
More important, experienced workers 
who are organizing a wholesome con- 
tact between soldiers and townspeople 
on the lines described by Joseph Lee in 
the Survey for October 6, find that 
wholesome recreation, properly intro- 
duced, promises splendid and lasting ef- 
fects on the recreational life of the com- 
munity itself. Thus, Roy Smith Wal- 
lace, who in peace times is executive 
secretary of the Philadelphia Society to 



Christmas Handkerchief: 




Reg. Trade Mark 



AT 



Ave. & 34th St., N. Y. City 




Reg. Trade Mori = 



IT is none too early to be thinking about Holiday Handker- 
chiefs, and especially if you wish embroidering done. 

We are fortunate in having been able to secure so many kinds 
and varieties of Handkerchiefs this year and such an ample supply. 
There are many new embroideries and other novelties, as well 
as all the more familiar kinds. The range of choice is unlimited. 
All pure Linen, of course. We have stuck to that principle for 
sixty-five years and we stick to it still. There is no cotton in the 
whole stock: that's an important thing in these days when 
ascending costs tempt manufacturers and dealers to cut quality. 

For a Man: Splendid, luxurious Linen Handkerchiefs of full 
size, 25c, 35c, 40c, 50c to $6.00 each. Initialed at 25c, 35c, 50c, 
75c and $1.00 each. Smaller sizes 50c and up, with or without 
initial. 

For a Woman: Everything from simple, plain hemstitched ones 
at 15c, up to elaborate affairs of Duchesse Lace or Embroidery 
at $50. 

For a Child: Pretty little embroidered and print designs in 
color as well as all White, 15c each and up. 

We have the usual large collection of White Embroidered goods 
from Ireland, Switzerland, Spain, Madeira, etc., at the popular 
prices, 25c, 50c, 75c and $1.00. 

All the way through, the collection is just as wide and interesting 
as it ever was. 

NOTE — If it is desired to have Initials, Monograms, etc., em- 
broidered to order, no time should be lost in placing orders to 
insure satisfactory work and delivery before Christmas. 
Handkerchief purchases are delivered in dainty White boxes suit- 
able for presentation as Christmas gifts. 

Orders by Mail Given Special Attention. 



Protect Children from Cruelty and who 
spent all last summer in the Southwest, 
where he was in charge of community 
organization work in the cities and towns 
around seven new training camps and 
eleven border posts, with his assistants 
and with the aid of local workers, was 
able to bring about a complete transfor- 
mation of popular amusements. 

Not only did the civil and military 
licensing authorities make good use of 
their censorship over commercial amuse- 
ments and allowed nothing of an ob- 
scene character, not only was the finan- 



cial inducement of keeping near the 
town the camps which bring into them 
millions of dollars of business used to 
make the citizens keen on the mainte- 
nance of the high standards required by 
the War Department; but in addition 
considerable success was obtained in at- 
tracting the right kind of entertainment. 
Theaters, moving pictures, carnivals, 
circuses, wild-west shows, electric parks, 
swimming pools were organized or in- 
duced to come to these towns. Where 
previously the saloons and the pool- 
rooms shared between them the bulk of 



128 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



Salt Mackerel 

CODFISH, FRESH LOBSTER 



FOR THE \ 
CONSUMER " 





FOR YOUR OWN TABLE 



FAMILIES who are fond of FISH can be supplied 
DIRFCT from GLOUCESTER, MASS., by the 
FRANK E. DAVIS COMPANY, with newly caught. 
KEEPABLE OCEAN FISH, choicer than any inland 
dealer could possibly furnish. 

We sell ONLY TO THE CONSUMER DIRECT, 
sending by EXPRESS RIGHT TO YOUR HOME. 
We PREPAY express on all orders east of Kansas. 
Our fish are pure, appetizing and economical and we 
want YOU to try some, payment subject to your 
approval. 

SALT MACKEREL, fat, meaty, juicy fish, are 
delicious for breakfast. They are freshly packed in 
brine and will not spoil on your hands. 

CODFISH, as we salt it, is white, boneless and 
ready for instant use. It makes a substantial meal, 
a line change from meat, at a much lower cost. 

FRESH LOBSTER is the best thing known for 
ealads. Right fresh from the water, our lobsters 
6imply are boiled and packed in PARCHMENT- 
LINED CANS. They come to you as the purest 
and safest lobsters you can buy and the meat is as 
crisp and natural as if you took it from the shell 
yourself. 

FRIED CLAMS is a relishable, hearty dish, that 
your whole family will enjoy. No other flavor is 
just like that of clams, whether fried or in a chowder. 

FRESH MACKEREL, perfect for frying, SHRIMP 
to cream on toast, CRABMEAT for Newburg or 
deviled, SALMON ready to serve, SARDINES of all 
kinds, TUNNY for salad. SANDWICH FILLINGS 
and every good thing packed here or abroad you can 
get direct from us and keep right on your pantry 
shelf lor regular or emergency use. 

With every order we send BOOK OF REC- ..■•*' 
IPES for preparing all our products. Write ..•' 
for it. Our list tells how each kind of ..•'' 
fish is put up, with the delivered price ..•"' Frank E. 
so you can choose just what you .•■' Davis Co. 

will enjoy most. Send the..-- 2 76 Central Wharf 
coupon for it now. ..-■ Gloucester, Mass. 

FRANK E . ..••' Please send me your 

DAVIS CO. ..••' latest Fish Price List. 

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the recreational expenditures of the peo- 
ple, they have now to compete with nu- 
merous counter-attractions. Churches, 
young people's societies, fraternal orders, 
women's clubs and business organiza- 
tions have been shown how to provide 
desirable attractions ; they have absorbed 
not only large numbers of the welcome 
strangers in uniform but secured a bet- 
ter hold over their native clientele. 

CONCERNING CHAPERONES 

IN A MINING TOWN 
ttTTTHERE can the young boy or 

VV girl go who wants to learn or 
enjoys dancing?" Rabbi Emanuel J. 
Jack, until recently president of the 
Board of Public Welfare at Pueblo, 
Col., asked himself when many com- 
plaints reached him concerning the man- 
agement of the dance halls in the town. 
So he went around himself and visited 
the places where the Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Company's population of immigrant 
steel workers and their families learned 
that one popular product of American 
native art, the ragtime dance. 

On the whole, there was not much 
wrong with the way in which these 
public dances were conducted, and the 
behavior was no more boisterous than 
youth- demands, or familiarity more inti- 
mate than the modern dance demands. 
Rules of decency were not violated, 
though standards beyond a certain mini- 
mum of decorum varied considerably. 
The so-called moonlight dance during 
which the lights are turned off or 
dimmed, seems to have been a novelty 
to the investigator who also noticed that 
the particular hall which offered this 
form of entertainment was particularly 
popular with the "younger set." 

The upshot of these visits was a strong 
recommendation to provide an age limit 
for all public dance halls "but not until 
we have provided other means for the 
young boys and girls who are old enough 
to work hard in shop or store all day 
but not of age to attend public dances 
at night." Pueblo is now erecting a 
magnificent new municipal building, and 
the Board of Public Welfare has been 
assured that a municipal dance hall will 
be provided for in the plans. But with 
this they are not satisfied. They strong- 
ly urge that the school buildings, now 
unused for the greater part of the time, 
be opened for social meetings and for 
dances to those youthful debutants and 
debutantes whom proper regulations 
would exclude from the public dance 
halls. 

ARMENIANS AND SYRIANS IN 
EVER WORSE PLIGHT 

PRESIDENT WILSON on Satur- 
day issued a second appeal — follow- 
ing one made a year ago in compliance 
with a resolution of Congress — for the 
relief of the valiant Christian nations 
of Asia Minor whose suffering from the 



social and economic effects of war and 
from misgovernment is acute. "Reports 
indicate that of orphans alone there are 
more than 400,000," says the presiden- 
tial message, "besides women and other 
dependent children, reaching a total of 
more than 2,000,000 destitute sur- 
vivors." 

The Armenian sufferers from Turkish 
oppression flee as far as they can get, 
and appeals for their relief are received 
by the American Committee for Ar- 
menian and Syrian Relief from places 
in Russia and Persia which are far from 
their homes. From one Turkish city 
it is reported that, after deporting all 
Armenian residents and treating them 
with the utmost cruelty, the authorities 
suddenly realized that they had driven 
away the majority of their industrious 
artisans and that they were in a serious 
predicament for lack of indispensable ser- 
vices. Hence they started to offer bribes 
to the deportees in the vain hope of in- 
ducing them to return ! 

"Famine increasing," says a cable re- 
ceived last week from Tabriz. "Wheat 
six dollars bushel. People dying at our 
gate of hunger. Many will die of cold 
without clothes or bedding. Forty 
thousand Christian refugees and as many 
Kurds." The rise in prices has now 
become a matter of grave anxiety to the 
relief agents in the different centers. It 
vastly increases the number of those who 
fall into destitution after having re- 
mained self-supporting for long in spite 
of the greatest hardships — this is espe- 
cially true of the Syrian refugees in 
Mesopotamia — and it continually de- 
creases the purchasing power of the 
available relief funds. 

The mayors of a number of cities have 
designated November 10-11 as Armen- 
ian-Syrian relief days. 

THE COPPER SETTLEMENT 
IN ARIZONA 

SMALL opportunity appears to have 
been left for the I. W. W. to gain 
the ascendancy in the Globe-Miami dis- 
trict in Arizona, where President Wil- 
son's Mediation Commission has scored 
its first victory by settling the strike 
which has been in progress since last 
July. The terms of the agreement call 
for the re-employment of all strikers ex- 
cept those who have indulged in sedi- 
tious utterances, and "those who have 
membership in an organization that does 
not recognize the obligation of con- 
tracts." 

The first result of the direct inter- 
vention by President Wilson in indus- 
trial unrest, through the commission of 
which Secretary Wilson is the head, be- 
came known on October 23, when it 
was announced that work would be re- 
sumed "by the single most important 
copper center in Arizona, if not in the 
United States." The normal monthly 
(Continued on page 130) 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



129 



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The New York Times says: "Has brought a new note to current fiction, a note that excels in sheer emotional power, 
in beauty of tone, in imagination any voice that is now telling stories to the English-speaking peoples." 
New York World says: "There are in print few pictures more impressive than those drawn by this unknown author." 

THE ENLIGHTENMENT OF PAULINA 

BY ELLEN WILKINS TOMPKINS, author of "The Egotistical I." Net $1.50 

When a woman marries for his money a man whom she despises and then suddenly finds herself the wife of a penniless 
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and the soul-growth of a self-righteous, self-seeking woman who came to understand by mingling closely in the home 
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GONE TO EARTH 



BY MARY WEBB, author of "The Golden Arrow." Net $1.50 

The New York Post says: "Fidelity to nature that marks the early character description of Gone to Earth and the 
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old harper with whom she has no tie but one of blood will not be forgotten easily." 



THE JOYFUL YEARS 

BY F. T. WAWN Net $1.50 

Philadelphia Press says: "This is the love story of 
Cynthia and Peter, a beautiful story and beautifuly 
told. There are other people in the book whom we 
should like to meet, but these only form a background 
for the radiant figures of the young lovers." 

MY WIFE 

BY EDWARD BURKE Net $1.50 

A story of family life narrated by the husband and 
father in which he almost succeeds in complicating 
two love affairs beyond remedy and has a narrow es- 
cape from disaster himself because he dallies with the 
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style and its 'satire is unsparing. 

THE MASTER OF THE HILLS 

BY SARAH JOHNSON COCKE Net $1.50 

Richmond Times Dispatch says: "Mrs. Cocke reveals 
exceptional literary and dramatic ability and her in- 
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THE ROYAL OUTLAW 

BY CHARLES B. HUDSON Net $1.50 

A wonderful tale of fighting men laid in the time of 
King David. Not since Ben Hur has such a novel 
appeared. New York Tribune: "No person can read 
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human interest of the tale." 

DAY AND NIGHT STORIES 

BY ALGERNON BLACKWOOD Net $1.50 

Author of "The Wave," "Julius Le Vallon" 
New York Times says: From gay to grave, from 
horror to sarcasm, from philosophy to the most fanci- 
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the sense of rhythm and of beauty of the born poet." 

WILLIAM BY THE GRACE OF GOD 

BY MARJORIE BOWEN Net $1.50 

New York Times says: "Few events in history are 
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against the mighty power of Spain with the victory 
at last won through the courage defeat could not 
quell, and few figures are as gallant as is that of 
William bv the Grace of God." 



The First Entirely True Book 

Yet Written About the World War, as Terribly True as Yerestchagin's Paintings 

UNDER FIRE 

BY HENRI BARBUSSE (FIFTH AMERICAN EDITION IN PRESS) 

Translated from the French (Le Feu) by Fitzwater Wray 

The leader of a squad in the French Army tells the story of its daily life with all the details that English 
and American writers suppress or gloss over. 

The New Republic. — "This novel is epic in proportions. It reduces Mr. Britling's intellectual reactions to insignifi- 
cance." 

The Nation. — "The greatest of the books that voice the new soul of France. The strongest and grimmest book yet 
written about the war." 

The London Observer. — "The supreme novel of the war. The rich variety of the book is indescribable. If any book 
could kill war, this is that book." 

"Under Fire" is not only the most mercilessly truthful and the most appalling book yet written about the war, it 
is also the most humorous and the most human. It has 

Tender Sentiment, Appealing Pathos, Whimsical Humor Awful Tragedy, 

300,000 sold in France Net $1.50 



POSTAGE EXTRA. AT ALL BOOKSTORES 

E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY, 681 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY 



130 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



6% 



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SECURITY comprises several thousand acres of rich producing 
land in prosperous section, where diversified farming and stock 
raising are particularly profitable. Value of property over twice 
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CHICAGO, ILL. 

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I CHICAGO SCHOOL OF CIVICS AND PHILANTHROPY | 

FIFTEENTH YEAR OPENED OCTOBER 1, 1917 
Winter term begins January 2, 1918 

GENERAL TRAINING COURSE FOR SOCIAL WORKERS 

One-year course for college graduates. Two-year course for other qualified students j 

SPECIAL PLAYGROUND COURSE | 

With technical classes, at Hull-House Gymnasium, in folk dancing, games, ^ 
story-telling, dramatics, preparation of pageants and gymnastics 

SPECIAL COURSE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 

March 4 to June 21 = 



H For further information, address The Dean, 2559 Michigan Avenue, Chicago n 




TOOLS 



AND 



Send for our special circular No. 53 

of Manual Training Outfits Qp 



BENCHES 

FOR 

MANUAL TRAINING, 
INSTITUTIONAL or 
INDIVIDUAL USE 

If you tinker at home or are in- 
terested in any way in Manual 
Training, y ou should know more 

about ourline of high grade Tools and Benches. 

Our hobby since 1848 has always been "Quality. " 



HAMMACHER, SCHLEMMER & CO. 

HARDWARE, TOOLS AND SUPPLIES 



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New York since 1848 



(Continued from page 128) 

output of the Globe-Miami district is 
said to be about 21,000,000 pounds of 
copper, requiring a working force of 
over 5,000 men. 

According to a statement given out 
by the commission, it proceeded in its 
labors upon the principle that the coun- 
try must have an uninterrupted output 
of copper during the war and that there 
must be no stoppage of work on account 
of any sort of grievance. To avoid that, 
practical machinery must be devised for 
the adjustment of grievances. 

Accordingly, the contending parties in 
the Globe-Miami district were induced 
to resume work on the following basis: 
The appointment of a committee at each 
mine consisting of working miners, for 
the purpose of dealing with the employ- 
ers in the matter of grievances; the re- 
employment of all strikers, excepting 
"those guilty of seditious utterances 
against the United States, or those who 
have membership in an organization that 
does not recognize the obligation of con- 
tracts"; the appointment of an arbitra- 
tor representing the government, who is 
to settle all disputed questions of fact. 
"The machinery thus provided," says 
the statement, "is in substitution for 
strikes and lock-outs during the period 
of the war." 

After settling the trouble in the 
Globe-Miami district, the commission 
proceeded to take up the difficulties in 
the neighboring Clifton-Morenci-Met- 
calf district. 

CIVIL LIBERTIES IN WAR 
TIMES 

THE Civil Liberties Bureau of the 
American Union Against Militar- 
ism, has become an independent agency 
under the new name of the National 
Civil Liberties Bureau, with headquar- 
ters at 70 Fifth avenue, New York city, 
and a Washington office in the Munsey 
building. The bureau retains the same 
staff of 150 cooperating attorneys 
throughout the country. 

The bureau secures legal aid wher- 
ever constitutional rights are violated 
under pressure of war. Reports of cases 
are secured through a clipping service 
and correspondents in leading cities. 
Legal references and briefs are pre- 
pared to aid the attorneys. Test cases 
are being brought through the courts to 
determine the validity of certain war- 
time legislation restrictive of constitu- 
tional liberties. Complete records are 
being collected of all war-time measures 
and cases in order to provide an effective 
basis for further protecting constitution- 
al rights after the war is over. Active 
cooperation is maintained with national 
and local organizations of the radical 
and liberal groups. The bureau is also 
endeavoring to secure a satisfactory solu- 
tion of the problem of the conscientious 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 



i 9 i 7 



131 



objector, in cooperation with religious 
and liberal organizations. 

The bureau quotes Lord Parmoor's 
recent statement in the House of Lords 
as illustrative of its underlying purpose: 
"The supreme test of civil liberty is the 
determination to protect an unpopular 
minority in a time of national excite- 
ment." The bureau holds that "the 
rights of minorities in a democracy are 
as fundamental as those of majorities 
and as necessary to the preservation of 
the democratic principle." 

While the bureau is active chiefly in 
behalf of persons, organizations and pub- 
lications which are working for peace, 
and for the conscientious objector, it 
announces that it is not adopting a pol- 
icy of obstruction or attempting to em- 
barrass the government in any way — 
"it stands for the preservation of con- 
stitutional rights on general principle in 
the interest of democratic institutions" 
— and its work is done in close coopera- 
tion with government officials both local 
and federal. 

The director of the bureau is Roger 
N. Baldwin, formerly of St. Louis, who 
resigned his position as secretary of the 
Civic League last April to join the staff 
of the American Union Against Mili- 
tarism as a volunteer. The directing 
committee is composed of L. Hollings- 
worth Wood, chairman, Norman M. 
Thomas, vice-chairman; Helen Phelps 
Stokes, treasurer; Walter R. Nelles, 
counsel; Albert de Silver, John Lovejoy 
Elliott, Edmund C. Evans, John Haynes 
Holmes, Agnes Brown Leach and Amos 
Pinchot. Its Washington representative 
is Laurence Todd. 

THE BOY AND THE GREEN 
GARY FROG 

ONE of the advantages of the work- 
study-play program of the Gary 
public school, which is now spreading 
in many American cities, and has be- 
come a political issue in New York city, 
is that it allows teachers greater freedom 
in disposing of the time of their classes. 
Teachers have used this freedom vari- 
ously. How she used it to make nature 
study more real, and the resulting en- 
counter between a boy and a frog, is 
told by Sara Crystal Breslow, a teacher 
in Public School 45, the Bronx, New 
York city: 

It would have been impossible to accom- 
plish under the old plan what I did. In the 
old school only twenty minutes were given 
to nature study. Under the Gary system 
the children have eighty minutes a day for 
thirteen weeks. I was able to take them 
on excursions into the fields and the parks, 
and to follow up in the classroom what they 
had learned there. As a result of these ex- 
cursions, children who didn't like school, 
not only came to like but actually wouldn't 
go anywhere else. 

I remember one very unmanageable boy 
who said when put into my class: "I'm not 
coming to school tomorrow." 

"That's all right," I said, "neither are we." 

(Continued on page 133) 



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THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



FOOD 



FOOD FACTS 




METROPOLITAN, LIFE 
INSURANCE COMPANY 



FACTS 



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announces the publication of a new booklet — 

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The following table of contents indicates its scope: 

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CHAPTER II.— How to Buy Cheaply. 

CHAPTER III. — Clean hood and Disease Prevention. 
CHAPTER IV.- Wise hood and Health. 
CHAPTER V.— Cooking Foods. 

CHAPTER VI.— Good Food Habits. 

In this booklet Dr. Donald B. Armstrong, the author, brings 
out in simple language the fundamental facts in regard to the 
purchase, preparation and use of foods. 

This publication is a contribution on the part of the Company 
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Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. 



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New York City 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 3, 1917 



133 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Heln Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey,, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



EXECUTIVE, Initiative, Efficiency, Or- 
ganizer. School of Philanthropy and uni- 
versity graduate. Thorough training and 
experience in Research, Charities, Recrea- 
tion, Industrial Welfare. Address 2614 
Survey. 



WOMAN secretary seeks position in so- 
cial center or welfare work. Ten years' 
business experience, three years in social 
work. Salary moderate if opportunity is 
large. Address 2629 Survey. 



MAN, thirty-two, Jewish, American born, 
single, college graduate, successful attorney 
for past six years. Desire to enter Social 
Service; ten years experience as volunteer 
worker; formerly industrial investigator in 
Bureau of Labor. Prefer Executive posi- 
tion. Highest references. Address 2637 
Survey. 

SECRETARY stenographer wishes posi- 
tion evenings, Saturday afternoons. Ad- 
dress 2638 Survey. 



WOMAN, English, experienced, desires 
position as matron of institution. Address 
2639 Survey. 



WANTED — A position as Supt. or 
Matron along institutional lines, working 
girls' home, industrial or children. Had ex- 
perience in all these lines. Best references. 
Protestant. Address 2640 Survey. 



MAN — School of Philanthropy and Uni- 
versity training; experience in charities, 
settlement, immigration and research. Ad- 
dress 2642 Survey. 



JEWISH man — college graduate with ex- 
perience in Social and Relief work, at 
present holding position of Superintendent 
of Federated Charities in a small commu- 
nity, desires to change position. Address 
2643 Survey. 



WOMAN, capable, educated, desires 
position as companion or attendant to 
elderly woman. References. Address 2644 
Survey. 

SOCIAL Investigator, clerical worker: 
woman with exceptional qualifications, ref- 
erences and civil ser\ ice experience. Well 
educated ; speaks English, French, German, 
Russian, Polish, Italian and Spanish. Ad- 
dress 2646 Survey. 



HELP WANTED 



WANTED— Superintendent for Settle- 
ment house in a Pennsylvania town of 
25,000 population. Address 2626 Survey. 



WANTED— Assistant to the manager of 
a Woman's Exchange in a small Florida 
winter resort, January to April. Work in- 
cludes salesmanship, simple accounts, mak- 
ing and service of tea. References re- 
quired. Address 2641 Survey. 



WANTED — SEVERAL HEBREW 
TEACHERS, among them one who can 
conduct orthodox services. Good salaries 
for good men. State experience and salary 
expectations in apt>iication to Superinten- 
dent Hebrew Orphans Home, 12th and 
Green Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. Also EX- 
PERIENCED BOYS' SUPERVISOR 
(Jew or Gentile). 



A SMALL National Civic Organization 
with paid field secretary and volunteer part 
time resident secretary in New York wants 
college trained assistant secretary to run 
the office. Should be fair stenographer and 
with some business or civic experience. At- 
tractive opportunity for intelligence and 
initiative. Address Orford Soap Company, 
17 Battery Place, stating experience and 
previous salary. 



WANTED — Assistant to matron in 
small temporary home for children. New 
England town, country environs, fine ad- 
vantages. Matron cheery and kind, pleas- 
ant to work with. Monthly salary $30 for 
first year, with hours off and week-end 
every five weeks, vacation of three weeks 
first summer, after that raise in salary and 
longer vacation. Address 2645 Survey. 



THE BOY AND THE GREEN 
GARY FROG 

(Continued from page 131) 

"Goin' to play hookey?" he asked. 

"Something like that," I said. 

Then I told him that all the class were 
to meet at the gate the next morning and 
to go out into the country. He was there 
with the others, interested but still mis- 
chievous. We passed a pond shortly and 
I heard him calling me. 

"You see this frog?" he said. "He can 
do tricks! I picked him out of the water 
'cause I wanted to throw stones at him. In 
the water he was brown with green spots 
on him, but when I put him in the grass 
he was all green." 

That boy had discovered for himself the 
possibilities of protective coloring; and after 
that he was all eagerness to learn. 

The first time the district superintendent 
came, I was told that he expected the chil- 
dren to speak for twenty minutes on any 
subject that had been taught. I didn't know 
if my children could do that or not, for I 
hadn't drilled them so much in expression 
as in impression. But even I was surprised 
to see how much they were able to express. 
Every boy in that class was alive with in- 
terest over some experiment he had made 
or some plant that he wanted to tell about. 

My children know the why and wherefore 
of all their movements. Any teacher should 
appreciate that. The isolation of the class- 
room is broken up. The whole world has 
become a laboratory for the child, and the 
classroom a place to which he can return, 
just as you do to your desk, to tabulate what 
he has gathered. Mv excursions made the 
child's brain more alert; thev brought him 
into such a mood that he could concentrate 
upon whatever he was learning. 



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A. L. A. Bonk List; monthly; $1; annotated mag- 
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American "<•* <">,>>. Wnqazine; monthly; $2 a 
year; Douhlntav, Page & Co., publisher!. New 
York. 

A Voice in the Wilderness; $1 a year. A magazine 
of sane radicalism At present deals particu- 
larly witn on 1 autocratic suppression of free 
speech, free press and peaceable assembly. An 
indispensable magazine to the lover of liberty. 

12 Mount Morris I'ark. New York City. 

The Child /.</>'<•» bulletin, quarterly; $2 a year; 
National ' hild Labor Committee, 105 East 22 
street. NVw Vork 

The Chi* Worker; monthly; 30 cents a year; Na- 
tional League of Women Workers, 35 East 30 
St., N>-« N ■••!< 

The Co-operative Consumer; monthly; 56 cts. per 
year. Co-operative League of America, 2 West 

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The Critic and Guide; monthly; $1 a year. De- 
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National Municipal Review; monthly; $5 a year; 
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The Negro Year Book; published under the aus- 
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THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 




KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
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ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
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following. The initialings correspond 
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// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
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// you are uncertain where to turn, 
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right hands. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Americanization, Nlil. 
Birth Registration, Aaspim. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
Cancer, Ascc. 
Central Councils, Aaoc. 
Charities, Ncsw. 

CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Amer. Aaan. for Org. Charity. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Nul, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Child Welf. Exhibit Assn. 

Natl. Com. for Better Films. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Nspib, i baa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

(Federal) Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

(Unitarian) Dept. of Soc. and Pub. Ser., Aua. 
CIVICS «£; 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Natl. Municipal League. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Civilian Relief, Arc. 
Clinics, Industrial, Net. 
Commission Government, Nul, Sbo. 
Community Organization, Aiss. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 

Coordination Social Agencies, Aadc, Aiss. 
Correction. Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 
COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca, Aac. 

County Ywca. 
Credit Unions, Mass. Credit Union Assn. 
Crime, Sa. 
Disfranchisement. Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Library Assn. 

Cooperative League of America. 

Natl. Kindergarten Assn. 

Natl. Soc. for Prom, of Ind. Ed. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 



Efficiency Work. Bui. 
Electoral Reform, Nul, Ti, Ar it- 
Eugenics, Er. 

Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb, Nyshs. 
Fatigue, Ncl. 
Feeblemindedness, Cpfu, Ncuh. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Russell Sage Foundation 
Franchises, Nul. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Pub. Health Assn. 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Amer. Red Cross. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Com. of One Hund. on Natl. Health. 

Com. on Prov. for Feebleminded. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Natl. Soc. Hygiene Assn. 

New York Social Hygiene Society, 

Ncsw, Ncwea, 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economics, Area. 
Home Work, Ncl, Nclc 
Hospitals, Naspt. 

Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca. 
Idiocy, Cpfm. 
Imbecility, Cpfu. 

IMMIGRATION 

Council of Jewish Worn., Dept. Im. Aid. 

International Institute for Foreign-bora Women 
of the Ywca. 

Natl. Lib. Im. League, Nfs, Ntas, Tas. 
Industrial hygiene, Apha. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. Consumers League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Nspie. 
Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Anti-Imperialist League. 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 

Natl. Woman's Peace Party. 
Labor Laws, Aall, Ncl, Nclc. 
Legislative Reform, Aprl. 
Liquor, Nut, 

LIBRARIES 

American Library Assn. 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 
Mental Hygiene, Cpfu, Ncuh. 
Military Relief, Aac 
Minimum Wage, Ncl. 
Mountain Whites, Rsf. 
Municipal Government, Aprl. Nfs, Nul. 
National Service, Aiss. 
Negro Training, Hi, Ti. 
Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha, Arc, Nophs. 
Open Air Schools, Naspt. 

PEACE 

National Woman's Peace Party, Ail. 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 
Physical Training, Praa. 
Police, Nul. 

Protection Women Workers, Ncl, Ntas. 
Prostitution, Asra. 
Public Health, Apha, Cohnh, Nophs. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Hampton Institute. 

Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 

Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 

Tuskegee Institute. 

Alil, Er, Ail. 
Reconstruction, Ncsw. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Ywca. 

REMEDIAL LOANS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans, Mcua. 
Sanatoria. Naspt. 
Savings, Mcua. 
Self-Government, Nlww, Ail. 
SETTLEMENTS 

Natl. Fed. of Settlements. 
Sex Education, Asha. Nyshs. 
Schools Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Short Working Hours, Ncx. 



Social Agencies, Surreys of, Aaoc. 
Social Hygiene, Asha, Nyshs. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Amer. Inst of Soc. Service. 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca 

Dept. of Soc. and Public Service, Aha. 
SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 

Ncmh, Praa, Ncwea, Nspie. 
Taxation, Nul. 
Thrift, Mcua. 

TRAVELERS AID 

National Traveler!* Aid Society. 

Travelers Aid Society. 

Cjw. 
Tuberculosis, Naspt. 
Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 
Unemployment, Aall. 

WAR RELIEF 

Am. Red Cross. 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Ywca, 
WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 

Natl. Consumers' League. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Working Girls, Cjw, Ntas, Tass, Nlww, Tas. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. Workmen's compensation; health in 
surance; industrial hygiene; unemployment; one 
day-rest- in-seven; administration of labor laws. 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ORGANIZING 
CHARITY— Mrs. W. H. Lothrop, ch'n; Francis 
H. McLean, gen. sec'y; 130 E. 22 St, New York. 
Correspondence and active field work in the or- 
ganization, and solution of problems confronting, 
charity organization societies and councils of 
social agencies; surveys of social agencies; plans 
for proper coordination of effort between different 
social agencies. 

AMERICAN ASSOC. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature on request Traveling exhibit 
Urges prenatal instruction; adequate obstetrical 
care; birth registration; maternal nursing; infant 
welfare consultations 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 

— Mrs. Alice P. Norton, sec'y. Organized for 
betterment of conditions in home, school, institu- 
tion and community. Studies problems connected 
with the household. Publishes Journal of Home 
Economics. 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SERV- 
ICE — Founded by Dr. Josiah Strong. Nathaniel 
M. Pratt, gen. sec'y. Edward W. Bemis, Robert 

A. Woods, dept. directors, Bible House, Astor 
Place, New York. Welcome inquiries as to all 
matters of community organization and progress. 
Members of its staff glad to enter into consulta- 
tion by correspondence about given conditions 
or particular projects. Assists in bringing to in- 
dividual new undertakings the combined results 
and lessons of the best productive achievement. 
Seeks to bring about better cooperation among spe- 
cialized national organizations, toward securing 
the more comprehensive local application of their 
types of service. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION— George 

B. Utley, exec, sec'y; 78 E. Washington St, Chi- 
cago. Furnishes information about organizing 
libraries, planning library buildings, training 
librarians, cataloging libraries, etc. List of publi- 
cations on request. 

AMERICAN PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTA- 
TION LEAGUE— C. G. Hoag, sec'y; 802 Franklin 
Bank Building, Philadelphia. Advocates a rational 
and fundamental reform in electing representatives. 
Literature free. Membership $1. 

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION 
—Dr. W. A. Evans, pres., Chicago; A. W. Hed- 
rich, acting sec'y; 1039 Boylaton St., Boston. Ob- 
ject: to promote public and personal health. Health 
Employment Bureau lists health officers, public 
health nurses, industrial hygienists, etc. 
AMERICAN RED CROSS — National officers: 
Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, 
president; Robert W. DeForest vice-president j 
John Skelton Williams, treasurer; John W. Davis, 
counselor; Charles L. Magee, secretary; Hon. 
William Howard Taft, chairman central commit- 
tee; Eliot Wads worth, vice-chairman; Harvey D. 
Gibson, general manager. 

Central Committee, appointed by the President 
of the United States: William Howard Taft, chair- 
man; Eliot Wads worth, rice -chairman; Robert 
Lansing, Secretary of State; John Skelton Wil- 
liams, Controller of the Currency; Major-General 






Q 












/ 



rv- 



NOV 1 7 1917 






^sirTof^t- 




Notice to reader: When yon finish read- 
ing this magazine place a one-cent stamp 
on this notice, hand same to any postal 
emp oye and it will be placed in the 
hands of our soldiers and sailors at the 
front. No wrapping — no address. 

A. S. Burleson, Postmaster General. 




Save the 
Babies 



From a Poster 

of the 

London Baby Week 

Campaign 




By Courtesy Department of Surveys and Exhibits, Russell Sage Foundation 

Price 10 Cents 



November 10, 1917 



PAMPHLETS 



CIVICS 

The City Manager Plan for Chicago. Draft of 
a bill for the reorganization of the municipal 
government with explanatory statement. Pre- 
pared and presented for public consideration by 
the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency. 

Planning Sunlight Cities. By Herbert S. Swan 
and George W. Tuttle. No. 167, American City 
Pamphlets, published by the Civic Press, Tribune 
Btdg., New York. 20 cents. 

County Government in Texas. By Herman G. 
James, director of the Bureau of Municipal Re- 
search and Reference. Municipal Research 
Series No. 5. Published by the University of 
Texas, Austin. 

Report on the Apportionment of the Direct 
State Tax. Presented to the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment by William A. Prendergast, 
comptroller. Department of Finance, Bureau of 
Municipal Investigation and Statistics, New 
York. 

Snapshot Civic Trips. Conducted by Public Wel- 
fare Committee, 50 East 42 street, New York. 

EDUCATION 

Department-Store Education. By Helen Rich 
Norton, associate director, School of Salesman- 
ship, Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 
Boston. Prepared for and published by De- 
partment of the Interior, Bureau of Education, 
Washington. 25 cents from Women's Educa- 
tional and Industrial Union, 264 Boylston street, 
Boston. 

Suggested Course for County Training Schools 
for Negroes in the South. Occasional Papers, 
No. 18, published by trustees of the John F. 
Slater Fund, 61 Broadway, New York. 

Higher Technical Education in Foreign Coun- 
tries — Standards and Scope. Prepared by Anna 
Tolman Smith and W. S. Jesien. Bulletin, 
1917, No. 11, Bureau of Education. 20 cents 
from superintendent of documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Medical Inspection of Schools in Great Brit- 
ain. By E. L. Roberts. Bulletin, 1916, No. 49, 
Bureau of Education. 15 cents from superin- 
tendent of documents, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. 

School Extension Statistics. By Clarence Ar- 
thur Perry. Bulletin, 1917, No. 30, Bureau of 
Education. 5 cents from superintendent of doc- 
uments, Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

HEALTH 

Progress Toward Health Insurance. By John B. 
Andrews. No. 123 reprints of reports and ad- 
dresses of the National Conference of Social 
Work, 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. 

The Psychopathic Laboratory in the Adminis- 
tration of Justice. By Dr. Clinton P. McCord, 
health director of city schools, Albany, N. Y. 



Reprinted from the National Humane Review. 
October, 1917. 

Infant Welfare Work in War Time. By Dr. 
Grace L. Meigs. Reprinted from American Jour- 
nal of Diseases of Children. American Medical 
Association, 535 North Dearborn street, Chicago. 

Relations of Prenatal and Postnatal Work. 
By Michael M. Davis. Reprinted from Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 

Occupation and Mortality. By Shirley W. 
Wynne, M.D., and William H. Guilfoy, M.D. 
Reprint No. 400 from Public Health Reports, 
U. S. Public Health Service. 5 cents from 
superintendent of documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D. C. 

The Criminal insane and Insane Criminals. 
By Paul E. Bowers, medical superintendent, 
Indiana Hospital for Insane Criminals, Michi- 
gan City, lnd. Reprinted from American Jour- 
nal of Insanity. 

Control of Hookworm Infection at the Deep 
Gold Mines of the Mother Lode, California. 
By Dr. James G. Cornming and Joseph H. White, 
.bulletin 139, Bureau of Mines, Department of 
the interior, Washington, D. C. 

Do Your Bit to Help Him Fit to Fight. Pub- 
lished by Sub-committee for Civilian Co-opera- 
tion in Combating Venereal Diseases, Council of 
National Defence, R. 144, Old Land Office Bldg., 
Washington, D. C. 

Smash the Line! Published for the War De- 
partment Commission on Training Camp Activi- 
ties. Distributed by American Social Hygiene 
Association, 105 West 40 street, New York. 

Safeguarding Our Soldiers from Venereal Dis- 
eases. The government plan and how you can 
help. Issued by Council of National Defense, 
Sub-Committee for Civilian Co-operation in 
Combating Venereal Diseases, R. 144, Old Land 
Office Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

LIVELIHOOD 

Mothers of New York, What of the Children? 
By Hermann Hagedorn. Published by Public 
Welfare Committee, 50 East 42 street, New York. 

Doing Without. Thirty ingenious recipes tor 
special emergencies. Supervised by Bertha E. 
Shapleigh of the U. S. Food Administration, 25 
cents; Conservation of Fats. By Herman T. 
Vulte, professor of Household Chemistry, Colum- 
bia University, price 10 cents; The Children's 
Food. By Mary S. Rose, 5 cents. Published by 
the Emergency Committee (New York section;, 
American flome Economics Association, R. 1010, 
19 W. 44 street, New York. 

INDUSTRY 

Standards for Workmen's Compensation Laws. 
American Association for Labor Legislation, 131 
East 2i street, New York. 

Industry and Fraternity. Address by Sydney 
Strong, pastor Queen Anne Congregational 
Church, Seattle, Wash. 5 cents; dozen, 25 
cents. 

Increased Income for the Electric Railways. 
By Joseph K. Choate, 8 West 40 street, New 
York. An address before American Electric 
Railway Association, October 9, 1917. 

Labour Problems After the War. 9d. per dozen; 
5/6 per 100; The Problem of Demobilisation, a 
statement and some suggestions including pro- 
posals for the reform of employment exchanges, 
Id., 2s. 6d. per 50, 5s. per 100; A Million hevt 
Houses After the War, Id., 2s. 6d. per 50, 5s. 
per 100; The Problem of Unemployment After 
the War, Id., 2s. 6d. per 50; 5s. per 100; The 



Written During the Progress of the Battle of the Somrae' 

A CROSS the blasted slope of Pozieres 

Mixed with the thunder of the guns I heard, 
Borne from I know not where, 

The reconciling word. 
Mankind, it said, live not by bread alone ; 

Their final good and glory is not based 
On anything that shot and shell lay waste 

But on the spirit; if that keep its power 
Loyal and brave and sweet, 

Then at the destined hour 

The rest shall all be laid before its feet. 

1 From Ode on the European War. Odes and Other Poems by R. C. K. Ensor. 
Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd., London. 101 pp. Price. $.48; by mail of the Survey, $.56. 



Restoration of Trade Union Conditions in Cases 
Not Covered by the Munitions Acts, Id., 2s. 6d. 
per 50, 5s. per 100; The Position of Women 
After the War, 2d., 5s. per 50, 10s. per 100; 
The Munitions Acts and the Restoration of 
Trade Union Customs, 2d., 5s. per 50, 10s. per 
100; The Restoration of Trade Union Customs 
After the War, 2d., 5s. per 50, 10s. per 100; 
For Services Rendered (pensions of soldiers and 
sailors disabled and of the families and de- 
pendents of soldiers and sailors deceased in 
consequence of the present war), Id., 9d. per 
dozen. The Labour Party, 1, Victoria street, 
London, S. W. 

INTERNATIONAL 

Mexico Redivivus. By G. B. Winton, American 
section of the Committee on Cooperation in 
Latin America. Reprinted from the Survey by 
the Mexican Cooperation Society, 70 Fifth 
avenue, New York. 

Property Rights Under the New Mexican Con- 
stitution. By J. P. Chamberlain. Reprinted 
from Political Science Quarterly. Mexican Co- 
operation Society, 70 Fifth avenue, New York. 

Can We Win the War Without Losing Amer- 
ica? By Stephen S. Wise. Free Synagogue 
Pulpit, published monthly by Bloch Publishing 
Company, 40 East 14 street, New York. 10 
cents; yearly $1. 

The Atrocities of Germany; the logical and in- 
evitable result of the German philosophy of 
militarism. By Newell Dwight Hillis. Liberty 
Loan Committee, 120 Broadway, New York. 

Prussianized Germany; Americans of Foreign 
Descent and America's Cause. Otto H. Kahn. 
52 William street, New York. From an address 
before the Harrisburg, Pa., Chamber of Com- 
merce. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

The War Department Commission on Training 
Camp Activities. Room 149, Old Land Office 

m Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

The Administration of Indiana State Institu- 
tions (Second Edition). By Timothy Nichol- 
son, Richmond, lnd. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 



High Cost of Living. By Frederic C. Howe. 
Chas. Scribner's Sons. 275 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of the Survey, $1.62. 

Financial Federations. Report of Special Com- 
mittee. American Association for Organizing 
Charity. 285 pp. Price $1; bv mail of the 
Survey, $1.08. 

Emancipation of the American City. By Wal- 
ter Tallmadge Arndt. Duffield & Co. 312 pp. 
Price $1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.62. 

Outdoor Theatres. By Frank A. Waugh. Rich- 
ard G. Badger. 151 pp. Price $2.50; by mail 
of the Survey, $2.65. 

The Dwelling Place of Light. By Winston 
Churchill. Macmillan Co. 462 pp. Price $1.60; 
by mail of the Survey, $1.75. 

The Enlightenment of Paulina. By Ellen Wil- 
kins Tompkins. E. P. Dutton & Co. 335 pp. 
Price $1.50; by mail of the Survey, $1.62. 

The Trust Problem. By Teremiah Whipple Jenks 
and Walter E. Clark. Doubleday, Page & Co. 
499 pp. Price, $2; by mail of'the Survey, $2.15. 

The Education of the South African Native. 
By Charles T. Loram. Longmans, Green & Co. 
340 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey, $2.12. 

God's Minute. By Eminent Clergymen and Lay- 
men. Vir Publishing Co. 384 pp. Price $.50; 
by mail of the Survey, $.55. 

The Diaries of Leo Tolstoy. Youth. Vol. I. 
1847-1852. Translated by C. J. Hogarth and 
A. Sirnis. E. P. Dutton & Co. 269 pp. Price, 
$2; by mail of the Survey, $2.12. 

After War Problems. By Earl of Cromer and 
others. Macmillan Co. 366 pp. Price $2.50; 
by mail of the Survey, $2.65. 

Handicaps of Childhood. By H. Addington Bruce. 
Dodd, Mead & Co., 310 pp. Price $1.50; by mail 
of the Survey, $1.62. 

New York As An Eighteenth Century Munici- 
pality. Prior to 1732. Vol. LXXV, No. 1. 
Studies in History, Economics and Public Law. 
By Arthur Everett Peterson. Longmans, Green 
& Co. 199 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey, 
$2.10. 

New York As An Eighteenth Century Munici- 
pality. _ 1731-1776. Volume LXXV, No. 2. 
Studies in History, Economics and Public Law. 
By George William Edwards. Longmans, Green 
& Co. 205 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Sur- 
vey, $2.10. 

Contemporary Theories of Unemployment and 
Unemployment Relief. Volume LXXIX. No. 
1. Studies in History, Economics and Public 
Law. Frederick C. Mills. Longmans, Green & 
Co. 178 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey, 
$2.10. 



I 




Through Liberty to World Peace 

First Congress of the League of 
Small and Subject Nationalities 



AN event took place in New York last week which 
may live in the text-books of history long after the 
week's "exits and alarums" of the military inci- 
- dents in Europe have been relegated into the un- 
dated, generalized background of the recorded happenings. 
The first congress of the League of Small and Subject Nation- 
alities, attended for three afternoons and evenings by repre- 
sentatives of more than twenty different nationalities and 
many Americans, opened an era of international cooperation 
for a purpose new in immediate practical aim but age-old in 
aspiration. Its discussions ranged from questions of tariffs to 
those of inalienable human rights. Those who participated 
for the most part were- plain folks; but there were also 
leaders in practically every profession — jurists, clergymen 
journalists, teachers, doctors, political leaders, soldiers, social 
workers. There were, among others, Belgians, Danes, Finns, 
Lithuanians, Letts, Koreans, Jews, Chinese, Albanians, Hin- 
dus, Poles, Greeks, Irishmen, Norwegians, Negroes, Boers, 
Swiss, Scotsmen, Swedes and Syrians. 

A number of circumstances might have handicapped the 
success of the congress. First among them stands the hostile 
attitude of many Americans at the present time to the dis- 
cussion of any questions of international policy not immedi- 
ately related to the successful prosecution of the war. This 
was responsible, among other things, for a deliberate attempt 
by a part of the metropolitan press to belittle and even to 
malign the motives of the organizers and to seek for pro- 
German sentiments in speeches and statements which were 
transparently free from them. Letters of resignation from 
obscure individuals — mostly written under some misappre- 
hension subsequently dispersed — were printed in extenso, 
while no mention was made of the presence and participation 
in the congress of men enjoying national and international 
reputations, such as Senator Henri La Fontaine, of Belgium; 
Samuel T. Dutton, secretary of the World's Court League; 
Moorfield Storey, president of the American Bar Associa- 
tion ; Hamilton Holt, vice-chairman of the League to Enforce 
Peace, just to mention a few. The coincidence of the con- 
gress with a municipal election and other public events of 
absorbing interest was another handicap. 

There were also, of course, some jealousies and suspicions 



such as are characteristic of any representative international 
gathering at which vital problems are under discussion. Thus, 
the split between the two parties of Greeks in this country, 
which already had shown itself at the Long Beach conference 
on international relationships a few months ago, again led to 
an open breach. But, in spite of such incidents, partly owing 
to a sincere endeavor of the congress committee to invite rep- 
resentatives of the different factions where such were known 
to exist, there was much less disturbance from this source than 
might have been expected. Indeed, the most remarkable phe- 
nomenon of the congress was its unanimity on all matters of 
importance ; and this was not due to any censoring of expres- 
sion or selection of speakers known for views shared by the 
promoters, but to the fact that every one of the score of 
addresses delivered dealt with fundamentals and, through 
being constructive, was needs also conciliatory in tone. 

It might have been thought unfortunate that by including 
in the list of speakers and members of the council representa- 
tives of nationalities subject to allied powers the question of 
patriotism was raised. A number of members, including the 
representatives of Alsace, Norway and all the various Slavic 
nationalities, sent in their resignations on that account. But 
since nearly the whole of the inhabited world is now allied in 
fighting Germany, it is a matter of course that there are more 
races and nationalities subject to the allies than to the Teu- 
tonic powers. If Ireland, Korea, Finland, India, Lithuania 
and Russian Poland had been excluded from participation, 
the congress would have completely failed in its purpose; for 
the league could then not have pretended to represent the 
common opinions and sentiments of small and subject 
nationalities. 

Even the gentleman from Scotland, chief of Clann Fhear- 
guis of Stra-Chur, a picturesque figure in Highland attire, 
whose inclusion in the council was instanced by some critics as 
an undesirable excursion into history, detracting from the 
urgent claims of the present, if not a deliberate attack upon 
our British ally, overcame that opposition by making out a 
remarkably good case for the separate representation of his 
country at future international conferences. Even if one did 
not share all their pretensions, one felt convinced that the 
exclusion of the different home-rule movements under the 



The Survey, November 10, 1917, Volume 39, No. 6, 112 East 19 street, Ne<w York city 



137 



138 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 10, i 9 i 7 



British flag from participation in the league would have been 
unwise. 

The story of oppression, whether told with an Irish, a 
Polish, a Jewish or an Armenian accent, was in every case 
much the same. The methods of tyranny, almost to the 
smallest details, coincide, not only the world over but through 
the whole history of modern times. In the course of the pro- 
ceedings one was filled also with an overwhelming conviction 
that the causes of oppression, in modern times, are always 
the same. They are, as summed up by Commissioner of Immi- 
gration Frederic C. Howe, president of the league, the treat- 
ment of small nations by the ruling classes of more powerful 
neighbors as legitimate objects of exploitation and the delib- 
erate degradation of minority races within the state by the 
same classes for the same purpose. 

A speaker greeted with special cordiality was Young M. 
Park, a Korean, who came all the way from Hawaii to attend 
the conference. He gave instances of Japanese despotism in 
his country which, other speakers confirmed, were closely 
akin to those found in practically every conquered territory in 
Asia, Europe and Africa. Attempts to destroy the moral 
stamina of the people and to obliterate cultural traditions are 
among the methods resorted to. When this work is achieved, 
the world of diplomacy is assured of the utter worthlessness 
of the native population and its incapacity for self-government 
and the yoke imposed upon it made the more secure. Solemn 
undertakings are violated, agitators cruelly punished, eco- 
nomic chains added to the political. And this goes on until a 
great Christian nation, the United States, will throw all its 
weight into the defense and rehabilitation of the weak and 
submerged. That faith in Uncle Sam shone through almost 
all the speeches and was one of the most inspiring manifesta- 
tions of the congress. 

Common confusion of the attributes of greatness and of 
power only persists so long as the smaller nationalities are 
denied equal opportunities to acquaint the world with their 
achievements. Everyone knows of the cultural contributions 
of small yet independent nations, such as Holland, Belgium, 
Switzerland, Denmark ; but the art and literature of Bohemia, 
Albania, Armenia, Gaelic Scotland, Mesopotamia, Lettonia, 
Poland, are known to but few. As speaker after speaker un- 
folded the cultural history of his people and its attempted 
suppression by the imperial master, one was struck with the 
immensity of their combined contribution to the progress of 
humanity. 

Yet the congress did not allow an impression to gain 
ground as though it considered the weaker races endowed 
with exclusive natural gifts or possessed of justified claims for 
some special prerogatives for the extension of their several 
cultural ambitions. Several speakers warned against the 
assumption that the big nations as such were hostile to the 
small. "We need," said Aino Malmberg (Finland), "and 
we have the sympathy of the best part of the people in every 
nation." The plain folk who now rule Russia, said Lincoln 
Steffens, recently returned from that country, take it as a 
matter of course that the people of Finland, Lettonia, Lithu- 
ania, Ukraine, Poland will decide for themselves under what 
government they will live in the future. They are even sur- 
prised when delegations from these nationalities come to them 
anxiously inquiring about their destiny in the new revolution- 
ary Russia. "It is not England which has oppressed Ireland 
for centuries," said Commissioner Howe, "but a small group 
which is collecting the rents of Ireland. It is not empires 
which seek to control their weaker neighbors, but some few 
economic classes in these empires. The league must clearly 



realize that it is engaged not in a war against big powers but 
in a war against the comparatively small number of Junkers — 
industrial and financial as well as landed Junkers — who seek 
to exploit them." 

It seemed natural that the congress should turn to the 
United States government for aid and comfort. At the begin- 
ning of the proceedings, a greeting was sent to President 
Wilson, which speaks of this country as the only one "with 
which no oppressed nationality has any reckonings and which 
is universally regarded as a disinterested and sincere friend of 
all." Although this opinion was somewhat modified by an 
address of Moorfield Storey, who criticized the relations of 
this country to its dependencies and to the smaller republics 
of Central America, yet among the resolutions adopted at the 
end of the congress is one which especially appeals to the 
president of the United States to aid the league in securing 
full representation for the smaller nationalities at future inter- 
national conferences. 

Samuel T. Dutton, in an address primarily devoted to the 
Christian victims of Turkish oppression, also warned against 
"a perverted and bigoted sense of the claims of nationality," 
which he illustrated not only by the case of Germany — "the 
colossal instance of nationality gone mad" — but also by that 
of Bulgaria, which, "in pushing her national claims and trying 
to extend her territory has overlooked the claims of other 
nations and has been too greedy and avaricious." 

"In unity is strength" may perhaps be stated as the central 
motto of the conference. Division of the weak and helpless 
on the one hand, with common consent among the diplomats 
on the other to wink at imperial aggrandizement contrary to 
international agreement so that each may fish in troubled 
waters, is to end ferever. The league, as one speaker had it, 
is a first step in "trade union" organization for mutual pro- 
tection. However divided on questions of detailed adjustment 
of conflicting aims, it will speak with one voice on the eternal 
principles of liberty and human brotherhood. 

To this end, it was agreed unanimously, it is necessary that 
it should take a stand on questions of world organization far 
beyond those more specifically affecting the interests of the 
nationalities immediately concerned. Political emancipation 
is insufficient to guarantee opportunities for free development, 
was the burden of many speeches. It must be accompanied by 
economic emancipation ; and this involves the acceptance of 
policies which are as important to the future development of 
the large nations as they are to that of the small. There 
must, for instance, be no more wars for territorial prizes in 
Asia and Africa. All nations must combine to protect the 
world from aggressive commercial and financial enterprises, 
from dollar diplomacy. The man who enters foreign territory 
must do so at his own risk without reliance upon an armed 
force back of his demands ; the merchant who sends his wares 
abroad must be deprived of reliance upon the navy of his 
country for the collection of his bills. 

There was surprising unanimity also in favor of the aboli- 
tion of all artificial barriers to free exchange between the 
nations. That political independence requires economic inter- 
dependence was the thesis of a speech by Arthur K. Kuhn, 
special lecturer at the law school of the University of Zurich 
and a member of New York bar. "Switzerland," he said, 
"has always believed in the possibility of national independence 
on the basis of international interdependence. She has made 
division of labor her policy of exchange and only produces 
enough food to maintain the population for two or three 
months in the year." Senator La Fontaine, who presented the 
{Continued on page 140) 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 10, 1917 



139 



Major Resolutions Adopted by the First Congress of the 
League of Small and Subject Nationalities 

Held in New York, October 29-31 



\ 



Resolution 1. 

Whereas most wars have originated in 
the imperialistic designs of powerful na- 
tions to absorb and exploit smaller or 
weaker peoples; and 

Whereas such designs whenever suc- 
cessful have always resulted in the politi- 
cal, economic and moral degradation of 
the peoples whose rights were violated; 
and 

Whereas the future progress and hap- 
piness of mankind depend upon the es- 
tablishment of harmonious relations be- 
tween the different peoples of the world, 
and such harmonious relations can only 
exist after each nation is made secure in 
the enjoyment of its political and eco- 
nomic freedom; and 

Whereas all nationalities constituting 
as they do the individuals of international 
law, have an inalienable right to the 
free disposition of themselves and to the 
international recognition of their separate 
political entity; therefore be it 

Resolved that the congress of Small 
a?.d Subject Nationalities strongly em- 
phasize the vital importance of restoring 
the national, political and economic rights 
of the small and subject nationalities, and 
the necessity of making adequate pro- 
vision to render the future violation of 
these rights impossible. 

Resolution 2. 

Whereas history records that diplo- 
matic congresses held upon the termina- 
tion of wars have uniformly confined 
themselves to recognizing the advantages 
of the stronger powers, regardless of 
the rights of other peoples affected there- 
by ; and 

Whereas such congresses have bartered 
away the interests of the weaker nations 
to promote the advantages and aggran- 
dizement of the stronger powers; and 

Whereas agreements resulting from 
such congresses create or perpetuate 
strained conditions and, by countenancing 
injustice, sow the seed of later wars; 

Be It Resolved that this congress ex- 
press the conviction that, if the coming 
peace is not to be illusory, it must be 
inspired by justice alone, and not by 
strategic consideration or the selfish eco- 
nomic interests of the few strong powers; 
and 

Be It Also Resolved that this congress 
further declare that the terms of peace 
should exclude all provisions which would 
give any nation an advantage, privilege 
or concession not equally shared in by 
other nations, and that hereafter, when 
outside assistance is required by any coun- 
try for the development of its potentiali- 
ties, the oppoitunity to share in this de- 
velopment shall be free and open to all 
other countries on equal terms. 

Resolution 3. 

Whereas the future peace conference 
is expected to decide the fate of human- 
ity for generations; and 

Whereas the readjustment to be 
brought about is therefore of vital im- 
portance to each nationality and people; 
and 



Whereas peace conferences of the past 
have ignored the claims of small and 
subject nationalities, by denying them rep- 
resentation at the conferences and by al- 
lowing their fate to be decided by indif- 
ferent, biased or hostile parties; and 

Whereas the declared purpose of the 
present war is to preserve and extend 
democracy among the nations of the 
world, most of the belligerents having 
repeatedly stated that this war is being 
fought in defense of the rights and in- 
tegrity of small nations; and 

Whereas the exclusion of any small 
or subject nation from participating in the 
conference held to establish world de- 
mocracy and conclusive peace would be 
contrary to the import of the above de- 
clarations, and such exclusion would be 
certain to result in the ignoring of their 
rights and interests as has been the case 
in all past conferences; and 

Whereas to deny any people admission 
into the commonwealth of nations would 
be an offense to the moral sense of man- 
kind ; 

Be It Resolved that each small and 
subject nationality have the right to sep- 
arate deliberative representation at the 
peace conference and that its case be 
discussed and determined in open and 
public session; and 

Be It Also Resolved that this League 
of Small and Subject Nationalities make 
an urgent appeal to the sense of honor 
of all nations that have declared them- 
selves champions of world democracy and 
of the liberties of small nations to make 
their position clear to the world by pledg- 
ing themselves to favor the admission of 
separate deliberative representatives of 
all nationalities into the peace confer- 
ence, and appeal especially to the Presi- 
dent of the United States of America in 
order that such a full representation be 
secured to every nationality. 

Resolution 4. 

Whereas the present war offers con- 
clusive proofs that no advantages result- 
ing from war can compensate for its de- 
structiveness; and 

Whereas no nation, believing in the 
justice of its cause, can justifiably refuse 
to have it adjudicated by judicial pro- 
cedure; 

Be It Resolved that this congress ad- 
vocate the establishment of an interna- 
tional tribunal or tribunals vested with 
plenary powers of jurisdiction to hear 
and determine all causes involving the 
rights of all nations, races and peoples; 
that such tribunals shall have also juris- 
diction over all economic questions of an 
international nature, including, for ex- 
ample, the freedom of ports and water- 
ways, transportation and transit routes, 
and shall be entrusted with the task of 
ensuring the open door to all countries, 
with the supervision and issue of public 
loans, and all other matters by which 
the interests of two or more nations are 
affected. 

Resolution 5. 

Resolved that in no case should anyone 



be disturbed because of race, language or 
religion, nor on that account be subjected 
to intolerant treatment; that everyone 
has a right to civil equality, to liberty 
of conscience and religion, to the free use 
of his language and the pursuit of happi- 
ness. 

Resolution 6. 

Resolved that this congress of Small 
and Subject Nationalities record its horror 
at and condemnation of all acts of bar- 
barian excesses and atrocities committed 
during the war. 

Resolution 7. 

Whereas millions of innocent people 
have been expatriated and forcibly de- 
prived of their rights, their homes and 
their belongings during the present war; 
and 

Whereas to allow the power or powers 
immediately responsible therefor to ignore 
the obligation of making restitution would 
perpetuate an evil precedent and foster 
the idea that the strong may with im- 
punity invade the rights of the weak; and 

Whereas the obligation of making full 
restitution for injuries done is certain to 
act as the most effective deterrent of the 
future invasion of the rights of weaker 
peoples; 

Be It Resolved that this congress de- 
clare that the repatriation of all persons 
exiled or forcibly removed from their 
homes, for whatever alleged reason, is 
the first obligation of the power imme- 
diately responsible therefor; and 

Be It Further Resolved that complete 
restitution should be made by such power 
for all private property destroyed and 
full reparation for all damage done, and 
that this should be guaranteed by the 
power immediately responsible, leaving 
all questions of ultimate responsibility to 
be decided by an international tribunal 
in which all countries and peoples are 
represented. 

Resolution 8. 

Whereas only failure of the weaker 
and subject peoples to unite in voicing 
their claims has prevented the exposure 
and ending of the indefensible condition 
in international polity which tolerates the 
exploitation of the vast majority of the 
human race by a small privileged class in 
the greater countries; 

Be It Resolved that this congress ear- 
nestly urge all small and subject na- 
tionalities and peoples to make common 
cause in exposing the oppression and ex- 
ploitation of peoples by supporting, en- 
dorsing and publicly aligning themselves 
with the League of Small and Subject 
Nationalities; and 

Be It Further Resolved that prepara- 
tions be at once begun for the holding 
of an international congress of all the 
small, subject and oppressed nationalities 
of the world concurrently with the peace 
conference to emphasize the injustice of 
present conditions and to insist that the 
future intercourse between all nations and 
peoples be founded on the only safe prin- 
ciple of universal democracy. 



140 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 10, 1917 



case for Belgium, said his country had shown to the world that 
free trade is the true principle of international exchange. 
"Let all small nations defend that principle. Free circulation 
of man is another elementary principle for which we must 
stand. Grotius and the other fathers of modern international 
law in the seventeenth century looked upon it as a condition 
of world peace." 

Complete liberty of speech and teaching in every country, 
going to the extent of allowing any nationality or religious 
denomination to establish and maintain schools in any country 
where it desires to have them, was agreed upon as a third 
essential condition of real world democracy. This view was 
urged more especially by Ivan Konigsberg, who spoke on 
behalf of Sleswig, and by the chief of Clann Fhearghuis of 
Stra-Chur. "This conference," said Mr. Howe, "believes 
that all people should be protected in the enjoyment of their 
religion ; that they should be encouraged to develop their 
cultural life, as well as the contributions which they can make 
to the civilizations of the world." 

Finally, it was clear from the beginning of the congress that 
the league, in order to exert an influence in favor of self- 
government and economic and cultural freedom, must unite 
on a policy of world federation embodying basic human and 
national rights. It must stand for a practicable policy of 
securing and maintaining the peace of the world. Here the 
knowledge of Senator La Fontaine, the great international 
jurist, who as chairman of the committee on resolutions notably 
contributed to the success of the congress, guided it with much 
skill over dangerous pitfalls. "The small nations must have a 



program," he said, "which it will be to the interest of the big 
nations to accept. The peoples everywhere want to get rid of 
war. Let us unite, then, on a program which will ensure 
world peace." In the formulation of this, he warned against 
the adoption of half measures which might widen the gulf 
between contending groups of nations into one between con- 
tinents. "We must organize on lines similar to those of the 
United States of America, a world federation including large 
and small states. For the settlement of disputes we need a 
court in which all of them will have complete confidence, 
though it need not and practically cannot consist of elected 
representatives of all." 

The Congress of Small and Subject Nationalities has spoken. 
It asserts the right of every nationality to separate representa- 
tion at international conferences. But it also demands to be 
heard as a body representing hundreds of millions of common 
people the world over in their most cherished hopes, in their 
deepest convictions. It is imbued with the spirit of democ- 
racy, of brotherhood. Black and white, Jew and Gentile, 
Protestant and Catholic, have deliberated together how peace 
might be restored to the world and how it might be secured for- 
ever against wanton aggression. In the words of the pre- 
amble to one of their unanimous resolutions: "The future 
progress and happiness of mankind depend upon the establish- 
ment of harmonious relations between the different peoples of 
the world ; and such harmonious relations can only exist after 
each nation is made secure in the enjoyment of its political 
and economic freedom." 

B. L. 



WHEN THERE IS PEACE 1 

By Austin Dobson 

"When there is Peace our land no more 
Will be the land we knew of yore." 

THUS do our facile seers foretell 
The truth that none can buy or sell 
And e'en the wisest must ignore: 
When we have bled at every pore, 
Shall we still strive for gear and store? 
Will it be Heaven? Will it be Hell, 
When there is Peace ? 



This let us pray for, this implore: 
That all base dreams thrust out of door, 
We may in loftier aims excel 
And, like men waking from a spell, 
Grow stronger, nobler, than before, 
When there is Peace? 



'From A Treasury of War Poetry. British and American 
Poems of the World War, 1914-1917. Edited by Prof. George 
Herbert Clarke. 280 pp. Houghton Mifflin Company. Price 
$1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 



The Negro's Fatherland 

By W. E. B. Du Bois 

DIRECTOR OF PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE 



THE future of Africa is one of the most important 
questions to be answered after this war. The very 
silence today concerning that future, on both sides 
of the forces at war, emphasizes its importance. We 
must remember that in Africa we have today not only the 
greatest world mine of undeveloped human labor but, also, 
that much of the raw material which the modern world par- 
ticularly wants is to be found in Africa more abundantly 
than anywhere else. Let us note the list: Palm-oil, cocoa, 
mahogany, ebony, cork, cotton, rubber, ivory, ostrich feathers, 
gold, copper, iron, zinc, tin, lead and diamonds, — these are 
the present gifts of Africa to the world. Others in abundance 
hide in her bosom. The fight for the ownership of these 
materials and the domination of this labor was a prime cause 
of the present war. If this question is to be left unsettled 
after this war it is going to be a prime cause of future wars. 
Why, then, are we so silent concerning the fate of some- 
thing between 150,000,000 and 200,000,000 human beings? 
I presume that the cause of our indifference is largely psy- 
chological. It is the penalty t of human degradation which 
always exacts payment from oppressor and oppressed. Today 
it is possible to ignore the Negro because of a history of degra- 
dation the parallel of which the modern world does not 
furnish. In ancient Mediterranean civilization Negro blood 
was predominant in many great nations and present in nearly 
all. Negro genius and Negro civilization gave here their 
great gifts to the world. In the European middle age when 
Africa became more or less separated from direct contact with 
Europe, nevertheless, African culture filtered into Europe, 
and legend and story and song came out of the dark continent. 
There was then no question of racial inferiority based upon 
color. But then, beginning late in the fifteenth century, the 
world for four hundred years raped this continent on a scale 
never before equalled. The result was not only the degrada- 
tion of Africa, it was a moral degradation of those who were 
guilty; and we are still living in the shadow of the debauch 
of the African slave trade. It comes natural for us to have 
great masses of unthought-of men ; to conceive of society as 
built upon an unsocial mudsill. It is possible for great labor 
organizations like the American Federation of Labor to organ- 
ize themselves upon distinctly aristocratic lines, leaving out of 
account and out of thought certain so-called lower elements 
of labor. It is even possible for an organization like the 
League of Small and Subject Nationalities to bring in Africa 
only as an accident and after-thought. This mental attitude 
toward Africa and its problems builds itself upon unclear 
thinking based on the tyranny of conventional words. 

When we speak of modern African slavery we think of 
modern slavery as a survival of ancient slavery. But it was 
not. The cleft between the two was absolute. Modern 
African slavery was the beginning of the modern labor prob- 
lem, and must be looked at and interpreted from that point 
of view unless we would lose ourselves in an altogether false 
analogy. Modern world commerce, modern imperialism, the 
modern factory system and the modern labor problem began 
with the African slave trade. The first modern method of 
securing labor on a wide commercial scale and primarily for 
profit was inaugurated in the middle of the fifteenth century 
and in the commerce between Africa and America. Through 



the slave trade Africa lost at least 100,000,000 human beings, 
with all the attendant misery and economic and social dis- 
organization. The survivors of this wholesale rape became a 
great international laboring force in America on which the 
modern capitalistic movement has been built and out of which 
modern labor problems have arisen. We have tried ever 
since to keep these black men and their descendants at the 
bottom of the scale on the theory that they were not thor- 
oughly men, that they cannot be self-respecting members of 
and contributors to modern culture — an assumption purely 
modern and undreamed of in ancient or medieval days. 

If, now, this same psychology and this same determination 
to exploit and enslave these people passes over into the new 
world after the war, what can we expect but, on the one 
hand, persistence of the idea that there must be an exploited 
class at the bottom of civilization and, on the other, an en- 
deavor by endless war and rapine, futile at first but in the 
end bound to be triumphant, by which these millions of 
people will gain their right to think and act. No modern 
world can dream of holding 200,000,000 of people in perma- 
nent slavery even though they be black. If it tries, the cost 
will be terrible. If we would avoid this cost then we must 
begin the freeing of Africa through this war. 

There is an unusual opportunity to do this. Africa is today 
held by Negro troops trained under European white officers. 
These Negro troops have saved France. They have con- 
quered German Africa. They and their American Negro 
brothers are helping to save Belgium. It would be the least 
that Europe could do in return and some faint reparation for 
the terrible world history between 1441 and 1861 to see that 
a great free central African state is erected out of German 
East Africa and the Belgian Congo. Surely after Belgium 
has suffered almost as much from Germany as Africa has 
suffered from her, she ought to be willing to give up the 
Congo to this end ; and it would be right that England should 
refrain from taking German East Africa as well as refrain 
from handing it back. Out of this state we could make a 
great modern effort to restore the ancient efficiency of the land 
that gave the iron age to all the world, and that for ages led 
in agriculture, weaving, metal working, and the traffic of the 
market place. Here is a chance such as the world has not 
seen since the fifteenth century. Liberia and Haiti were never 
given a sincere chance and were from first to last harassed, as 
only modern capitalism can harass little and hated nations. 

The effort of such a new and sincere start in Africa would 
be tremendous. Its first effect would be upon the millions of 
Africa and then upon their descendants throughout the world. 
In the West Indies and in South America are some 30,000,000 
of men of Negro descent. They have given literature and 
freedom to Brazil; they have given industry and romance to 
the West Indies, and they have given to North America art 
and music and human sensibility. In South America they 
may lose themselves in the blood of other people, but in the 
West Indies and North America they are striving for self- 
expression and need only such encouragement as just treat- 
ment of their fatherland and its spiritual effect on the whole 
world would give. I trust, therefore, that among the new 
nations that are to start forth after this war will be a new 
Africa and a new beginning of culture for the Negro race. 

141 



The First Mass at Grecourt" 

The Personnel and Early Work 
of the Smith College Unit 

By Ruth Gaines 



AN interesting collegiate, and it is hoped intercol- 
legiate, experiment in social service has been 
launched with the Smith College Relief Unit for 
France. There this group of college women are 
establishing a center of rehabilitation for successive groups of 
villages behind the battle lines in the devastated district of the 
Somme. The unit has received the recognition of the State 
Department in the United States and of the French govern- 
ment in France. Through the American Fund for French 
Wounded, with which it is affiliated, it has been assigned its 
first twelve villages. These villages are adjacent to those 
which have already been, for two months, in the care of the 
fund under Mrs. Dike and Anne Morgan. 

The personnel of the unit is as diverse as are the sorts of 
service it will be called upon to perform. Its director, Harriet 
Boyd Hawes, is an archeologist of note. She is also a Red 
Cross nurse, who has nursed in the Graeco-Turkish, the 
Spanish and the present war. For each of these periods of 
service, she received recognition from the respective govern- 
ments of Greece, the United States and France. It was Mrs. 
Hawes who first had the idea of a Smith College Relief Unit, 
composed of and financed by, the alumnae of Smith. This 
was in April, 1917. Three months later, the Smith College 
Club of New York gave a farewell luncheon to the unit, then 
equipped and ready to sail. 

Dr. Alice Weld Tallant, the assistant director, is a pro- 
fessor in the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, 
where she is in charge of the obstetrical department which 
includes a large dispensary out-practice in the foreign quarter 
of Philadelphia. She has also been active in directing the 
social service work of this dispensary. For many years she 
has been physician to Sleighton Farms, a reform school for 
girls near Philadelphia. Her experience will be of great 
value in the devastated areas where only women and children 
and the old and feeble now remain. Dr. Tallant brings with 
her as her assistant Dr. Maude Kelly, an Englishwoman who 
was educated in France and speaks the language almost better 
than she does her native tongue. 

As a part of the unit's equipment consists ©f three motor 
trucks, chauffeurs were necessary. There are six of these, 
who combine with their knowledge of mechanics, training in 
social service, kindergartening, domestic economy and other 
professions. As a group, they are also young and attractive, 
assets which the unit has already found of much persuasive 
value in making progress along the roads of France. The 
crafts most essential in practical reconstruction work are rep- 
resented by Alice Leavens, 1903, and Elizabeth Dana, 1905. 
Miss Leavens is a carpenter, and Miss Dana a cobbler. We 
also have a farmer among our graduates, who will join us 
later. 

Naturally the peasants of our district will understand their 
own specialties better than we can hope to do. The farmers, 



1 Written in France, September 13; received in New York October 30. 

142 



albeit they like ourselves are women, will take care of our 
herd of cows, our poultry and our rabbits through the winter, 
not to mention the fields of wheat we hope to have growing 
soon. In these matters, they will teach us. But we must buy 
and take with us the materials at least for building shelters 
and for starting again the small industries of the countryside. 
We have, as a beginning in the way of shelter, six portable 
houses of fair size; and the government has anticipated our 
arrival by building for us three baroques at our headquarters 
in Grecourt. We have added to this small lumber, cement, 
glass and roofing for immediate needs. A blacksmith and a 
painter have already returned to their ruined homes, and we 
shall take up with us two other refugees, a mason and a 
carpenter. 

The six remaining members of the unit are trained social 
service workers: Elizabeth Bliss and Ruth Gaines, of New 
York; Anne Chapin, of Boston; Catherine Hooper, of Mont- 
clair, N. J.; Lucy Mather, of Hartford, and Marie Wolfs, 
of Newark, N. J. Miss Wolfs has the added qualification of 
having been a Belgian refugee from Liege in the summer 
of 1914. 

Aside from the actual rebuilding of the ruined villages, 
which except for makeshifts must wait upon the larger plans 
of the French government and the cooperation of the Red 
Cross, there is much to be done in the region assigned to us. 
The evacuation of this district took place only last March, 
after an occupation by the Germans of two and a half years. 
The villages thus occupied received various treatment by the 
conquerors ; in some were the unspeakable horrors with which 
we have become familiar; in others, up to the last, humanity 
and a fair return for services rendered was accorded. But, 
suddenly last March, in all the villages, the order was given 
for the inhabitants to leave at once. There was no time and 
no means given to save anything. The villagers fled and on 
their return ten days later found their homes in ruins, their 
orchards felled, their livestock gone and their furniture and 
implements either removed or rendered useless. The people 
are therefore destitute. 

Not only destitute, but for three years there have been no 
schools. The children — the few there are, have run wild. In 
Grecourt itself is a church, bare of all furnishings, yet 
strangely left intact. But the cure is a prisoner in Germany. 
For three years there has been no mass. The first request of 
the maire of Grecourt — now a village of twenty-odd women 
and children — was, I think, for sabots; the second was for 
their church. On the twenty-first of September comes the day 
of St. Matthew, the village's patron saint. And we have 
promised them for that day a cure and a mass. Where we 
shall get them, we do not know. But in the meadows of 
Grecourt, back of its ruined chateau, grow luxuriant four- 
leaved clovers which we have picked and taken as a sign of 
hope. We begin our work in Grecourt today. On St. 
Matthew's day we and our villagers hope to consecrate it 
with a mass in the little church. 



On Keeping a Good Man in Office 



WE elected an overseer of the poor in our town 
this week. That may not sound particularly 
exciting to some, but to me it was an event of 
considerable consequence. I helped elect him. 

It came about this way. I got tired of being an independent 
in politics and not having the right to vote at primaries and 
so, the last time I registered, I put myself down as a member 
of the Democratic party. I was not surprised, therefore, a 
few weeks back, when a neighbor of mine rang me up. "Say," 
he called, "You're a Democrat, aren't you?" 

"Sure," said I. "What can I do for you?" 

"You know Joe Morley, don't you?" 

Of course, I did. I buy a paper of Joe every morning. 

"Well, Joe's going to have some opposition this year for 
the nomination as overseer of the poor. I'm trying to round 
things up for him at our end of town. You know Joe is ac- 
commodating, he's always on the job, there isn't one of us he 
hasn't done some little favor for. Would you come down to 
the caucus tomorrow night and vote for him?" 

Aha, I thought to myself, I'm getting to be a prominent 
citizen — the politicians are after my support. And over 
the 'phone I promised to go. down and vote for Joe. But 
why, I asked myself, is there any rivalry over that particular 
office. 

The next evening I presented myself at the town hall to do 
my duty as a loyal Democrat, and as a friend of Joe Morley. 
As I stepped into the crowded room, a man handed me a slip of 
paper with his name written on it. "I hope you'll feel like 
voting for me," he said. "I'm running for receiver of taxes, 
and didn't have time to have any ballots printed." Another 
man crowded his way through the throng distributing other 
slips of paper. His were printed. He was a candidate for 
justice of the peace. He gave me one, which I put in my 
pocket. And after him Came two other men distributing 
other ballots. They were running for auditor and constable 
respectively. I pocketed their offerings. It was good to be 
in politics! 

Then I saw standing together a group of men whom I had 
seen before. There was the man with the conspicuous red nose 
who lives somewhere over the hill. I had often seen him 
wending his uncertain way homeward. He beckoned to me 
and I went over. "Are you a Democrat, too?" he asked. 
"That makes seven of us in our end of town. I didn't know 
we had that many. By gorry, if I had known it, I'd of de- 
manded recognition for our section on this ticket. We're en- 
titled to it. 

"Say," he went on lowering his voice, "Who're you goin' 



to vote for for overseer of the poor? Now I don't know what 
you think, but we're goin' to run Kick Tolman. You know 
him, don't you? He works up to the pop factory, when he's 
workin'. He's a good fellow, Nick is, and he ought to have 
the job." 

"Don't you think we ought to renominate Joe Morley," 
I asked. "He's held the office for several years, and his e>- 
perience ought to make him a valuable officer." 

"It don't take no experience to run that office," he pro- 
tested. "Why, all you have to do is to drive somebody ove: 
to the poorhouse once in a while. Anybody can do it. Jot 
hasn't got no license to hold onto the job all his life. He 
ought to give somebody else a chance." 

I wandered on, promising to think it over. Before I had 
taken three steps someone gripped my hand. "By George. 
I'm glad to see you here," said my friend. I looked at him 
and dimly recalled having seen him, with the rest of us com- 
muters, running for a train. "Say, this is a fine crowd ali 
right," he confided. "All the boys are here. I guess there 
ain't going to be much of a contest except on overseer of the 
poor. I understand there are four candidates. I'm workir 
for Jim Blake. He's a good fellow, and he's out of a job. I'd 
like to see him get this. It's a job that pays pretty well, and 
he'd take care of it all right." 

"Is there a big salary connected with it?" I asked. 

"Not so much salary," he explained, "but there's a chance 
to make money on the side. You see, the overseer has to place 
some nice little contracts with some of the merchants, and 
then, every once in a while, he has to take some disabled or 
bed-ridden person over to the poorhouse. The law allows him 
$4 for a helper when he does that, but, Lord, he can get some 
fellow to go along for $1.50 as easy as not. I hope you can 
vote for Jim, seeing as he's out of a job now." 

"How does he happen to be out of a job?" I inquired. 

"Why, Jim was running a saloon and he had his license 
revoked. Of course, some folks think running a saloon isn't 
much of a business, but I tell you Jim is a good boy. He's 
all right." 

Well, we nominated Joe Morley after an exciting contes: 
I noticed in our local paper